Special Issue "Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Luca Tiano
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Guest Editor
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences (DISVA), Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
Interests: oxidative stress, ageing, mitochondrial dysfunction, bioactive quinones, Coenzyme Q10
Dr. Patrick Orlando
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Guest Editor
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences (DISVA), Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
Interests: bioactive compounds; analytical chromatography; oxidative stress; inflamation; ageing; ROS signaling
Dr. Sonia Silvestri
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Guest Editor
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences (DISVA), Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
Interests: sarcopenia; ageing; oxidative stress; phisycal activity; mitochondrial nutrients; mitochondria
Dr. Fabio Marcheggiani
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Guest Editor
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences (DISVA), Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
Interests: Skin ageing; senescence; mitochondrial dysfunction; skin inflammation; photoageing; flowcytometery; anti-aging compounds
Dr. Ilenia Cirilli
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Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino (MC), Italy
Interests: cardiovascular disease; neurodegeneration; bioactive molecules; inflammation; oxidative stress; cell biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coenzyme Q10 is an endogenous lipophilic quinone ubiquitous in biological membranes, where it exerts functions as an electron carrier and is endowed with antioxidant activities. Since its discovery in 1957 by F.L. Crane the relevance of CoQ10 for human health has been investigated in different clinical settings and its beneficial use as a drug and nutraceutical is acknowledged in diverse conditions ranging from cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular degenerative diseases, fertility, and many more. The mechanism of action of coenzyme Q10 is mainly associated with its bioenergetic role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and radical scavenging capacity of its reduced form ubiquinol, either direct or in association with other cellular reductive systems. In recent decades, the novel biological functions of coenzyme Q10 have been highlighted, including modulatory effects on gene expression and wider mitochondrial functions, such as the regulation of mitochondrial transition pore and uncoupling proteins. As an endogenous cofactor, alterations in its biosynthesis characterize severe genetic disease associated with CoQ deficiency syndrome, moreover subliminal deficit in the biosynthesis are known to be associated with the ageing process, genetic variants and different pathological conditions.

Improvement in formulation and the availability of ubiquinol has dramatically increased the bioavailability in human trials. The present issue aims to collect novel contributions on the role of CoQ10 on human health and in relation to clinical conditions and aging-related disorders, concerning (but not limited) to the following areas: Cardiovascular, degenerative diseases, sarcopenia, fertility, CoQ biosynthesis mechanisms and those interventions that modulate CoQ in health aging.

Professor Luca Tiano
Dr. Patrick Orlando
Dr. Sonia Silvestri
Dr. Fabio Marcheggiani
Dr. Ilenia Cirilli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Ageing
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Sarcopenia
  • Neuro degeneration
  • Fertility

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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Article
Coenzyme Q10 Phytosome Formulation Improves CoQ10 Bioavailability and Mitochondrial Functionality in Cultured Cells
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060927 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble molecule with a dual role: it transfers electrons in the mitochondrial transport chain by promoting the transmembrane potential exploited by the ATPase to synthesize ATP and, in its reduced form, is a membrane antioxidant. Since the high [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble molecule with a dual role: it transfers electrons in the mitochondrial transport chain by promoting the transmembrane potential exploited by the ATPase to synthesize ATP and, in its reduced form, is a membrane antioxidant. Since the high CoQ10 hydrophobicity hinders its bioavailability, several formulations have been developed to facilitate its cellular uptake. In this work, we studied the bioenergetic and antioxidant effects in I407 and H9c2 cells of a CoQ10 phytosome formulation (UBIQSOME®, UBQ). We investigated the cellular and mitochondrial content of CoQ10 and its redox state after incubation with UBQ. We studied different bioenergetic parameters, such as oxygen consumption, ATP content and mitochondrial potential. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of CoQ10 incubation on oxidative stress, membrane lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis and highlighted the connection between the intracellular concentration of CoQ10 and its antioxidant potency. Finally, we focused on the cellular mechanism that regulates UBQ internalization. We showed that the cell lines used in this work share the same uptake mechanism for UBQ, although the intestinal cell line was less efficient. Given the limitations of an in vitro model, the latter result supports that intestinal absorption is a critical step for the oral administration of Coenzyme Q10 formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
Effects of Vitamin E and Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Untrained Leisure Horses Subjected to Acute Moderate Exercise
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060908 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
The effects of antioxidant supplements on exercise-induced oxidative stress have not been investigated in untrained leisure horses. We investigated the effects of 14-day supplementation with vitamin E (1.8 IU/kg/day), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10; ubiquinone; 800 mg/day), and a combination of both [...] Read more.
