Special Issue "Innovative Strategies against Radiation-Induced Toxicity and Adverse Effects"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Alexandros G. Georgakilas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DNA Damage Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece
Interests: radiation biology; cancer biology; DNA damage and repair; oxidative stress; Carcinogenesis; bioinformatics; systems biology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is with great pleasure I invite you to contribute to this Special Issue with the thematic title: “Innovative Strategies against Radiation-Induced Toxicity and Adverse Effects”. Your manuscript can be a mini-review or research paper of high-quality. The determination of radiation effects includes the knowledge and investigation of a variety of mechanisms and, primarily, the radiation response pathways. Radiation toxicity and the so called “acute” or “late” adverse effects are very important for the quality of life of cancer survivors. Therefore, any strategies securing the optimum therapy, i.e., maximum tumor cell killing effect and minimum toxicity are of great interest to clinicians and researchers but, above all, the patients and, in general, human society.

Through this Special Issue, I hope to include high-quality work from different areas and groups working on different, but complementary, thematic research subjects including also clinical approaches on innovative strategies, and approaches minimizing radiation adverse effects primarily in radiation therapy and any radiation exposure (diagnostics, etc.). Any experimental or theoretical and modeling work particularly targeting the role of oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation in this phenomenon is very welcome, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory treatments. In addition, any omics data and work targeting proteomics and transcriptomics relating to radiation effects and the discovery of biomarkers predicting radiation sensitivity, oxidant status and inflammation are also most welcome. Research targeting also other type of stresses like UV radiation and oxidative stress leading to systemic effects will be accepted for submission. Modelling of DNA damage and interaction with antioxidants and radioprotectors are of great interest. Last but not least, this Special Issue welcomes any work from the so called area of “low doses” and systemic effects of radiation and the role that ROS and inflammatory responses may play in the propagation of any non-targeted or systemic effects in any organism (humans and animals).

Prof. Alexandros G. Georgakilas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • antioxidant therapy
  • DNA damage response
  • radiation therapy
  • radiation toxicicity
  • radiation late effects
  • cancer
  • oxidative stress
  • systemic effects
  • radioprotectors
  • inflammation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Protection against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity
Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5030022 - 05 Jul 2016
Cited by 23
Abstract
Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient. In an attempt to minimize these effects, a small number of compounds have been identified and are in use clinically for the prevention and treatment of radiation associated toxicities. Furthermore, there are a number of emerging therapies being developed for use as agents that protect against radiation-induced toxicities. The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarise the evidence that exists for both the known radioprotectant agents and the agents that show promise as future radioprotectant agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Development of Antioxidant COX-2 Inhibitors as Radioprotective Agents for Radiation Therapy—A Hypothesis-Driven Review
Antioxidants 2016, 5(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5020014 - 19 Apr 2016
Cited by 14
Abstract
Radiation therapy (RT) evolved to be a primary treatment modality for cancer patients. Unfortunately, the cure or relief of symptoms is still accompanied by radiation-induced side effects with severe acute and late pathophysiological consequences. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are potentially useful in this [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy (RT) evolved to be a primary treatment modality for cancer patients. Unfortunately, the cure or relief of symptoms is still accompanied by radiation-induced side effects with severe acute and late pathophysiological consequences. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are potentially useful in this regard because radioprotection of normal tissue and/or radiosensitizing effects on tumor tissue have been described for several compounds of this structurally diverse class. This review aims to substantiate the hypothesis that antioxidant COX-2 inhibitors are promising radioprotectants because of intercepting radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in normal tissue, especially the vascular system. For this, literature reporting on COX inhibitors exerting radioprotective and/or radiosensitizing action as well as on antioxidant COX inhibitors will be reviewed comprehensively with the aim to find cross-points of both and, by that, stimulate further research in the field of radioprotective agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 293-303; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020293 - 23 Apr 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite [...] Read more.
Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula’s mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. Full article
Open AccessReview
Mechanisms of Photoaging and Cutaneous Photocarcinogenesis, and Photoprotective Strategies with Phytochemicals
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 248-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020248 - 26 Mar 2015
Cited by 77
Abstract
Photoaging and photocarcinogenesis are primarily due to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which alters DNA, cellular antioxidant balance, signal transduction pathways, immunology, and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The DNA alterations include UV radiation induced thymine-thymine dimers and loss of tumor suppressor gene p53. UV [...] Read more.
Photoaging and photocarcinogenesis are primarily due to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which alters DNA, cellular antioxidant balance, signal transduction pathways, immunology, and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The DNA alterations include UV radiation induced thymine-thymine dimers and loss of tumor suppressor gene p53. UV radiation reduces cellular antioxidant status by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the resultant oxidative stress alters signal transduction pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB)/p65, the janus kinase (JAK), signal transduction and activation of transcription (STAT) and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). UV radiation induces pro-inflammatory genes and causes immunosuppression by depleting the number and activity of the epidermal Langerhans cells. Further, UV radiation remodels the ECM by increasing matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP) and reducing structural collagen and elastin. The photoprotective strategies to prevent/treat photoaging and photocarcinogenesis include oral or topical agents that act as sunscreens or counteract the effects of UV radiation on DNA, cellular antioxidant balance, signal transduction pathways, immunology and the ECM. Many of these agents are phytochemical derivatives and include polyphenols and non-polyphenols. The flavonoids are polyphenols and include catechins, isoflavones, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins, whereas the non-flavonoids comprise mono phenolic acids and stilbenes. The natural sources of polyphenols include tea, cocoa, grape/wine, soy, pomegranate, and Polypodium leucotomos. The non-phenolic phytochemicals include carotenoids, caffeine and sulphoraphance (SFN). In addition, there are other phytochemical derivatives or whole extracts such as baicalin, flavangenol, raspberry extract, and Photomorphe umbellata with photoprotective activity against UVB radiation, and thereby carcinogenesis. Full article
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