Polyphenols and Flavones from Agricultural Products and Their Health-Promoting Properties

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 49421

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Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Viticulture and Enology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Interests: grape; blueberry; mulberry; polyphenols; obesity; cancer; diabetes; gut microbiome
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Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Interests: nutritional intervention; polyphenols; metabolic syndrome; aging; brain health; gut–brain axis; Alzheimer’s disease

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Guest Editor
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
Interests: tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; drug design; cancer research; food chemistry; dermatology; biochemistry; chemical engineering; proteomics; molecule biology; marine biotechnology & resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,
 
Polyphenol and flavone compounds have received considerable attention for their health-promoting properties in many chronic disorders, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Lots of studies have also shown that it was the polyphenols and flavones which contributed more to the health-promoting properties of agricultural products. Recently, attention has been focused on polyphenols and flavones and their derivatives, and their supplementation can truly reduce the risk of some diseases. The health-promoting properties of polyphenols and flavones have been a hot research field.

We invite you to submit your latest research articles, review articles, and short communications that help to highlight the most recent advances on polyphenol extracts from agricultural products, and their role in health-enhancing benefits. For manuscripts which contain mixture compounds extracted from agricultural products, the characterization (using analytical methodologies, such as HPLC, MS, LC–MS, HPLC–MS, and NMR) of the active chemicals in natural compound should be included.

We look forward to your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Jicheng Zhan
Prof. Dr. Zhigang Liu
Prof. Dr. Hui-Min David Wang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • flavones
  • antioxidant
  • obesity
  • cancer
  • diabetes
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • brain health
  • gut–brain axis
  • gut microbiome

Published Papers (15 papers)

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25 pages, 2292 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Chemical Composition, Anti-Oxidant Activity, and Inhibition of TNF Release by THP-1 Cells Induced by Extracts of Echinodorus macrophyllus and Echinodorus grandiflorus
by Marina Pereira Rocha, Lyandra Maciel Cabral da Silva, Laura Paulino Maia Silva, José Hugo de Sousa Gomes, Rodrigo Maia de Pádua, João Aguiar Nogueira Batista, Marcelo Martins Sena, Priscilla Rodrigues Valadares Campana and Fernão Castro Braga
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071365 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
This study investigated the similarities between Echinodorus macrophyllus and Echinodorus grandiflorus, plant species that are traditionally used in Brazil to treat rheumatism and arthritis, whose anti-inflammatory effects are supported by scientific evidence. The contents of cis- and trans-aconitic acid, homoorientin, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the similarities between Echinodorus macrophyllus and Echinodorus grandiflorus, plant species that are traditionally used in Brazil to treat rheumatism and arthritis, whose anti-inflammatory effects are supported by scientific evidence. The contents of cis- and trans-aconitic acid, homoorientin, chicoric acid, swertisin, caffeoyl-feruloyl-tartaric acid, and di-feruloyl-tartaric acid were quantified by UPLC-DAD in various hydroethanolic extracts from the leaves, whereas their anti-oxidant activity and their effect on TNF release by LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells were assessed to evaluate potential anti-inflammatory effects. The 50% and 70% ethanol extracts showed higher concentrations of the analyzed markers in two commercial samples and a cultivated specimen of E. macrophyllus, as well as in a commercial lot of E. grandiflorus. However, distinguishing between the species based on marker concentrations was not feasible. The 50% and 70% ethanol extracts also exhibited higher biological activity, yet they did not allow differentiation between the species, indicating similar chemical composition and biological effects. Principal component analysis highlighted comparable chemical composition and biological activity among the commercial samples of E. macrophyllus, while successfully distinguishing the cultivated specimen from the commercial lots. In summary, no differences were observed between the two species in terms of the evaluated chemical markers and biological activities. Full article
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17 pages, 2288 KiB  
Article
Genistein Promotes Anti-Heat Stress and Antioxidant Effects via the Coordinated Regulation of IIS, HSP, MAPK, DR, and Mitochondrial Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans
by Sai-Ya Zhang, Zi-Chen Qin, Yi-Yang Sun, Yu-Si Chen, Wen-Bo Chen, Hong-Gang Wang, Di An, Dan Sun and Yan-Qiang Liu
Antioxidants 2023, 12(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12010125 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2497
Abstract
To determine the anti-heat stress and antioxidant effects of genistein and the underlying mechanisms, lipofuscin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and survival under stress were first detected in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans); then the localization and quantification of the fluorescent protein was determined [...] Read more.