The effects of antioxidant supplements on exercise-induced oxidative stress have not been investigated in untrained leisure horses. We investigated the effects of 14-day supplementation with vitamin E (1.8 IU/kg/day), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10; ubiquinone; 800 mg/day), and a combination of both (the same doses as in mono-supplementation) on the blood levels of CoQ10, vitamin E, and oxidative stress parameters in untrained leisure horses subjected to acute moderate exercise. Correlations between lipid peroxidation and muscle enzyme leakage were also determined. Forty client-owned horses were included in the study, with 10 horses in each of the antioxidant and placebo (paraffin oil) groups. Blood parameters were measured before supplementation, before and immediately after exercise, and after 24 h of rest. The differences in individual parameters between blood collection times and groups were analysed with linear mixed models (p ˂ 0.05). None of the supplemented antioxidants affected vitamin E and CoQ10 concentrations, oxidative stress parameters, or serum muscle enzymes. Lipid peroxidation occurred in horses supplemented with placebo and CoQ10 but not in horses supplemented with vitamin E or the combination of both antioxidants. These results suggest that vitamin E alone or in combination with CoQ10 prevented lipid peroxidation in untrained leisure horses subjected to acute moderate exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
Article
L-Carnosine Stimulation of Coenzyme Q10 Biosynthesis Promotes Improved Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Hepatic Steatosis in Diabetic Conditions
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050793 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes leads to oxidative stress, which drives disease progression and diabetes complications. L-carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, improves metabolic control, wound healing and kidney function in animal models of type 2 diabetes. Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a component of the [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes leads to oxidative stress, which drives disease progression and diabetes complications. L-carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, improves metabolic control, wound healing and kidney function in animal models of type 2 diabetes. Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, possesses similar protective effects on diabetes complications. We aimed to study the effect of carnosine on CoQ, and assess any synergistic effects of carnosine and CoQ on improved mitochondrial function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Carnosine enhanced CoQ gene expression and increased hepatic CoQ biosynthesis in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetes model. Co-administration of Carnosine and CoQ improved mitochondrial function, lowered ROS formation and reduced signs of oxidative stress. Our work suggests that carnosine exerts beneficial effects on hepatic CoQ synthesis and when combined with CoQ, improves mitochondrial function and cellular redox balance in the liver of diabetic mice. (4) Conclusions: L-carnosine has beneficial effects on oxidative stress both alone and in combination with CoQ on hepatic mitochondrial function in an obese type 2 diabetes mouse model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
Combined Ubisol-Q10 and Ashwagandha Root Extract Target Multiple Biochemical Mechanisms and Reduces Neurodegeneration in a Paraquat-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040563 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) region resulting in loss of movement coordination. Current therapies only provide symptomatic relief, and there is no agent to halt the progression of PD. Previously, Ubisol-Q10, a water-soluble [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) region resulting in loss of movement coordination. Current therapies only provide symptomatic relief, and there is no agent to halt the progression of PD. Previously, Ubisol-Q10, a water-soluble formulation of coenzyme-Q10, and ethanolic root extract of ashwagandha (ASH) have been shown to inhibit PD pathology in rodent models when used alone. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of oral administration of ASH and Ubisol-Q10 alone and in combination in a paraquat-induced PD rat model. The combined treatment resulted in better-preserved neuron morphology compared to Ubsiol-Q10 or ASH alone. The combination treatment enhanced activation of pro-survival astroglia and inhibited pro-inflammatory microglia. While anti-oxidative effects were seen with both agents, Ubisol-Q10 activated autophagy, whereas ashwagandha showed a better anti-inflammatory response. Thus, the combined treatment caused inhibition of oxidative stress, autophagy activation, inhibition of pro-inflammatory microglia, and activation of pro-survival astroglia. Consequently, paraquat (PQ)-treated rats given the combination treatment in drinking water did not show motor impairment. Based on these interesting observations, the combined treatment containing two well-tolerated natural compounds could be a more effective strategy to halt the progression of PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
CYP7A1, NPC1L1, ABCB1, and CD36 Polymorphisms Are Associated with Increased Serum Coenzyme Q10 after Long-Term Supplementation in Women
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030431 - 11 Mar 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential component for energy production that exhibits antioxidant activity, is considered a health-supporting and antiaging supplement. However, intervention-controlled studies have provided variable results on CoQ10 supplementation benefits, which may be attributed to individual CoQ10 [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential component for energy production that exhibits antioxidant activity, is considered a health-supporting and antiaging supplement. However, intervention-controlled studies have provided variable results on CoQ10 supplementation benefits, which may be attributed to individual CoQ10 bioavailability differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and CoQ10 serum levels after long-term supplementation. CoQ10 levels at baseline and after one year of supplementation (150 mg) were determined, and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cholesterol metabolism and CoQ10 absorption, efflux, and cellular uptake related genes were assessed. Rs2032582 (ABCB1) and rs1761667 (CD36) were significantly associated with a higher increase in CoQ10 levels in women. In addition, in women, rs3808607 (CYP7A1) and rs2072183 (NPC1L1) were significantly associated with a higher increase in CoQ10 per total cholesterol levels. Subgroup analyses showed that these four SNPs were useful for classifying high- or low-responder to CoQ10 bioavailability after long-term supplementation among women, but not in men. On the other hand, in men, no SNP was found to be significantly associated with increased serum CoQ10. These results collectively provide novel evidence on the relationship between genetics and CoQ10 bioavailability after long-term supplementation, which may help understand and assess CoQ10 supplementation effects, at least in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
Stability of Reduced and Oxidized Coenzyme Q10 in Finished Products
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030360 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 624
Abstract
The efficiency of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplements is closely associated with its content and stability in finished products. This study aimed to provide evidence-based information on the quality and stability of CoQ10 in dietary supplements and medicines. Therefore, ubiquinol, ubiquinone, and total CoQ10 [...] Read more.
