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Article

High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma

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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences and XaRTA, Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety (INSA-UB), University of Barcelona, 08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain
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Food Research Center (FoRC), Department of Food Science and Experimental Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 05508-000 São Paulo, Brazil
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Centre for Fertility and Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0473 Oslo, Norway
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Blanquerna School of Health Sciences, Universitat Ramon Llull, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
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August Pi Sunyer Biomedical Research Center (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, IdiSNA, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició, 43204 Reus, Spain
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Nutrition Unit, University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, 43201 Reus, Spain
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Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), 43201 Reus, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas (IMIM), 08007 Barcelona, Spain
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Center for Nutrition Research, Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Precision Nutrition Program, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Bioaraba Health Research Institute, Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Metabolic Area, 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
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Osakidetza Basque Health Service, Araba University Hospital, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
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Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
19
CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Miguel Hernandez University, ISABIAL-FISABIO, 03010 Alicante, Spain
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Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
22
Department of Internal Medicine, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
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Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
24
Department of Endocrinology, Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
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Research Unit, Department of Family Medicine, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, 41010 Sevilla, Spain
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Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria & Centro Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canarian Health Service, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
28
Research Group on Community Nutrition & Oxidative Stress, IUNICS, University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain
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Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain
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Division of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
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CIBER Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology, Institut d’Investigacions Biomédiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Fundación Jimenez Díaz, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas IISFJD, University Autonoma, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Unidad de Gestión Clínica Arroyo de la Miel, Distrito de Atención Primaria Costa del Sol, Servicio Andaluz de Salud, 29630 Benalmádena, Spain
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Osasunbidea, Servicio Navarro de Salud, Atención Primaria, 31003 Pamplona, Spain
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IDIAP Jordi Gol i Gurina, 43202 Reus, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vlasios Goulas and Alexandra Barbouti
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030473
Received: 14 February 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent to which high fat intake may contribute to increased carotenoid plasma concentrations is still unclear. The objective was to examine the degree to which the consumption of different amounts of both carotenoid-rich foods and fats is associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations within a Mediterranean lifestyle context (subsample from the PREDIMED-Plus study baseline) where consumption of F&V and fat is high. The study population was categorized into four groups according to their self-reported consumption of F&V and fat. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma samples and analyzed by HPLC-UV-VIS-QqQ-MS/MS. Carotenoid systemic concentrations were greater in high consumers of F&V than in low consumers of these foods (+3.04 μmol/L (95% CI: 0.90, 5.17), p-value = 0.005), but circulating concentrations seemed to decrease when total fat intake was very high (−2.69 μmol/L (−5.54; 0.16), p-value = 0.064). High consumption of F&V is associated with greater systemic levels of total carotenoids, in particular when fat intake is low-to-moderate rather than very high. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive compounds; phytochemicals; dietary fats; Mediterranean diet; PREDIMED-Plus study; plasma carotenoids; matrix effect absorption; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry bioactive compounds; phytochemicals; dietary fats; Mediterranean diet; PREDIMED-Plus study; plasma carotenoids; matrix effect absorption; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marhuenda-Muñoz, M.; Rinaldi de Alvarenga, J.F.; Hernáez, Á.; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; Martínez-González, M.Á.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Corella, D.; Malcampo, M.; Martínez, J.A.; Alonso-Gómez, Á.M.; Wärnberg, J.; Vioque, J.; Romaguera, D.; López-Miranda, J.; Estruch, R.; Tinahones, F.J.; Lapetra, J.; Serra-Majem, J.L.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Tur, J.A.; Sánchez, V.M.; Pintó, X.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M.; Matía-Martín, P.; Vidal, J.; Vázquez, C.; Daimiel, L.; Ros, E.; Serra-Mir, M.; Vázquez-Ruiz, Z.; Nishi, S.K.; Sorlí, J.V.; Zomeño, M.D.; Zulet, M.A.; Vaquero-Luna, J.; Carabaño-Moral, R.; Notario-Barandiaran, L.; Morey, M.; García-Ríos, A.; Gómez-Pérez, A.M.; Santos-Lozano, J.M.; Buil-Cosiales, P.; Basora, J.; Portolés, O.; Schröder, H.; Abete, I.; Salaverria-Lete, I.; Toledo, E.; Babio, N.; Fitó, M.; Martínez-Huélamo, M.; Lamuela-Raventós, R.M. High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 473. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030473

AMA Style

Marhuenda-Muñoz M, Rinaldi de Alvarenga JF, Hernáez Á, Tresserra-Rimbau A, Martínez-González MÁ, Salas-Salvadó J, Corella D, Malcampo M, Martínez JA, Alonso-Gómez ÁM, Wärnberg J, Vioque J, Romaguera D, López-Miranda J, Estruch R, Tinahones FJ, Lapetra J, Serra-Majem JL, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Tur JA, Sánchez VM, Pintó X, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Matía-Martín P, Vidal J, Vázquez C, Daimiel L, Ros E, Serra-Mir M, Vázquez-Ruiz Z, Nishi SK, Sorlí JV, Zomeño MD, Zulet MA, Vaquero-Luna J, Carabaño-Moral R, Notario-Barandiaran L, Morey M, García-Ríos A, Gómez-Pérez AM, Santos-Lozano JM, Buil-Cosiales P, Basora J, Portolés O, Schröder H, Abete I, Salaverria-Lete I, Toledo E, Babio N, Fitó M, Martínez-Huélamo M, Lamuela-Raventós RM. High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(3):473. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030473

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marhuenda-Muñoz, María, José F. Rinaldi de Alvarenga, Álvaro Hernáez, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Miguel Á. Martínez-González, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Dolores Corella, Mireia Malcampo, José A. Martínez, Ángel M. Alonso-Gómez, Julia Wärnberg, Jesús Vioque, Dora Romaguera, José López-Miranda, Ramón Estruch, Francisco J. Tinahones, José Lapetra, J. L. Serra-Majem, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Josep A. Tur, Vicente M. Sánchez, Xavier Pintó, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, Pilar Matía-Martín, Josep Vidal, Clotilde Vázquez, Lidia Daimiel, Emilio Ros, Mercè Serra-Mir, Zenaida Vázquez-Ruiz, Stephanie K. Nishi, Jose V. Sorlí, María D. Zomeño, María A. Zulet, Jessica Vaquero-Luna, Rosa Carabaño-Moral, Leyre Notario-Barandiaran, Marga Morey, Antonio García-Ríos, Ana M. Gómez-Pérez, José M. Santos-Lozano, Pilar Buil-Cosiales, Josep Basora, Olga Portolés, Helmut Schröder, Itziar Abete, Itziar Salaverria-Lete, Estefanía Toledo, Nancy Babio, Montse Fitó, Miriam Martínez-Huélamo, and Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós 2021. "High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma" Antioxidants 10, no. 3: 473. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030473

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