Special Issue "Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 42696

Special Issue Editors

Dr. David E. Stec
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Excellence in Cardiovascular-Renal Research, Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State St, Jackson, MS 392161, USA
Interests: obesity; diabetes; hypertension; cardiovascular disease; heme oxygenase; bilirubin; biliverdin reductase; antioxidants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Nader G. Abraham
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
2. Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
3. Department of Internal Medicine, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA
Interests: stem cells; antioxidant genes; heme oxygenase (HO-1); metabolic syndrome; obesity; diabetes; CVD; fatty liver; hypertension

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue will collate and update much of the current knowledge relevant to pharmacology and clinical medicine concerning the enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catabolizes the breakdown of the oxygen-carrying respiratory pigment called heme. In this process, heme is converted to the bile pigment, bilirubin; carbon monoxide is generated; and the iron atom is released.

A broad and sustained program of research has been ongoing on the hereditary and acquired disorders of heme metabolism and the role of specific components of the human diet in regulating hormones and other chemicals by the heme-containing proteins in the liver, heart, pancreas, kidney, brain, as well as on genetic and acquired disorders associated with severe hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) in newborns.

In addition, the inducibility of the enzyme by non-heme-containing compounds has been established, thus permitting studies on the metabolic consequences of the upregulation of HO-1 and HO activity. This aspect of HO-1 is now recognized to have potentially important pharmaceutical and clinical significance.

The examination of the role of the HO-1-derived CO, biliverdin/bilirubin, and the iron released in the process of heme degradation has grown substantially in importance to the discipline of pharmacology and also in its implications for clinical medicine during the past three decades with more than 35,000 manuscripts. The administration of CO-releasing molecules and bilirubin have proven useful as interventions of vascular disease.

The HO-1 system has been found to be crucial in cellular defense for numerous diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases, inflammation, transplantation, neurodegenerative and ageing processes, and metabolic syndrome. This Special Issue is designed to re-examine HO-1’s function in physiological and metabolic diseases and its clinical significance. HO-1 is now recognized to play a role in diverse metabolic, physiological, and pathological circumstances. The increase in the number of citations in PubMed (36,596 articles) alone attests to the importance of the HO-1 and its products, CO and bilirubin, within the research community.

The successful development of therapies based on the ability to regulate HO-1 overexpression, gene targeting, or suppression could have profound implications, since the targeted diseases exert a huge cost—both to the patients in terms of morbidity and mortality, and to the healthcare system which is responsible for their care; and it will be published in this Special Issue.

Dr. David E. Stec
Prof. Dr. Nader G. Abraham
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • cardiovascular disease
  • fatty liver
  • NAFLD
  • cancer
  • brain
  • pulmonary hypertension
  • brain
  • neurological disease
  • hypertension

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060854 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 954
Abstract
This Special Issue collates and updates the current knowledge of the pharmacology and clinical applications concerning the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Research

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Article
Reprograming of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Breast Tumor-Bearing Mice under Chemotherapy by Targeting Heme Oxygenase-1
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030470 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent one of the most abundant components of the tumor microenvironment and play important roles in tumor development and progression. TAMs display plasticity and functional heterogeneity as reflected by distinct phenotypic subsets. TAMs with an M1 phenotype have proinflammatory and [...] Read more.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent one of the most abundant components of the tumor microenvironment and play important roles in tumor development and progression. TAMs display plasticity and functional heterogeneity as reflected by distinct phenotypic subsets. TAMs with an M1 phenotype have proinflammatory and anti-tumoral properties whereas M2-like TAMs exert anti-inflammatory and pro-tumoral functions. Tumor cell debris generated during chemotherapy can stimulate primary tumor growth and recurrence. According to our previous study, phagocytic engulfment of breast tumor cell debris by TAMs attenuated chemotherapeutic efficacy through the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). To verify the impact of HO-1 upregulation on the profile of macrophage polarization during cytotoxic therapy, we utilized a syngeneic murine breast cancer (4T1) model in which tumor bearing mice were treated with paclitaxel (PTX). PTX treatment markedly downregulated the surface expression of the M1 marker CD86 in infiltrated TAMs. Notably, there were significantly more cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in tumors of mice treated with PTX plus the HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protophorphyrin IX (ZnPP) than in mice treated with PTX alone. Interestingly, the