The efficiency of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplements is closely associated with its content and stability in finished products. This study aimed to provide evidence-based information on the quality and stability of CoQ10 in dietary supplements and medicines. Therefore, ubiquinol, ubiquinone, and total CoQ10 contents were determined by a validated HPLC-UV method in 11 commercial products with defined or undefined CoQ10 form. Both forms were detected in almost all tested products, resulting in a total of CoQ10 content between 82% and 166% of the declared. Ubiquinol, ubiquinone, and total CoQ10 stability in these products were evaluated within three months of accelerated stability testing. Ubiquinol, which is recognized as the less stable form, was properly stabilized. Contrarily, ubiquinone degradation and/or reduction were observed during storage in almost all tested products. These reactions were also detected at ambient temperature within the products’ shelf-lives and confirmed in ubiquinone standard solutions. Ubiquinol, generated by ubiquinone reduction with vitamin C during soft-shell capsules’ storage, may lead to higher bioavailability and health outcomes. However, such conversion and inappropriate content in products, which specify ubiquinone, are unacceptable in terms of regulation. Therefore, proper CoQ10 stabilization through final formulations regardless of the used CoQ10 form is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
Ubiquinol Supplementation Improves Gender-Dependent Cerebral Vasoreactivity and Ameliorates Chronic Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020143 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Ubiquinol can protect endothelial cells from multiple mechanisms that cause endothelial damage and vascular dysfunction, thus contributing to dementia. A total of 69 participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) received either 200 mg/day ubiquinol (Ub) or placebo for 1 year. Cognitive assessment [...] Read more.
Ubiquinol can protect endothelial cells from multiple mechanisms that cause endothelial damage and vascular dysfunction, thus contributing to dementia. A total of 69 participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) received either 200 mg/day ubiquinol (Ub) or placebo for 1 year. Cognitive assessment of patients was performed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. Patients’ cerebral vasoreactivity was examined using transcranial Doppler sonography, and levels of Ub and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in plasma samples were quantified. Cell viability and necrotic cell death were determined using the microvascular endothelial cell line bEnd3. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) levels increased in patients supplemented for 1 year with ubiquinol versus baseline and the placebo group, although higher levels were observed in male patients. The higher cCoQ concentration in male patients improved cerebral vasoreactivity CRV and reduced inflammation, although the effect of Ub supplementation on neurological improvement was negligible in this study. Furthermore, plasma from Ub-supplemented patients improved the viability of endothelial cells, although only in T2DM and hypertensive patients. This suggests that ubiquinol supplementation could be recommended to reach a concentration of 5 μg/mL in plasma in MCI patients as a complement to conventional treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
Intravenous Administration of Coenzyme Q10 in Acute Period of Cerebral Ischemia Decreases Mortality by Reducing Brain Necrosis and Limiting Its Increase within 4 Days in Rat Stroke Model
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121240 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Coenzyme Q10 has a multi-targeting effect and may protect the brain against ischemic damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of ubiquinol by its intravenous administration. [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Coenzyme Q10 has a multi-targeting effect and may protect the brain against ischemic damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of ubiquinol by its intravenous administration. The study was performed on rats; a stroke was modeled by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. On days 1 and 4 after ischemia, the neurological deficit and volume of the brain lesion were determined by MRI and TTC staining. Intravenous administration of coenzyme Q10 led to a decrease in rat mortality rate, improvement in neurological status, and decrease in the brain necrosis area in acute and delayed period after cerebral ischemia. A single intravenous administration of ubiquinol led to a limitation of the size of the brain damage for at least four days after ischemia. Thus, intravenous administration of coenzyme Q10 has a persistent neuroprotective potential. This finding suggests a possible therapeutic role of ubiquinol in acute ischemic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Communication
Coenzyme Q10 Treatment Monitoring in Different Human Biological Samples
