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High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences and XaRTA, Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety (INSA-UB), University of Barcelona, 08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain
Food Research Center (FoRC), Department of Food Science and Experimental Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 05508-000 São Paulo, Brazil
Centre for Fertility and Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0473 Oslo, Norway
Blanquerna School of Health Sciences, Universitat Ramon Llull, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
August Pi Sunyer Biomedical Research Center (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, IdiSNA, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició, 43204 Reus, Spain
Nutrition Unit, University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, 43201 Reus, Spain
Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), 43201 Reus, Spain
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas (IMIM), 08007 Barcelona, Spain
Center for Nutrition Research, Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
Precision Nutrition Program, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Bioaraba Health Research Institute, Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Metabolic Area, 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
Osakidetza Basque Health Service, Araba University Hospital, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Miguel Hernandez University, ISABIAL-FISABIO, 03010 Alicante, Spain
Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Department of Internal Medicine, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Endocrinology, Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
Research Unit, Department of Family Medicine, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, 41010 Sevilla, Spain
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria & Centro Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canarian Health Service, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
Research Group on Community Nutrition & Oxidative Stress, IUNICS, University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain
Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain
Division of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
CIBER Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Endocrinology, Institut d’Investigacions Biomédiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Fundación Jimenez Díaz, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas IISFJD, University Autonoma, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Unidad de Gestión Clínica Arroyo de la Miel, Distrito de Atención Primaria Costa del Sol, Servicio Andaluz de Salud, 29630 Benalmádena, Spain
Osasunbidea, Servicio Navarro de Salud, Atención Primaria, 31003 Pamplona, Spain
IDIAP Jordi Gol i Gurina, 43202 Reus, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vlasios Goulas and Alexandra Barbouti
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 473;
Received: 14 February 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent to which high fat intake may contribute to increased carotenoid plasma concentrations is still unclear. The objective was to examine the degree to which the consumption of different amounts of both carotenoid-rich foods and fats is associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations within a Mediterranean lifestyle context (subsample from the PREDIMED-Plus study baseline) where consumption of F&V and fat is high. The study population was categorized into four groups according to their self-reported consumption of F&V and fat. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma samples and analyzed by HPLC-UV-VIS-QqQ-MS/MS. Carotenoid systemic concentrations were greater in high consumers of F&V than in low consumers of these foods (+3.04 μmol/L (95% CI: 0.90, 5.17), p-value = 0.005), but circulating concentrations seemed to decrease when total fat intake was very high (−2.69 μmol/L (−5.54; 0.16), p-value = 0.064). High consumption of F&V is associated with greater systemic levels of total carotenoids, in particular when fat intake is low-to-moderate rather than very high. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive compounds; phytochemicals; dietary fats; Mediterranean diet; PREDIMED-Plus study; plasma carotenoids; matrix effect absorption; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry bioactive compounds; phytochemicals; dietary fats; Mediterranean diet; PREDIMED-Plus study; plasma carotenoids; matrix effect absorption; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marhuenda-Muñoz, M.; Rinaldi de Alvarenga, J.F.; Hernáez, Á.; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; Martínez-González, M.Á.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Corella, D.; Malcampo, M.; Martínez, J.A.; Alonso-Gómez, Á.M.; Wärnberg, J.; Vioque, J.; Romaguera, D.; López-Miranda, J.; Estruch, R.; Tinahones, F.J.; Lapetra, J.; Serra-Majem, J.L.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Tur, J.A.; Sánchez, V.M.; Pintó, X.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M.; Matía-Martín, P.; Vidal, J.; Vázquez, C.; Daimiel, L.; Ros, E.; Serra-Mir, M.; Vázquez-Ruiz, Z.; Nishi, S.K.; Sorlí, J.V.; Zomeño, M.D.; Zulet, M.A.; Vaquero-Luna, J.; Carabaño-Moral, R.; Notario-Barandiaran, L.; Morey, M.; García-Ríos, A.; Gómez-Pérez, A.M.; Santos-Lozano, J.M.; Buil-Cosiales, P.; Basora, J.; Portolés, O.; Schröder, H.; Abete, I.; Salaverria-Lete, I.; Toledo, E.; Babio, N.; Fitó, M.; Martínez-Huélamo, M.; Lamuela-Raventós, R.M. High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 473.

AMA Style

Marhuenda-Muñoz M, Rinaldi de Alvarenga JF, Hernáez Á, Tresserra-Rimbau A, Martínez-González MÁ, Salas-Salvadó J, Corella D, Malcampo M, Martínez JA, Alonso-Gómez ÁM, Wärnberg J, Vioque J, Romaguera D, López-Miranda J, Estruch R, Tinahones FJ, Lapetra J, Serra-Majem JL, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Tur JA, Sánchez VM, Pintó X, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Matía-Martín P, Vidal J, Vázquez C, Daimiel L, Ros E, Serra-Mir M, Vázquez-Ruiz Z, Nishi SK, Sorlí JV, Zomeño MD, Zulet MA, Vaquero-Luna J, Carabaño-Moral R, Notario-Barandiaran L, Morey M, García-Ríos A, Gómez-Pérez AM, Santos-Lozano JM, Buil-Cosiales P, Basora J, Portolés O, Schröder H, Abete I, Salaverria-Lete I, Toledo E, Babio N, Fitó M, Martínez-Huélamo M, Lamuela-Raventós RM. High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(3):473.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marhuenda-Muñoz, María, José Fernando Rinaldi de Alvarenga, Álvaro Hernáez, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Dolores Corella, Mireia Malcampo, José Alfredo Martínez, Ángel M. Alonso-Gómez, Julia Wärnberg, Jesús Vioque, Dora Romaguera, José López-Miranda, Ramón Estruch, Francisco J. Tinahones, José Lapetra, J. Lluís Serra-Majem, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Josep A. Tur, Vicente Martín Sánchez, Xavier Pintó, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, Pilar Matía-Martín, Josep Vidal, Clotilde Vázquez, Lidia Daimiel, Emilio Ros, Mercè Serra-Mir, Zenaida Vázquez-Ruiz, Stephanie K. Nishi, Jose V. Sorlí, María Dolores Zomeño, María Angeles Zulet, Jessica Vaquero-Luna, Rosa Carabaño-Moral, Leyre Notario-Barandiaran, Marga Morey, Antonio García-Ríos, Ana M. Gómez-Pérez, José Manuel Santos-Lozano, Pilar Buil-Cosiales, Josep Basora, Olga Portolés, Helmut Schröder, Itziar Abete, Itziar Salaverria-Lete, Estefanía Toledo, Nancy Babio, Montse Fitó, Miriam Martínez-Huélamo, and Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós. 2021. "High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma" Antioxidants 10, no. 3: 473.

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