tumor-inhibiting efficacy of PTX and ZnPP co-treatment was abrogated when macrophages were depleted by clodronate liposomes. Macrophage depletion also decreased the intratumoral CD8+ T cell population and downregulated the expression of Cxcl9 and Cxcl10. The expression of the M1 phenotype marker, CD86 was higher in mice injected with PTX plus ZnPP than that in mice treated with PTX alone. Conversely, the PTX-induced upregulation of the M2 marker gene, Il10 in CD11b+ myeloid cells from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice treated was dramatically reduced by the administration of the HO-1 inhibitor. Genetic ablation of HO-1 abolished the inhibitory effect of 4T1 tumor cell debris on expression of M1 marker genes, Tnf and Il12b, in LPS-stimulated BMDMs. HO-1-deficient BMDMs exposed to tumor cell debris also exhibited a diminished expression of the M2 macrophage marker, CD206. These findings, taken all together, provide strong evidence that HO-1 plays a pivotal role in the transition of tumor-inhibiting M1-like TAMs to tumor-promoting M2-like ones during chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Protective Effects of Kirenol against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury through the Modulation of the Proinflammatory NFκB Pathway and the AMPK2-/Nrf2-Mediated HO-1/AOE Pathway
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020204 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Acute lung injury (ALI) is an acute and life-threatening inflammatory disease of the lung parenchyma that is associated with high mortality worldwide. No therapeutic strategies have been developed for the mitigation of the proinflammatory response that characterizes ALI. Kirenol has anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, and [...] Read more.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is an acute and life-threatening inflammatory disease of the lung parenchyma that is associated with high mortality worldwide. No therapeutic strategies have been developed for the mitigation of the proinflammatory response that characterizes ALI. Kirenol has anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, and immunoregulatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of kirenol against lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. Kirenol reduced the LPS-induced histopathology changes involving edema and thickening of the interstitial or alveolar walls, infiltration of leukocytes, formation of hyaline membrane. Pretreatment with kirenol reduced leukocytes infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lipid peroxidation in lung tissues induced by LPS. Kirenol significantly inhibited the secretion of cytokines, IL-1β, IL6, and TNFα, into the BALF of the mice with LPS-induced ALI through NFκB activation. Moreover, kirenol attenuated the downregulation of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase that was induced by LPS. HO-1 expression and the phosphorylation of Nrf2 and AMPK2 were also induced by kirenol. The results indicate that kirenol can be developed as a treatment strategy for ALI, and its effects are induced through the inhibition of the NF-κB proinflammatory pathway and promotion of AMPK2/Nrf2-mediated HO-1 and antioxidant enzymes (AOE) activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Proximity Ligation Assay Detection of Protein–DNA Interactions—Is There a Link between Heme Oxygenase-1 and G-quadruplexes?
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010094 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
G-quadruplexes (G4) are stacked nucleic acid structures that are stabilized by heme. In cells, they affect DNA replication and gene transcription. They are unwound by several helicases but the composition of the repair complex and its heme sensitivity are unclear. We found that [...] Read more.
G-quadruplexes (G4) are stacked nucleic acid structures that are stabilized by heme. In cells, they affect DNA replication and gene transcription. They are unwound by several helicases but the composition of the repair complex and its heme sensitivity are unclear. We found that the accumulation of G-quadruplexes is affected by heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1) expression, but in a cell-type-specific manner: hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from Hmox1−/− mice have upregulated expressions of G4-unwinding helicases (e.g., Brip1, Pif1) and show weaker staining for G-quadruplexes, whereas Hmox1-deficient murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), despite the upregulation of helicases, have more G-quadruplexes, especially after exposure to exogenous heme. Using iPSCs expressing only nuclear or only cytoplasmic forms of Hmox1, we found that nuclear localization promotes G4 removal. We demonstrated that the proximity ligation assay (PLA) can detect cellular co-localization of G-quadruplexes with helicases, as well as with HMOX1, suggesting the potential role of HMOX1 in G4 modifications. However, this colocalization does not mean a direct interaction was detectable using the immunoprecipitation assay. Therefore, we concluded that HMOX1 influences G4 accumulation, but rather as one of the proteins regulating the heme availability, not as a rate-limiting factor. It is noteworthy that cellular G4–protein colocalizations can be quantitatively analyzed using PLA, even in rare cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Effect of Heme Oxygenase-1 on Melanoma Development in Mice—Role of Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121223 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Objective: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective, proangiogenic and anti-inflammatory enzyme that is often upregulated in tumors. Overexpression of HO-1 in melanoma cells leads to enhanced tumor growth, augmented angiogenesis and resistance to anticancer treatment. The effect of HO-1 in host cells on [...] Read more.