To determine the anti-heat stress and antioxidant effects of genistein and the underlying mechanisms, lipofuscin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and survival under stress were first detected in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans); then the localization and quantification of the fluorescent protein was determined by detecting the fluorescently labeled protein mutant strain; in addition, the aging-related mRNAs were detected by applying real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR in C. elegans. The results indicate that genistein substantially extended the lifespan of C. elegans under oxidative stress and heat conditions; and remarkably reduced the accumulation of lipofuscin in C. elegans under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 35 °C stress conditions; in addition, it reduced the generation of ROS caused by H2O2 and upregulated the expression of daf-16, ctl-1, hsf-1, hsp-16.2, sip-1, sek-1, pmk-1, and eat-2, whereas it downregulated the expression of age-1 and daf-2 in C. elegans; similarly, it upregulated the expression of daf-16, sod-3, ctl-1, hsf-1, hsp-16.2, sip-1, sek-1, pmk-1, jnk-1 skn-1, and eat-2, whereas it downregulated the expression of age-1, daf-2, gst-4, and hsp-12.6 in C. elegans at 35 °C; moreover, it increased the accumulation of HSP-16.2 and SKN-1 proteins in nematodes under 35 °C and H2O2 conditions; however, it failed to prolong the survival time in the deleted mutant MQ130 nematodes under 35 °C and H2O2 conditions. These results suggest that genistein promote anti-heat stress and antioxidant effects in C. elegans via insulin/-insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS), heat shock protein (HSP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), dietary restriction (DR), and mitochondrial pathways. Full article
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16 pages, 1121 KiB  
Article
Safety Assessment of 3S, 3’S Astaxanthin Derived from Metabolically Engineered K. marxianus
by Sabrina Yeo Samuel, Hui-Min David Wang, Meng-Yuan Huang, Yu-Shen Cheng, Juine-Ruey Chen, Wen-Hsiung Li and Jui-Jen Chang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112288 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2328
Abstract
Previous reviews have already explored the safety and bioavailability of astaxanthin, as well as its beneficial effects on human body. The great commercial potential in a variety of industries, such as the pharmaceutical and health supplement industries, has led to a skyrocketing demand [...] Read more.
Previous reviews have already explored the safety and bioavailability of astaxanthin, as well as its beneficial effects on human body. The great commercial potential in a variety of industries, such as the pharmaceutical and health supplement industries, has led to a skyrocketing demand for natural astaxanthin. In this study, we have successfully optimized the astaxanthin yield up to 12.8 mg/g DCW in a probiotic yeast and purity to 97%. We also verified that it is the desired free-form 3S, 3’S configurational stereoisomer by NMR and FITR that can significantly increase the bioavailability of astaxanthin. In addition, we have proven that our extracted astaxanthin crystals have higher antioxidant capabilities compared with natural esterified astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. We also screened for potential adverse effects of the pure astaxanthin crystals extracted from the engineered probiotic yeast by dosing SD rats with 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg/day of astaxanthin crystals via oral gavages for a 13-week period and have found no significant biological differences between the control and treatment groups in rats of both genders, further confirming the safety of astaxanthin crystals. This study demonstrates that developing metabolically engineered microorganisms provides a safe and feasible approach for the bio-based production of many beneficial compounds, including astaxanthin. Full article
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18 pages, 4542 KiB  
Article
The Peanut Skin Procyanidins Attenuate DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice
by Na Wang, Weixuan Chen, Chenxu Cui, Yuru Zheng, Qiuying Yu, Hongtao Ren, Zhigang Liu, Chao Xu and Gaiping Zhang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112098 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
Polyphenols from peanut skin have been reported to possess many beneficial functions for human health, including anti-oxidative, antibacterial, anticancer, and other activities. To date, however, its anti-inflammatory effect and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of peanut skin [...] Read more.
