Special Issue "Feature Papers 2016"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stanley Omaye

Department of Agriculture, Nutrition and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nevada, 1664 North Virginia Street, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 7757846447
Fax: +1 (775) 784-6449
Interests: involved in various research regarding nutrition, toxicology, and environmental-health sciences; research has been directed toward better understanding the role of micronutrients, antioxidants, and other bioactive chemicals in health, and developing effective pharmacological and nutritional interventions in chronic diseases and aging; interested in the health effects of environmental or occupational substances, such as, arsenic, mercury, air pollutants, and products of nanotechnology

Special Issue Information

Prof. Dr. Stanley Omaye
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions
Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6010019
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions [...] Read more.
Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Fruits Extracts from Aceh, Indonesia
Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6010011
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 3 February 2017
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Abstract
This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, [...] Read more.
This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. The extracts also contained flavanone glycosides (hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin), flavonol (quercetin) and polymethoxylated flavones (sinensetin, tangeretin). L-TEAC (lipophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) test determined for peel extracts higher antioxidant capacity compared to pulp extracts. All extracts presented α-amylase inhibitory activity, pulp extracts showing stronger inhibitory activity compared to peel extracts. All extracts inhibited the growth of both gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria, with peel and pulp extracts of makin showing the strongest inhibitory activity. Therefore, local citrus species from Aceh are potential sources of beneficial compounds with possible health preventive effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Hydroxybenzoic Acids Are Significant Contributors to the Antioxidant Effect of Borututu Bark, Cochlospermum angolensis Welw. ex Oliv
Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6010009
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
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Abstract
Borututu (Cochlospermum angolensis) is an African tree whose bark has recently emerged as a herbal dietary supplement with claims for antioxidant activity. In order to substantiate the claimed activity of borututu supplements, we performed an activity-guided fractionation of the total extract [...] Read more.
Borututu (Cochlospermum angolensis) is an African tree whose bark has recently emerged as a herbal dietary supplement with claims for antioxidant activity. In order to substantiate the claimed activity of borututu supplements, we performed an activity-guided fractionation of the total extract utilizing a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Subsequent flash and centrifugal chromatography resulted in the isolation of gallic acid (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) as the main antioxidant constituents. Two apocarotenoids and one flavonoid were also isolated from the chloroform fraction and were identified as cochloxanthin (3), dihydrocochloxanthin (4), and 7,4′-dimethyltaxifolin (5), respectively. A High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was also developed for fingerprinting borututu samples, with Compounds 14 suggested as chemical markers for quality control purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult
Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5030030
Received: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
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Abstract
Oligodendrocyte damage and loss are key features of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), which induce cell death and prevent the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells [...] Read more.
Oligodendrocyte damage and loss are key features of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), which induce cell death and prevent the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Here, we investigated the efficacy of sulforaphane (SFN), monomethyl fumarate (MMF) and Protandim to induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme expression, and protect oligodendrocytes against ROS-induced cell death and ROS-and TNF-mediated inhibition of OPC differentiation. OLN-93 cells and primary rat oligodendrocytes were treated with SFN, MMF or Protandim resulting in significant induction of Nrf2-driven (antioxidant) proteins heme oygenase-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH): quinone oxidoreductase-1 and p62/SQSTM1, as analysed by Western blotting. After incubation with the compounds, oligodendrocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Protandim most potently promoted oligodendrocyte cell survival as measured by live/death viability assay. Moreover, OPCs were treated with Protandim or vehicle control prior to exposing them to TNF or hydrogen peroxide for five days, which inhibited OPC differentiation. Protandim significantly promoted OPC differentiation under influence of ROS, but not TNF. Protandim, a combination of five herbal ingredients, potently induces antioxidants in oligodendrocytes and is able to protect oligodendrocytes against oxidative stress by preventing ROS-induced cell death and promoting OPC differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2016)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review
Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6010007
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been [...] Read more.
Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessReview Use of Saliva Biomarkers to Monitor Efficacy of Vitamin C in Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6010005
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health [...] Read more.
Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma. Exercise can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a trend of antioxidant supplementation to combat its assumed detriments. Vitamin C is a popular antioxidant supplement in the realm of sports and exercise. One potential avenue for evaluating exercise induced oxidative stress is through assessment of biomarkers like vitamin C and malondialdehyde in saliva. At present, limited research has been done in this area. The current state of research involving exercise-induced oxidative stress, salivary biomarkers, and vitamin C supplementation is reviewed in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2016)
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