Objective: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective, proangiogenic and anti-inflammatory enzyme that is often upregulated in tumors. Overexpression of HO-1 in melanoma cells leads to enhanced tumor growth, augmented angiogenesis and resistance to anticancer treatment. The effect of HO-1 in host cells on tumor development is, however, hardly known. Methods and results: To clarify the effect of HO-1 expression in host cells on melanoma progression, C57BL/6xFvB mice of different HO-1 genotypes, HO-1+/+, HO-1+/−, and HO-1−/−, were injected with the syngeneic wild-type murine melanoma B16(F10) cell line. Lack of HO-1 in host cells did not significantly influence the host survival. Nevertheless, in comparison to the wild-type counterparts, the HO-1+/− and HO-1−/− males formed bigger tumors, and more numerous lung nodules; in addition, more of them had liver and spleen micrometastases. Females of all genotypes developed at least 10 times smaller tumors than males. Of importance, the growth of primary and secondary tumors was completely blocked in HO-1+/+ females. This was related to the increased infiltration of leukocytes (mainly lymphocytes T) in primary tumors. Conclusions: Although HO-1 overexpression in melanoma cells can enhance tumor progression in mice, its presence in host cells, including immune cells, can reduce growth and metastasis of melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Panax ginseng Fruit Has Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Induces Osteogenic Differentiation by Regulating Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Periodontitis
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121221 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease of tissues around teeth that destroys connective tissues and is characterized by the loss of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone. A new treatment strategy is needed owing to the limitations of the current surgical treatment method and [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease of tissues around teeth that destroys connective tissues and is characterized by the loss of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone. A new treatment strategy is needed owing to the limitations of the current surgical treatment method and the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs. Therefore, here, we assessed whether Panax ginseng fruit extract (PGFE) is a new therapeutic agent for periodontitis in vitro and in vivo. According to the results, PGFE suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and pro-inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 through heme oxygenase-1 expression in human periodontal ligament cells stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (PG-LPS). In addition, the osteogenic induction of human periodontal ligament cells was inhibited by PG-LPS, and protein and mRNA levels of osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 (COL1), osteopontin (OPN), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were increased. The efficacy of PGFE for inhibiting periodontitis in vitro was demonstrated in a representative in vitro model of periodontitis induced by ligature and PG-LPS. Subsequently, hematoxylin and eosin staining and micro-computed tomography of the euthanized experimental animal model confirmed suppressed periodontal inflammation, which is an important strategy for treating periodontitis and for recovering the resulting alveolar bone loss. Therefore, PGFE is a potential, novel therapeutic agent for periodontal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Nasally Administered Lactococcus lactis Secreting Heme Oxygenase-1 Attenuates Murine Emphysema
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111049 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Emphysema, a type of lung-destroying condition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is an inflammatory lung disease mainly due to cigarette smoke exposure. As there is no curative therapy, prevention should be considered first by cessation of smoking to avoid exposure to [...] Read more.
Emphysema, a type of lung-destroying condition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is an inflammatory lung disease mainly due to cigarette smoke exposure. As there is no curative therapy, prevention should be considered first by cessation of smoking to avoid exposure to oxidative stresses and inflammatory mediators. In addition, therapies involving antioxidative and/or anti-inflammatory agents such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1 are candidate treatments. We developed a new tool using genetically modified Lactococcus lactis to deliver recombinant HO-1 to the lungs. Using an elastase-induced emphysema model mimicking COPD, we evaluated the effect of nasally administered L. lactis secreting HO-1 (HO-1 lactis) on cellular and molecular responses in the lungs and further disease progression. Nasally administered HO-1 lactis resulted in (1) overexpression of HO-1 in the lungs and serum and (2) attenuation of emphysema progression evaluated both physiologically and morphologically. There was a transient 5–10% weight loss compared to baseline through trafficking to the lungs when administering 1.0 × 109 cells/mouse; however, this did not impact either survival or final body weight. These results suggest that delivering HO-1 using genetically modified L. lactis through the airways could be a safe and potentially effective therapeutic approach for COPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Involvement of HO-1 and Autophagy in the Protective Effect of Magnolol in Hepatic Steatosis-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation In Vivo and In Vitro
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100924 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Magnolol (MG) is the main active compound of Magnolia officinalis and exerts a wide range of biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of MG using tyloxapol (Tylo)-induced (200 mg/kg, i.p.) hyperlipidemia in rats and palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated (0.3 mM) HepG2 [...] Read more.