Polyphenols from peanut skin have been reported to possess many beneficial functions for human health, including anti-oxidative, antibacterial, anticancer, and other activities. To date, however, its anti-inflammatory effect and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of peanut skin procyanidins extract (PSPE) and peanut skin procyanidins (PSPc) were investigated by a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. The results showed that both PSPE and PSPc supplementation reversed the DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced disease activity index (DAI) values, accompanied by enhanced goblet cell numbers and tight junction protein claudin-1 expression in the colon. PSPE and PSPc treatment also suppressed the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in the colon by down-regulating IL-1β, TNF-α, and MDA expressions. Meanwhile, PSPE and PSPc significantly altered the gut microbiota composition by increasing the relative abundance of Clostridium XlVb and Anaerotruncus, and inhibiting the relative abundance of Alistipes at the genus level. PSPE and PSPc also significantly elevated the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in mice with colitis. The correlation analysis suggested that the protective effects of PSPE and PSPc on colitis might be related to the alteration of gut microbiota composition and the formation of SCFAs. In conclusion, the current research indicates that supplementation of PSPE and PSPc could be a promising nutritional strategy for colitis prevention and treatment. Full article
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15 pages, 1108 KiB  
Article
Apple Polyphenol Diet Extends Lifespan, Slows down Mitotic Rate and Reduces Morphometric Parameters in Drosophila Melanogaster: A Comparison between Three Different Apple Cultivars
by Silvia Bongiorni, Ivan Arisi, Brunella Ceccantoni, Cristina Rossi, Camilla Cresta, Simona Castellani, Ivano Forgione, Sara Rinalducci, Rosario Muleo and Giorgio Prantera
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112086 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Plant-derived polyphenols exhibit beneficial effects on physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, mainly because of their antioxidant activity. Apples are highly enriched in these compounds, mainly in their peel. The Tuscia Red (TR) apple variety exhibits the peculiar characteristic of [...] Read more.
Plant-derived polyphenols exhibit beneficial effects on physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, mainly because of their antioxidant activity. Apples are highly enriched in these compounds, mainly in their peel. The Tuscia Red (TR) apple variety exhibits the peculiar characteristic of depositing high quantities of polyphenols in the pulp, the edible part of the fruit. Since polyphenols, as any natural product, cannot be considered a panacea per se, in this paper, we propose to assess the biological effects of TR flesh extracts, in comparison with two commercial varieties, in a model system, the insect Drosophila melanogaster, largely recognized as a reliable system to test the in vivo effects of natural and synthetic compounds. We performed a comparative, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the polyphenol compositions of the three cultivars and found that TR flesh shows the highest content of polyphenols, and markedly, anthocyanins. Then, we focused on their effects on a panel of physiological, morphometrical, cellular and behavioral phenotypes in wild-type D. melanogaster. We found that all the apple polyphenol extracts showed dose-dependent effects on most of the phenotypes we considered. Remarkably, all the varieties induced a strong relenting of the cell division rate. Full article
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15 pages, 4369 KiB  
Article
Identification of Crucial Polymethoxyflavones Tangeretin and 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-Heptamethoxyflavone and Evaluation of Their Contribution to Anticancer Effects of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae ‘Chachi’ during Storage
by Yexing Tao, Qian Yu, Yuting Huang, Ruiting Liu, Xiwen Zhang, Ting Wu, Siyi Pan and Xiaoyun Xu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(10), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11101922 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae ‘Chachi’ (PCR-C), rich in polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), has potential anticancer bioactivity and its quality will be improved during storage. However, the main factors influencing the PCR-C quality during its storage remain unclear. In this study, multivariate analysis was performed to investigate [...] Read more.
Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae ‘Chachi’ (PCR-C), rich in polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), has potential anticancer bioactivity and its quality will be improved during storage. However, the main factors influencing the PCR-C quality during its storage remain unclear. In this study, multivariate analysis was performed to investigate free and bound PMFs of PCR-C during storage. The anticancer effects of purified PCR-C flavonoid extracts (PCR-CF) and the important PMFs were evaluated using A549 cells. The results showed that PCR-C samples exhibited remarkable differences in free PMFs during storage, which fell into three clusters: Cluster 1 included fresh (fresh peel) and PCR-C01 (year 1); Cluster 2 consisted of PCR-C03 (year 3) and PCR-C05 (year 5); and PCR-C10 (year 10) was Cluster 3. 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone, tangeretin, and isosinensetin were identified as the most important PMFs distinguishing the various types of PCR-C according to its storage periods. Moreover, PCR-CF inhibited A549 cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, cell apoptosis, and ROS accumulation, and all anticancer indices had an upward tendency during storage. Additionally, tangeretin and 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone exhibited anticancer effects on A549 cells, whereas isosinensetin displayed no anticancer effect, indicating that tangeretin and 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone jointly contributed to anticancer activity of PCR-C during storage. PCR-CF and the most important PMFs killed cancer cells (A549 cells) but had no cytotoxicity to normal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5 cells). Overall, the high quality of long-term stored PCR-C might be due to the anticancer effects of tangeretin and 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone. Full article
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15 pages, 2437 KiB  
Article
Cordyceps militaris Reduces Oxidative Stress and Regulates Immune T Cells to Inhibit Metastatic Melanoma Invasion
by Yuan-Hong Lan, Yun-Sheng Lu, Ju-Yu Wu, Hsu-Tung Lee, Penjit Srinophakun, Gizem Naz Canko, Chien-Chih Chiu and Hui-Min David Wang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081502 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2747
Abstract
In this study, the water extract of Cordyceps militaris (Linn.) Link (CM) was used as a functional material to investigate the inhibitory mechanisms on B16F10 and lung metastatic melanoma (LMM) cells. Reducing power, chelating ability, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were applied for antioxidative [...] Read more.
In this study, the water extract of Cordyceps militaris (Linn.) Link (CM) was used as a functional material to investigate the inhibitory mechanisms on B16F10 and lung metastatic melanoma (LMM) cells. Reducing power, chelating ability, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were applied for antioxidative capacities, and we obtained positive results from the proper concentrations of CM. To examine the ability of CM in melanoma proliferation inhibition and to substantiate the previous outcomes, three cellular experiments were performed via (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, MTT, a tetrazole) assay, cell migration, and invasion evaluation. The addition of CM to the incubation medium increased the number of CD8+ T cells significantly, which improved the immunogenicity. This study showed that CM exhibits various biological capabilities, including antioxidation, anti-tumor, tumor invasion suppression, and T cytotoxic cell activity promotion. Full article
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21 pages, 6136 KiB  
Article
Styrylpyrones from Phellinus linteus Mycelia Alleviate Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver by Modulating Lipid and Glucose Metabolic Homeostasis in High-Fat and High-Fructose Diet-Fed Mice
by Chun-Hung Chiu, Chun-Chao Chang, Jia-Jing Lin, Chin-Chu Chen, Charng-Cherng Chyau and Robert Y. Peng
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050898 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Phellinus linteus (PL), an edible and medicinal mushroom containing a diversity of styrylpyrone-type polyphenols, has been shown to have a broad spectrum of bioactivities. In this study, the submerged liquid culture in a 1600-L working volume of fermentor was used for the large-scale [...] Read more.
