Special Issue "Plant Antioxidant for Application in Food and Nutraceutical Industries"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Applications of Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Monica Rosa Loizzo

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food science technology; development of functional foods
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rosa Tundis

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Edificio Polifunzionale, 87036 Arcavacata Rende (CS), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: natural products; enzymes inhibition; functional foods; chemical analysis; antioxidants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are a promising source of molecules characterized by a promising bioactivity. It is believed that two-thirds of the world’s plant species have health importance, and almost all of these have excellent antioxidant potentials. Oxidative stress has been identified as a major causative factor in the development and progression of several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease. Introduction of natural antioxidants via diet or the boosting of endogenous antioxidant defences of the body have been found to be promising strategies to counteract the undesirable effects of oxidative stress. Moreover, plant antioxidants could be used by the industry as natural additives. The food oxidation process occurs when the food matrix is exposed to oxygen. This destructive process leads to the spoilage of food and changes chemical compositions, as well as nutritional value. Among food components, fats and oils are more prone to the oxidation process. The use of natural antioxidants in the food industry is recommended, not only to obtain clean label products, considered by consumers to be more safe, but also as a source of ingredients for the development of functional foods and nutraceutical products.

We look forward to your contribution.

Prof. Monica Rosa Loizzo
Prof. Rosa Tundis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Film and Storage on the Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties of Red Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) cv. Erika
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080254
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 26 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the effect of the packaging material and storage method on red raspberries produced at Reggio Calabria (Italy) was studied. For this purpose, the fruits were stored immediately after harvest in different conditions: in the fridge at 1 °C and in [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of the packaging material and storage method on red raspberries produced at Reggio Calabria (Italy) was studied. For this purpose, the fruits were stored immediately after harvest in different conditions: in the fridge at 1 °C and in the freezer at −20 °C, using different packaging materials, two new patented films (nanoactive A) and (nanoactive B), one common packaging film (polyethylene terephthalate), and other fruits were left without any packaging material. Chemical parameters were analysed at harvest to have the initial characteristics without any conditioned storage and to distinguish the post-harvest effect on the fruits, then daily for storage in the fridge and monthly for storage in the freezer. The aims of our project were first to determine the qualitative characterization of these red raspberries, the optimization of their shelf-life during time in the fridge or freezer, using the different types of packaging materials and finally to highlight the usefulness of the new patented packaging materials. Nanoactive A film showed the best shelf-life in the fridge, and after 14 days the values, given as mg/100 g fresh weight, were: total phenolics (166.70), monomeric anthocyanin content (50.82), flavonoids (24.64), ascorbic acid (32.42), and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (95.93). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Brassica oleracea Florets on the Antioxidant Activity and Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and Phenolic Content
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070212
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica is known to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and due to the protection against various diseases its consumption has been increasing over the years. Thus, knowledge of the changes that occur during the digestion process is [...] Read more.
Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica is known to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and due to the protection against various diseases its consumption has been increasing over the years. Thus, knowledge of the changes that occur during the digestion process is of great interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of broccoli on antioxidant activity and on the chlorophyll, carotenoid and phenolic content. First, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds was optimized and the kinetic model was evaluated. Then, the broccoli was subjected to a static simulated digestion. The antioxidant activity was monitored by ABTS [2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] assay and the contents of target compounds were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography. The optimum conditions were: solvent—ethanol; time—20 min and temperature—30 °C, and a second order kinetic model was found to describe the mechanism of extraction. The antioxidant activity and carotenoid, chlorophyll and total phenolic content was significantly decreased after simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. The gastric digestion considerably decreased carotenoid and chlorophyll content, meanwhile the intestinal digestion significantly decreased the total phenolic content (TPC). The antioxidant activity was equally affected by both gastric and intestinal digestion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Pungent n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)-Derived Capsaicin Analogues as Potential Functional Ingredients with Antioxidant and Carbohydrate-Hydrolysing Enzyme Inhibitory Activities
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060162
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
N-Eicosapentaenoyl vanillylamine (EPVA) and N-docosahexaenoyl vanillylamine (DHVA), derived from n-3 polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, were studied for their potential antioxidant and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activities together with capsaicin and the corresponding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty [...] Read more.
N-Eicosapentaenoyl vanillylamine (EPVA) and N-docosahexaenoyl vanillylamine (DHVA), derived from n-3 polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, were studied for their potential antioxidant and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activities together with capsaicin and the corresponding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The antioxidant potential was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay, β-carotene bleaching test, and ferric reducing ability power (FRAP). In the ABTS assay the following trend of potency could be observed EPVA > DHVA ≥ capsaicin. In addition, except for the FRAP test, all samples showed a greater activity than the positive controls used as reference compounds in the antioxidant assays. Both EPVA and DHVA showed half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values much lower than acarbose, which was used as the reference drug in the carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity assays. It is interesting to note that structural changes in capsaicin derivatives had higher impacts on α-glucosidase than on α-amylase inhibition. Taken together, our data suggest that both EPVA and DHVA, which are not limited in compliance-related considerations with respect to capsaicin, due to absence of pungency, could be proposed as functional ingredients for the development of products for the management of type II diabetes and border-line hyperglycaemic patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Ultrafiltration of Citrus limon L. Burm. cv Femminello Comune Juice on Its Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties
Antioxidants 2019, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8010023
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Membrane separation has brought about a significant change in the food processing industry because it could operate separation at low temperature without a reduction of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Citrus limon L. Burm. cv Femminello comune juice, an Italian IGP (Protected Geographical Indication) [...] Read more.
Membrane separation has brought about a significant change in the food processing industry because it could operate separation at low temperature without a reduction of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Citrus limon L. Burm. cv Femminello comune juice, an Italian IGP (Protected Geographical Indication) product, was subjected to the ultrafiltation (UF) process using a cellulose acetate membrane, with a cut-off of 100 kDa, subjected to different transmembrane pressures (TMP, 05–1.5 bar). Untreated and ultra-filtrated (UF) juices were investigated for physicochemical parameters including pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid content. Total phenols (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) contents were also determined. Rutin, hesperidin, eriocitrin, and neohesperidin were selected as markers and quantified by HPLC. Antioxidant potential was investigated by using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP tests. RACI was used to identify the sample with highest antioxidant potential. The hypoglycemic activity was examined using carbohydrates hydrolyzing enzymes assay. The application of increasing pressures across the membrane led to a reduction in TSS without causing a loss of bioactive compounds in terms of TPC and TFC. UF juice obtained with TMP of 1.5 bar (J3) showed a significant amount of eriocitrin and hesperidin with concentrations of 15.8 and 10.5 mg/100 mL, respectively. This sample showed the highest antioxidant potential and exhibited a promising α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 31.1 and 35.3 mg/mL, respectively. Collectively our results support the use of cellulose acetate membrane to obtain an ultra-filtered juice with significant health potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Application of Prunus armeniaca L. and P. domestica L. Leaf Essential Oils as Antioxidant and of Cholinesterases Inhibitors
Antioxidants 2019, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8010002
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrycholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Prunus armeniaca and P. domestica in relation to their composition, analysed by Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrycholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Prunus armeniaca and P. domestica in relation to their composition, analysed by Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, at different times. Moreover, considering the role of free radicals in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders, the antioxidant properties of essential oils were investigated by using, 2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and β-carotene bleaching tests. The relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was used to achieve more comprehensive comparison between analysed antioxidant effects of essential oils. P. armeniaca oils were more active than P. domestica oils against AChE. Against BChE, the most active was the essential oil from P. domestica leaves collected in August with an IC50 value of 95.80 μg/mL. This oil exerted the highest inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation with IC50 values of 11.15 and 11.39 μg/mL after 30 and 60 min of incubation, respectively. All samples demonstrated a remarkable ABTS radicals scavenging activity, with IC50 values in the range 0.45–0.57 μg/mL in comparison to the positive control, ascorbic acid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Three Main Chlorogenic Acids in Water Extracts of Coffee Leaves by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to an Electrochemical Detector
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100143
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
PDF Full-text (1367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Coffee is a beverage widely consumed in the world. The coffee species most commercialized worldwide are Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora). Roasted coffee beans are the most used, but coffee leaves are also consumed as infusion in several [...] Read more.
Coffee is a beverage widely consumed in the world. The coffee species most commercialized worldwide are Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora). Roasted coffee beans are the most used, but coffee leaves are also consumed as infusion in several countries for traditional medicinal purposes. They contain several interesting phenolic antioxidant compounds mainly belonging to chlorogenic acids (CGAs). In the present work, a liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (LC-EC) method was developed for the determination of three main chlorogenic acid isomers, namely 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), in coffee leaves aqueous extracts. Samples from eight coffee species, namely; Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, Coffea liberica, Coffea humilis, Coffea mannii, Coffea charrieriana, Coffea anthonyi, and Coffea liberica var. liberica, were grown and collected in tropical greenhouses. Linearity of the calibration graphs was observed in the range from the limit of quantification to 1.0 × 10−5 M, with R2 equal to 99.9% in all cases. High sensitivity was achieved with a limit of detection of 1.0 × 10−8 M for 3-CQA and 5-CQA (i.e., 3.5 µg/L) and 2.0 × 10−8 M for 4-CQA (i.e., 7.1 µg/L). The chromatographic profile of the samples harvested for each Coffea species was studied comparatively. Obtained raw data were pretreated for baseline variations and shifts in retention times between the chromatographic profiles. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the pretreated data. According to the results, three clusters of Coffea species were found. In the water sample extracts, 5-CQA appeared to be the major isomer, and some species contained a very low amount of CQAs. Fluctuations were observed depending on the Coffea species and harvesting period. Significant differences between January and July were noticed regarding CQAs content. The species with the best CQAs/caffeine ratio was identified. The LC-EC data were validated by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Medical and Dietary Uses of N-Acetylcysteine
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050111
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a plant antioxidant naturally found in onion, is a precursor to glutathione. It has been used as a drug since the 1960s and is listed on the World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines as an antidote in poisonings. [...] Read more.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a plant antioxidant naturally found in onion, is a precursor to glutathione. It has been used as a drug since the 1960s and is listed on the World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines as an antidote in poisonings. There are numerous other uses or proposed uses in medicine that are still in preclinical and clinical investigations. NAC is also used in food supplements and cosmetics. Despite its abundant use, there are projections that the NAC global market will grow in the next five years; therefore, the purpose of this work is to provide a balanced view of further uses of NAC as a dietary supplement. Although NAC is considered a safe substance, the results among clinical trials are sometimes controversial or incomplete, like for many other antioxidants. More clinical trials are underway that will improve our understanding of NAC applicability. Full article
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