Magnolol (MG) is the main active compound of Magnolia officinalis and exerts a wide range of biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of MG using tyloxapol (Tylo)-induced (200 mg/kg, i.p.) hyperlipidemia in rats and palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated (0.3 mM) HepG2 cells. Our results showed that Tylo injection significantly increased plasma levels of triglyceride and cholesterol as well as superoxide anion in the livers, whereas MG pretreatment reversed these changes. MG reduced hepatic lipogenesis by attenuating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) proteins and Srebp-1, Fas, Acc, and Cd36 mRNA expression as well as upregulated the lipolysis-associated genes Hsl, Mgl, and Atgl. Furthermore, MG reduced plasma interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and protein expression of NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase 1 as well as upregulated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in hepatocytes of Tylo-treated rats. Enhanced autophagic flux by elevation of autophagy related protein 5-12 (ATG5-12), ATG7, Beclin1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 B II (LC3BII)/LC3BI ratio, and reduction of sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1/p62) and phosphorylation of mTOR was observed by MG administration. However, autophagy inhibition with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) in HepG2 cells drastically abrogated the MG-mediated suppression of inflammation and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, MG inhibited hepatic steatosis-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation through the restoration of autophagy to promote HO-1 signaling capable of ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
The Association between Serum Bilirubin Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Results from the Prospective Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) Study in Germany
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100908 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Emerging studies have suggested that bilirubin, particularly unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), has substantial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that protect against oxidative stress-associated diseases such as cancer. Few observational studies have investigated the etiological role of bilirubin in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this case-control [...] Read more.
Emerging studies have suggested that bilirubin, particularly unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), has substantial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that protect against oxidative stress-associated diseases such as cancer. Few observational studies have investigated the etiological role of bilirubin in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this case-control study, nested in the population-based prospective cohort of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study in south Germany, pre-diagnostic circulating UCB concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in 77 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between log-transformed UCB levels (log-UCB), standardized per one-standard-deviation (one-SD) increment, and CRC risk. The models were a priori stratified by sex based on previous evidence. In the fully adjusted models, each one-SD increment in log-UCB was indicative of a positive association with CRC risk (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.52–2.79) among men, and of an inverse association (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.34–1.84) among women (Pheterogeneity = 0.4 for differences between men and women). We found little evidence for sex-specific associations of circulating bilirubin with CRC risk, and further studies are needed to confirm or refute the potential associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Rats Genetically Selected for High Aerobic Exercise Capacity Have Elevated Plasma Bilirubin by Upregulation of Hepatic Biliverdin Reductase-A (BVRA) and Suppression of UGT1A1
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090889 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Exercise in humans and animals increases plasma bilirubin levels, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. In the present study, we utilized rats genetically selected for high capacity running (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) to determine pathways in the liver [...] Read more.
Exercise in humans and animals increases plasma bilirubin levels, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. In the present study, we utilized rats genetically selected for high capacity running (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) to determine pathways in the liver that aerobic exercise modifies to control plasma bilirubin. The HCR rats, compared to the LCR, exhibited significantly higher levels of plasma bilirubin and the hepatic enzyme that produces it, biliverdin reductase-A (BVRA). The HCR also had reduced expression of the glucuronyl hepatic enzyme UGT1A1, which lowers plasma bilirubin. Recently, bilirubin has been shown to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), a ligand-induced transcription factor, and the higher bilirubin HCR rats had significantly increased PPARα-target genes Fgf21, Abcd3, and Gys2. These are known to promote liver function and glycogen storage, which we found by Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) staining that hepatic glycogen content was higher in the HCR versus the LCR. Our results demonstrate that exercise stimulates pathways that raise plasma bilirubin through alterations in hepatic enzymes involved in bilirubin synthesis and metabolism, improving liver function, and glycogen content. These mechanisms may explain the beneficial effects of exercise on plasma bilirubin levels and health in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Conformational Equilibrium of NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Is Essential for Heme Oxygenase Reaction
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080673 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes heme degradation using electrons supplied by NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Electrons from NADPH flow first to FAD, then to FMN, and finally to the heme in the redox partner. Previous biophysical analyses suggest the presence of a dynamic equilibrium [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes heme degradation using electrons supplied by NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Electrons from NADPH flow first to FAD, then to FMN, and finally to the heme in the redox partner. Previous biophysical analyses suggest the presence of a dynamic equilibrium between the open and the closed forms of CPR. We previously demonstrated that the open-form stabilized CPR (ΔTGEE) is tightly bound to heme–HO-1, whereas the reduction in heme–HO-1 coupled with ΔTGEE is considerably slow because the distance between FAD and FMN in ΔTGEE is inappropriate for electron transfer from FAD to FMN. Here, we characterized the enzymatic activity and the reduction kinetics of HO-1 using the closed-form stabilized CPR (147CC514). Additionally, we analyzed the interaction between 147CC514 and heme–HO-1 by analytical ultracentrifugation. The results indicate that the interaction between 147CC514 and heme–HO-1 is considerably weak, and the enzymatic activity of 147CC514 is markedly weaker than that of CPR. Further, using cryo-electron microscopy, we confirmed that the crystal structure of ΔTGEE in complex with heme–HO-1 is similar to the relatively low-resolution structure of CPR complexed with heme–HO-1 in solution. We conclude that the “open–close” transition of CPR is indispensable for electron transfer from CPR to heme–HO-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Article
Aging and Progression of Beta-Amyloid Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease Correlates with Microglial Heme-Oxygenase-1 Overexpression
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070644 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2118
Abstract
Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are being recognized as characteristic hallmarks in many neurodegenerative diseases, especially those that portray proteinopathy, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, while microglia are the immune cells in [...] Read more.
Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are being recognized as characteristic hallmarks in many neurodegenerative diseases, especially those that portray proteinopathy, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, while microglia are the immune cells in the central nervous system. To elucidate the brain expression profile of microglial HO-1 in aging and AD-progression, we have used the 5xFAD (five familial AD mutations) mouse model of AD and their littermates at different ages (four, eight, 12, and 18 months). Total brain expression of HO-1 was increased with aging and such increase was even higher in 5xFAD animals. In co-localization studies, HO-1 expression was mainly found in microglia vs. other brain cells. The percentage of microglial cells expressing HO-1 and the amount of HO-1 expressed within microglia increased progressively with aging. Furthermore, this upregulation was increased by 2–3-fold in the elder 5xFAD mice. In addition, microglia overexpressing HO-1 was predominately found surrounding beta-amyloid plaques. These results were corroborated using postmortem brain samples from AD patients, where microglial HO-1 was found up-regulated in comparison to brain samples from aged matched non-demented patients. This study demonstrates that microglial HO-1 expression increases with aging and especially with AD progression, highlighting HO-1 as a potential biomarker or therapeutic target for AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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MZe786 Rescues Cardiac Mitochondrial Activity in High sFlt-1 and Low HO-1 Environment
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070598 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy is a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Women who have had preeclampsia are at three to four times higher risk in later life of developing high blood pressure and heart disease. Soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) is elevated [...] Read more.
Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy is a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Women who have had preeclampsia are at three to four times higher risk in later life of developing high blood pressure and heart disease. Soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) is elevated in preeclampsia and may remain high postpartum in women with a history of preeclampsia. Heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1/HO-1) exerts protective effects against oxidative stimuli and is compromised in the placenta of pregnant women with preeclampsia. We hypothesized that sFlt-1 inhibits cardiac mitochondrial activity in HO-1 deficient mice. HO-1 haplo-insufficient mice (Hmox1+/−) were injected with adenovirus encoding sFlt-1 (Ad-sFlt-1) or control virus (Ad-CMV). Subsequently, they were treated daily with either placebo or MZe786 for six days, when the heart tissue was harvested to assess cardiac mitochondrial activity. Here, we show that the loss of HO-1 disturbed cardiac mitochondrial respiration and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis. The overexpression of sFlt-1 resulted in the inhibition of the cardiac mitochondrial activity in Hmox1+/− mice. The present study demonstrates that the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) releasing molecule, MZe786, rescues mitochondrial activity by stimulating cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defense in Hmox1−/− mice and in Hmox1+/− mice exposed to a high sFlt-1 environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Punicalagin Protects Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage by Activating Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway and Reducing Apoptosis
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060473 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
The oxidative damage of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the early event that underlies the pathogenesis of maculopathies. Numerous studies have shown that punicalagin (PUN), a polyphenol present in pomegranate, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. Our study aims to [...] Read more.