Phellinus linteus (PL), an edible and medicinal mushroom containing a diversity of styrylpyrone-type polyphenols, has been shown to have a broad spectrum of bioactivities. In this study, the submerged liquid culture in a 1600-L working volume of fermentor was used for the large-scale production of PL mycelia. Whether PL mycelia extract is effective against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still unclear. In the high fat/high fructose diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD C57BL/6 mice study, the dietary supplementation of ethyl acetate fraction from PL mycelia (PL-EA) for four weeks significantly attenuated an increase in body weight, hepatic lipid accumulation and fasting glucose levels. Mechanistically, PL-EA markedly upregulated the pgc-1α, sirt1 genes and adiponectin, downregulated gck and srebp-1c; upregulated proteins PPARγ, pAMPK, and PGC-1α, and downregulated SREBP-1 and NF-κB in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, the major purified compounds of hispidin and hypholomine B in PL-EA significantly reduced the level of oleic and palmitic acids (O/P)-induced lipid accumulation through the inhibition of up-regulated lipogenesis and the energy-metabolism related genes, ampk and pgc-1α, in the HepG2 cells. Consequently, these findings suggest that the application of PL-EA is deserving of further investigation for treating NAFLD. Full article
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22 pages, 4876 KiB  
Article
The Biphasic Effect of Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress and Cell Proliferation in Breast Cancer Cells
by Xiaomin Xi, Jiting Wang, Yue Qin, Yilin You, Weidong Huang and Jicheng Zhan
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040622 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3597
Abstract
Flavonoids have been reported to play an essential role in modulating processes of cellular redox homeostasis such as scavenging ROS. Meanwhile, they also induce oxidative stress that exerts potent antitumor bioactivity. However, the contradiction between these two aspects still remains unclear. In this [...] Read more.
Flavonoids have been reported to play an essential role in modulating processes of cellular redox homeostasis such as scavenging ROS. Meanwhile, they also induce oxidative stress that exerts potent antitumor bioactivity. However, the contradiction between these two aspects still remains unclear. In this study, four typical flavonoids were selected and studied. The results showed that low-dose flavonoids slightly promoted the proliferation of breast cancer cells under normal growth via gradually reducing accumulated oxidative products and demonstrated a synergistic effect with reductants NAC or VC. Besides, low-dose flavonoids significantly reduced the content of ROS and MDA induced by LPS or Rosup but restored the activity of SOD. However, high-dose flavonoids markedly triggered the cell death via oxidative stress as evidenced by upregulated ROS, MDA and downregulated SOD activity that could be partly rescued by NAC pretreatment, which was also confirmed by antioxidative gene expression levels. The underlying mechanism of such induced cell death was pinpointed as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, accumulated mitochondrial superoxide, impaired mitochondrial function and decreased ATP synthesis. Transcriptomic analysis of apigenin and quercetin uncovered that high-dose flavonoids activated TNF-α signaling, as verified through detecting inflammatory gene levels in breast cancer cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, we identified that BRCA1 overexpression effectively attenuated such oxidative stress, inflammation and inhibited ATP synthesis induced by LPS or high dose of flavonoids possibly through repairing DNA damage, revealing an indispensable biological function of BRCA1 in resisting oxidative damage and inflammatory stimulation caused by exogenous factors. Full article
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13 pages, 5009 KiB  
Article
Lipophilic Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Exerts Anti-Cervical Cancer Effects in HeLa Cells and a HeLa-Derived Xenograft Zebrafish Model
by Changhong Li, Linli Zhang, Chengmei Liu, Xuemei He, Mingshun Chen and Jun Chen
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020422 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Lipophilic grape seed proanthocyanidin (LGSP) synthesized from GSP and lauric acid exhibits an excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. However, its anti-cervical cancer activity is still unknown. In this study, the in vitro anti-cervical cancer activity of LGSP on HeLa cell lines was investigated [...] Read more.
Lipophilic grape seed proanthocyanidin (LGSP) synthesized from GSP and lauric acid exhibits an excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. However, its anti-cervical cancer activity is still unknown. In this study, the in vitro anti-cervical cancer activity of LGSP on HeLa cell lines was investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, and its effect was explored by a HeLa-derived xenograft zebrafish model. LGSP exhibited an excellent anti-proliferative effect on HeLa cells by increasing the level of reactive oxygen species, which further induced cell apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in the G2/M phase. LGSP-treated HeLa cells showed a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, and activation of cleaved caspase-9/3 and cleavage of PARP, thus indicating that LGSP induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial/caspase-mediated pathway. In the zebrafish model, LGSP effectively suppressed the growth of a HeLa xenograft tumor. These data suggest that LGSP may be a good candidate for the prevention or treatment of cervical cancer. Full article
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19 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
Potential for Prebiotic Stabilized Cornus mas L. Lyophilized Extract in the Prophylaxis of Diabetes Mellitus in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats
by Szymon Sip, Daria Szymanowska, Justyna Chanaj-Kaczmarek, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Barbara Budzyńska, Olga Wronikowska-Denysiuk, Tymoteusz Słowik, Piotr Szulc and Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020380 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
As a systemic disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by the disruption of many glucose metabolic pathways. Therefore, it seems critical to study new therapies to support treatment to develop therapeutic systems that can operate across a broad metabolic spectrum. The current state [...] Read more.