The oxidative damage of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the early event that underlies the pathogenesis of maculopathies. Numerous studies have shown that punicalagin (PUN), a polyphenol present in pomegranate, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. Our study aims to establish if PUN protects RPE from UV radiation-induced oxidative damage. We used an experimental model which involves the use of a human-RPE cell line (ARPE-19) exposed to UV-A radiation for 1, 3, and 5 h. ARPE-19 cells were pre-treated with PUN (24 h) followed by UV-A irradiation; controls were treated identically, except for UV-A. Effects of pre-treatment with PUN on cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species ROS levels, modulation of Nrf2 and its antioxidant target genes, and finally apoptosis were examined. We found that pre-treatment with PUN: (1) antagonized the decrease in cell viability and reduced high levels of ROS associated with UV-A-induced oxidative stress; (2) activated Nrf2 signaling pathway by promoting Nrf2 nuclear translocation and upregulating its downstream antioxidant target genes (HO-1 and NQO1); (3) induced an anti-apoptotic effect by decreasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings provide the first evidence that PUN can prevent UV-A-induced oxidative damage in RPE, offering itself as a possible antioxidant agent capable of contrasting degenerative eye diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Pharmacological Targeting of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Osteoarthritis
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030419 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common aging-associated disease that clinically manifests as joint pain, mobility limitations, and compromised quality of life. Today, OA treatment is limited to pain management and joint arthroplasty at the later stages of disease progression. OA pathogenesis is predominantly mediated [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common aging-associated disease that clinically manifests as joint pain, mobility limitations, and compromised quality of life. Today, OA treatment is limited to pain management and joint arthroplasty at the later stages of disease progression. OA pathogenesis is predominantly mediated by oxidative damage to joint cartilage extracellular matrix and local cells such as chondrocytes, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and synovial fibroblasts. Under normal conditions, cells prevent the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under oxidatively stressful conditions through their adaptive cytoprotective mechanisms. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an iron-dependent cytoprotective enzyme that functions as the inducible form of HO. HO-1 and its metabolites carbon monoxide and biliverdin contribute towards the maintenance of redox homeostasis. HO-1 expression is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level through transcriptional factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), specificity protein 1 (Sp1), transcriptional repressor BTB-and-CNC homology 1 (Bach1), and epigenetic regulation. Several studies report that HO-1 expression can be regulated using various antioxidative factors and chemical compounds, suggesting therapeutic implications in OA pathogenesis as well as in the wider context of joint disease. Here, we review the protective role of HO-1 in OA with a focus on the regulatory mechanisms that mediate HO-1 activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Nuclear Localization of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Pathophysiological Conditions: Does It Explain the Dual Role in Cancer?
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010087 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a type II detoxifying enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation leading to the formation of equimolar quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), free iron and biliverdin. HO-1 was originally shown to localize at the smooth endoplasmic reticulum [...] Read more.
Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a type II detoxifying enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation leading to the formation of equimolar quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), free iron and biliverdin. HO-1 was originally shown to localize at the smooth endoplasmic reticulum membrane (sER), although increasing evidence demonstrates that the protein translocates to other subcellular compartments including the nucleus. The nuclear translocation occurs after proteolytic cleavage by proteases including signal peptide peptidase and some cysteine proteases. In addition, nuclear translocation has been demonstrated to be involved in several cellular processes leading to cancer progression, including induction of resistance to therapy and enhanced metastatic activity. In this review, we focus on nuclear HO-1 implication in pathophysiological conditions with special emphasis on malignant processes. We provide a brief background on the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying how HO-1 leaves the sER membrane and migrates to the nucleus, the circumstances under which it does so and, maybe the most important and unknown aspect, what the function of HO-1 in the nucleus is. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Regulation of Complement Activation by Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in Kidney Injury
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010060 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
Heme oxygenase is a cytoprotective enzyme with strong antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Its cytoprotective role is mainly attributed to its enzymatic activity, which involves the degradation of heme to biliverdin with simultaneous release of carbon monoxide (CO). Recent studies uncovered a new cytoprotective [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase is a cytoprotective enzyme with strong antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Its cytoprotective role is mainly attributed to its enzymatic activity, which involves the degradation of heme to biliverdin with simultaneous release of carbon monoxide (CO). Recent studies uncovered a new cytoprotective role for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by identifying a regulatory role on the complement control protein decay-accelerating factor. This is a key complement regulatory protein preventing dysregulation or overactivation of complement cascades that can cause kidney injury. Cell-specific targeting of HO-1 induction may, therefore, be a novel approach to attenuate complement-dependent forms of kidney disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Heme Oxygenase-1 in Gastrointestinal Tract Health and Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121214 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme of heme oxidative degradation, generating carbon monoxide (CO), free iron, and biliverdin. HO-1, a stress inducible enzyme, is considered as an anti-oxidative and cytoprotective agent. As many studies suggest, HO-1 is highly expressed in the [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme of heme oxidative degradation, generating carbon monoxide (CO), free iron, and biliverdin. HO-1, a stress inducible enzyme, is considered as an anti-oxidative and cytoprotective agent. As many studies suggest, HO-1 is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract where it is involved in the response to inflammatory processes, which may lead to several diseases such as pancreatitis, diabetes, fatty liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. In this review, we highlight the pivotal role of HO-1 and its downstream effectors in the development of disorders and their beneficial effects on the maintenance of the gastrointestinal tract health. We also examine clinical trials involving the therapeutic targets derived from HO-1 system for the most common diseases of the digestive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Modulation of Inflammation and Immune Responses by Heme Oxygenase-1: Implications for Infection with Intracellular Pathogens