As a systemic disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by the disruption of many glucose metabolic pathways. Therefore, it seems critical to study new therapies to support treatment to develop therapeutic systems that can operate across a broad metabolic spectrum. The current state of knowledge indicates an essential role of the gut microbiota in the development and course of the disease. Cornus mas fruits have demonstrated a rich biological activity profile and potential for application in the treatment of DM. As part of a preliminary analysis, the activity of four cultivars of Cornus mas fruits was analyzed. The cultivar Wydubieckij was selected as having the highest activity in in vitro conditions for further prebiotic system preparation. The study aimed to develop a unique therapeutic system based, first of all, on the mechanism of α-glucosidase inhibition and the antioxidant effect resulting from the activity of the plant extract used, combined with the prebiotic effect of inulin. The obtained system was characterized in vitro in terms of antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition capacity, and was then tested on diabetic rats. The study was coupled with an analysis of changes in the intestinal microflora. The system of prebiotic stabilized Cornus mas L. lyophilized extract with inulin offers valuable support for the prophylaxis and treatment of DM. Full article
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13 pages, 1549 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity of Resveratrol Diastereomeric Forms Assayed in Fluorescent-Engineered Human Keratinocytes
by Ilaria Bononi, Paola Tedeschi, Vanessa Mantovani, Annalisa Maietti, Elisa Mazzoni, Cecilia Pancaldi, Vincenzo Brandolini and Mauro Tognon
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020196 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
Resveratrol is a powerful antioxidant molecule. In the human diet, its most important source is in Vitis vinifera grape peel and leaves. Resveratrol exists in two isoforms, cis- and trans. The diastereomeric forms of many drugs have been reported as affecting their activity. [...] Read more.
Resveratrol is a powerful antioxidant molecule. In the human diet, its most important source is in Vitis vinifera grape peel and leaves. Resveratrol exists in two isoforms, cis- and trans. The diastereomeric forms of many drugs have been reported as affecting their activity. The aim of this study was to set up a cellular model to investigate how far resveratrol could counteract cytotoxicity in an oxidant agent. For this purpose, a keratinocyte cell line, which was genetically engineered with jelly fish green fluorescent protein, was treated with the free radical promoter Cumene hydroperoxide. The antioxidant activity of the trans-resveratrol and its diastereomeric mixture was evaluated indirectly in these treated fluorescent-engineered keratinocytes by analyzing the cell number and cell proliferation index. Our results demonstrate that cells, which were pre-incubated with resveratrol, reverted the oxidative damage progression induced by this free radical agent. In conclusion, fluorescent-engineered human keratinocytes represent a rapid and low-cost cellular model to determine cell numbers by studying emitted fluorescence. Comparative studies carried out with fluorescent keratinocytes indicate that trans-resveratrol is more efficient than diastereomeric mixtures in protecting cells from the oxidative stress. Full article
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14 pages, 2757 KiB  
Article
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside Regulates the Expression of Ucp1 in Brown Adipose Tissue by Activating Prdm16 Gene
by Suping Han, Yafan Yang, Yanan Lu, Jielong Guo, Xue Han, Yunxiao Gao, Weidong Huang, Yilin You and Jicheng Zhan
Antioxidants 2021, 10(12), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121986 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2923
Abstract
(1) Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns energy to produce heat. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) can then enhance the thermogenic ability of BAT in vivo. However, the mechanism by which C3G regulates Ucp1 protein expression remains unclear. (2) Methods: In this study, C3H10T12 [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns energy to produce heat. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) can then enhance the thermogenic ability of BAT in vivo. However, the mechanism by which C3G regulates Ucp1 protein expression remains unclear. (2) Methods: In this study, C3H10T12 brown adipose cells and db/db mice and mice with high-fat, high-fructose, diet-induced obesity were used as the model to explore the effect of C3G on the expression of the Ucp1 gene. Furthermore, the 293T cell line was used for an in vitro cell transgene, a double luciferase reporting system, and yeast single hybridization to explore the mechanism of C3G in regulating Ucp1 protein. (3) Results: we identified that, under the influence of C3G, Prdm16 directly binds to the −500 to −150 bp promoter region of Ucp1 to activate its transcription and, thus, facilitate BAT programming. (4) Conclusions: This study clarified the mechanism by which C3G regulates the expression of the Ucp1 gene of brown fat to a certain extent. Full article