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121205 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the degradation of heme molecules releasing equimolar amounts of biliverdin, iron and carbon monoxide. Its expression is induced in response to stress signals such as reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive consequences for the [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the degradation of heme molecules releasing equimolar amounts of biliverdin, iron and carbon monoxide. Its expression is induced in response to stress signals such as reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive consequences for the host. Interestingly, several intracellular pathogens responsible for major human diseases have been shown to be powerful inducers of HO-1 expression in both host cells and in vivo. Studies have shown that this HO-1 response can be either host detrimental by impairing pathogen control or host beneficial by limiting infection induced inflammation and tissue pathology. These properties make HO-1 an attractive target for host-directed therapy (HDT) of the diseases in question, many of which have been difficult to control using conventional antibiotic approaches. Here we review the mechanisms by which HO-1 expression is induced and how the enzyme regulates inflammatory and immune responses during infection with a number of different intracellular bacterial and protozoan pathogens highlighting mechanistic commonalities and differences with the goal of identifying targets for disease intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Natural Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Compounds in Foodstuff or Medicinal Herbs Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121191 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes heme group degradation. Decreased level of HO-1 is correlated with disease progression, and HO-1 induction suppresses development of metabolic and neurological disorders. Natural compounds with antioxidant activities have emerged as a rich source [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes heme group degradation. Decreased level of HO-1 is correlated with disease progression, and HO-1 induction suppresses development of metabolic and neurological disorders. Natural compounds with antioxidant activities have emerged as a rich source of HO-1 inducers with marginal toxicity. Here we discuss the therapeutic role of HO-1 in obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and hepatic fibrosis, and present important signaling pathway components that lead to HO-1 expression. We provide an updated, comprehensive list of natural HO-1 inducers in foodstuff and medicinal herbs categorized by their chemical structures. Based on the continued research in HO-1 signaling pathways and rapid development of their natural inducers, HO-1 may serve as a preventive and therapeutic target for metabolic and neurological disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1 and Carbon Monoxide in Acute Organ Injury, Critical Illness, and Inflammatory Disorders
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111153 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress protein that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin (BV), the latter of which is converted to bilirubin (BR) by biliverdin reductase. HO-1 has been implicated as a cytoprotectant in [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress protein that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin (BV), the latter of which is converted to bilirubin (BR) by biliverdin reductase. HO-1 has been implicated as a cytoprotectant in various models of acute organ injury and disease (i.e., lung, kidney, heart, liver). Thus, HO-1 may serve as a general therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. HO-1 may function as a pleiotropic modulator of inflammatory signaling, via the removal of heme, and generation of its enzymatic degradation-products. Iron release from HO activity may exert pro-inflammatory effects unless sequestered, whereas BV/BR have well-established antioxidant properties. CO, derived from HO activity, has been identified as an endogenous mediator that can influence mitochondrial function and/or cellular signal transduction programs which culminate in the regulation of apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and inflammation. Much research has focused on the application of low concentration CO, whether administered in gaseous form by inhalation, or via the use of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs), for therapeutic benefit in disease. The development of novel CORMs for their translational potential remains an active area of investigation. Evidence has accumulated for therapeutic effects of both CO and CORMs in diseases associated with critical care, including acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury, pneumonias, and sepsis. The therapeutic benefits of CO may extend to other diseases involving aberrant inflammatory processes such as transplant-associated ischemia/reperfusion injury and chronic graft rejection, and metabolic diseases. Current and planned clinical trials explore the therapeutic benefit of CO in ARDS and other lung diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Aneurysmal Diseases
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111150 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and intracranial aneurysm (IA) are serious arterial diseases in the aorta and brain, respectively. AAA and IA are associated with old age in males and females, respectively, and if rupture occurs, they carry high morbidity and mortality. Aneurysmal subarachnoid [...] Read more.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and intracranial aneurysm (IA) are serious arterial diseases in the aorta and brain, respectively. AAA and IA are associated with old age in males and females, respectively, and if rupture occurs, they carry high morbidity and mortality. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to IA rupture has a high rate of complication and fatality. Despite these severe clinical outcomes, preventing or treating these devastating diseases remains an unmet medical need. Inflammation and oxidative stress are shared pathologies of these vascular diseases. Therefore, therapeutic strategies have focused on reducing inflammation and reactive oxygen species levels. Interestingly, in response to cellular stress, the inducible heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is highly upregulated and protects against tissue injury. HO-1 degrades the prooxidant heme and generates molecules with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, resulting in decreased oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, increasing HO-1 activity is an attractive option for therapy. Several HO-1 inducers have been identified and tested in animal models for preventing or alleviating AAA, IA, and SAH. However, clinical trials have shown conflicting results. Further research and the development of highly selective HO-1 regulators may be needed to prevent the initiation and progression of AAA, IA, or SAH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Targeting Heme Oxygenase-1 in the Arterial Response to Injury and Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090829 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the degradation of heme into carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin, which is rapidly metabolized to bilirubin. The activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a critical role in mediating the aberrant arterial response to injury and a [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the degradation of heme into carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin, which is rapidly metabolized to bilirubin. The activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a critical role in mediating the aberrant arterial response to injury and a number of vascular diseases. Pharmacological induction or gene transfer of HO-1 improves arterial remodeling in animal models of post-angioplasty restenosis, vascular access failure, atherosclerosis, transplant arteriosclerosis, vein grafting, and pulmonary arterial hypertension, whereas genetic loss of HO-1 exacerbates the remodeling response. The vasoprotection evoked by HO-1 is largely ascribed to the generation of CO and/or the bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, which exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, these molecules inhibit vascular SMC proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and phenotypic switching. Several therapeutic strategies are currently being pursued that may allow for the targeting of HO-1 in arterial remodeling in various pathologies, including the use of gene delivery approaches, the development of novel inducers of the enzyme, and the administration of unique formulations of CO and bilirubin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Review
Genetic Polymorphisms Complicate COVID-19 Therapy: Pivotal Role of HO-1 in Cytokine Storm
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070636 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4534
Abstract
Coronaviruses are very large RNA viruses that originate in animal reservoirs and include severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and other inconsequential coronaviruses from human reservoirs like the common cold. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 and [...] Read more.
Coronaviruses are very large RNA viruses that originate in animal reservoirs and include severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and other inconsequential coronaviruses from human reservoirs like the common cold. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 and is believed to originate from bat, quickly spread into a global pandemic. This RNA virus has a special affinity for porphyrins. It invades the cell at the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and binds to hemoproteins, resulting in a severe systemic inflammatory response, particularly in high ACE-2 organs like the lungs, heart, and kidney, resulting in systemic disease. The inflammatory response manifested by increased cytokine levels and reactive oxygen species results in inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO-1), with a subsequent loss of cytoprotection. This has been seen in other viral illness like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola, and SARS/MERS. There are a number of medications that have been tried with some showing early clinical promise. This illness disproportionately affects patients with obesity, a chronic inflammatory disease with a baseline excess of cytokines. The majority of the medications used in the treatment of COVID-19 are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, primarily CYP2D6. This is further complicated by genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, HO-1, ACE, and ACE-2. There is a potential role for HO-1 upregulation to treat/prevent cytokine storm. Current therapy must focus on antivirals and heme oxygenase upregulation. Vaccine development will be the only magic bullet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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Targeting the Heme-Heme Oxygenase System to Prevent Severe Complications Following COVID-19 Infections
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060540 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 5516
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 is causing a pandemic resulting in high morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are often critically ill and show lung injury and hemolysis. Heme is a prosthetic moiety crucial for the function of a wide variety [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 is causing a pandemic resulting in high morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are often critically ill and show lung injury and hemolysis. Heme is a prosthetic moiety crucial for the function of a wide variety of heme-proteins, including hemoglobin and cytochromes. However, injury-derived free heme promotes adhesion molecule expression, leukocyte recruitment, vascular permeabilization, platelet activation, complement activation, thrombosis, and fibrosis. Heme can be degraded by the anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) generating biliverdin/bilirubin, iron/ferritin, and carbon monoxide. We therefore postulate that free heme contributes to many of the inflammatory phenomena witnessed in critically ill COVID-19 patients, whilst induction of HO-1 or harnessing heme may provide protection. HO-activity not only degrades injurious heme, but its effector molecules possess also potent salutary anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Until a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 becomes available, we need to explore novel strategies to attenuate the pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and pro-fibrotic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 leading to morbidity and mortality. The heme-HO system represents an interesting target for novel “proof of concept” studies in the context of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1)
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