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15 pages, 6549 KiB  
Article
Isoorientin Attenuated the Pyroptotic Hepatocyte Damage Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene via ROS/NF-κB/NLRP3/Caspase-1 Signaling Pathway
by Hao Li, Li Yuan, Xueyi Li, Ying Luo, Zhong Zhang and Jianke Li
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081275 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2895
Abstract
Isoorientin (Iso), a natural bioactive flavonoid, possesses significant anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a food processing injurant with carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and genotoxicity. Our preliminary study demonstrates that Iso attenuated the pyroptotic hepatocyte damage induced by BaP; however, the molecular mechanism remains [...] Read more.
Isoorientin (Iso), a natural bioactive flavonoid, possesses significant anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a food processing injurant with carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and genotoxicity. Our preliminary study demonstrates that Iso attenuated the pyroptotic hepatocyte damage induced by BaP; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. The present study showed that Iso reduced the increase caused by BaP in the overflow of LDH, NO, and the electrical conductivity and the protein expressions of GSDMD-N, IL-18, and IL-1β, further showing that Iso could reduced the pyroptotic damage in HL-7702 cells induced by BaP. Caspase-1 inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) inhibited the characteristic pyroptosis protein expressions of Caspase-1, GSDMD-N, IL-18, and IL-1β, showing that the classic pyroptosis pathway depending on Caspase-1 was caused by BaP in HL-7702 cells. Consistent with the effects of the NLRP3 inhibitor (MCC950), NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC), ROS, and mtROS inhibitor (NAC and Mito-TEMPO), Iso weakened the stimulatory effects of BaP on the levels of ROS, the nuclear localization of NF-κB, and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and the characteristic indices of pyroptosis, demonstrating that Iso could alleviate the BaP-induced pyroptotic hepatocytes injury through inhibiting the ROS/NF-κB/NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway, which provides a new perspective and strategy to prevent liver injury induced by BaP. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 1763 KiB  
Review
Functional and Nutraceutical Significance of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.): A Review
by Maryam Gul, Zhi-Wei Liu, Iahtisham-Ul-Haq, Roshina Rabail, Fatima Faheem, Noman Walayat, Asad Nawaz, Muhammad Asim Shabbir, Paulo E. S. Munekata, José M. Lorenzo and Rana Muhammad Aadil
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050816 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 11309
Abstract
Phyllanthus emblica L. (also popularly known as amla) is a tree native to the India and Southeast Asia regions that produces fruits rich in bioactive compounds that could be explored as part of the increasing interest in naturally occurring compounds with biological activity. [...] Read more.
Phyllanthus emblica L. (also popularly known as amla) is a tree native to the India and Southeast Asia regions that produces fruits rich in bioactive compounds that could be explored as part of the increasing interest in naturally occurring compounds with biological activity. Thus, this review aims to highlight the nutritional aspects, rich phytochemistry and health-promoting effects of amla. Scientific evidence indicates that polyphenols are central components in fruits and other sections of the amla tree, as well as vitamin C. The rich composition of polyphenol and vitamin C imparts an important antioxidant activity along with important in vivo effects that include improved antioxidant status and activity of the endogenous antioxidant defense system. Other potential health benefits are the anti-hyperlipidemia and antidiabetic activities as well as the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, digestive tract and neurological protective activities. The promising results provided by the studies about amla bioactive compounds support their potential role in assisting the promotion of health and prevention of diseases. Full article
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