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100979 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) treatment monitoring is a matter of debate since CoQ distribution from plasma to blood cells and tissues is not fully understood. We aimed to analyze the CoQ levels in a wide set of human biological samples (plasma, blood mononuclear [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) treatment monitoring is a matter of debate since CoQ distribution from plasma to blood cells and tissues is not fully understood. We aimed to analyze the CoQ levels in a wide set of human biological samples (plasma, blood mononuclear cells (BMCs), platelets, urinary cells, and skeletal muscle) from a group of 11 healthy male runners before and after CoQ supplementation. The CoQ content in the different samples was analyzed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection. No significant differences were observed in the CoQ levels measured in the BMCs, platelets, and urine after the one-month treatment period. Plasma CoQ (expressed in absolute values and values relative to total cholesterol) significantly increased after CoQ supplementation (p = 0.003 in both cases), and the increase in CoQ in muscle approached significance (p = 0.074). CoQ levels were increased in the plasma of all supplemented subjects, and muscle CoQ levels were increased in 8 out of 10 supplemented subjects. In conclusion, the analysis of CoQ in plasma samples seems to be the best surrogate biomarker for CoQ treatment monitoring. Moreover, oral CoQ administration was effective for increasing muscle CoQ concentrations in most subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
Effect of Ubiquinol on Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration and Oxidative Stress: Studies for Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and/or Visual Function
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100952 - 03 Oct 2020
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Oxidative stress is one of major causal factors in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Ubiquinol promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival against glaucomatous insults such as oxidative stress. Here we investigated the effect of ubiquinol on RGC survival and/or visual function in mouse models of glaucoma [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is one of major causal factors in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Ubiquinol promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival against glaucomatous insults such as oxidative stress. Here we investigated the effect of ubiquinol on RGC survival and/or visual function in mouse models of glaucoma and oxidative stress. DBA/2J and age-matched DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ (D2-Gpnmb+), which do not develop intraocular pressure elevation, or C57BL/6J mice were fed with ubiquinol (1%) or control diet daily for 5 or 2 months. We assessed RGC survival by Brn3a immunohistochemistry and measured expression levels of active and total BAX, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α, transcription factor A (TFAM) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex protein. Following induction of oxidative stress by paraquat injection, we also assessed visual function. In glaucomatous retina, ubiquinol supplementation significantly promoted RGC survival, blocked BAX activation and increased TFAM and OXPHOS complex II protein expression. Also, ubiquinol supplementation ameliorated oxidative stress-induced visual dysfunction. These findings indicate that ubiquinol promotes RGC survival by increasing TFAM expression and OXPHOS complex II activity in glaucomatous neurodegeneration, and that ubiquinol enhances RGC survival and preserves visual function against oxidative stress. We propose that ubiquinol has a therapeutic potential for treating oxidative stress-associated glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Article
Ubiquinone Supplementation with 300 mg on Glycemic Control and Antioxidant Status in Athletes: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090823 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 778
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the glycemic profile, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity in athletes after 12 weeks of ubiquinone supplementation. It was a double-blinded, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-one well-trained college athletes were randomly assigned to ubiquinone (300 mg/d, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the glycemic profile, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity in athletes after 12 weeks of ubiquinone supplementation. It was a double-blinded, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-one well-trained college athletes were randomly assigned to ubiquinone (300 mg/d, n = 17) or placebo group (n = 14). The glycemic profile [fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI)], plasma and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and ubiquinone status were measured. After supplementation, the plasma ubiquinone concentration was significantly increased (p < 0.05) and the level of erythrocyte MDA was significantly lower in the ubiquinone group than in the placebo group (p < 0.01). There was a significant correlation between white blood cell (WBC) ubiquinone and glycemic parameters [HbA1c, r = −0.46, p < 0.05; HOMA-IR, r = −0.67, p < 0.01; QUICKI, r = 0.67, p < 0.01]. In addition, athletes with higher WBC ubiquinone level (≥0.5 nmol/g) showed higher erythrocyte TAC and QUICKI and lower HOMA-IR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that athletes may show a better antioxidant capacity with higher ubiquinone status after 12 weeks of supplementation, which may further improve glycemic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Review

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Review
Coenzyme Q10 and Cardiovascular Diseases
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060906 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which plays a key role in the electron transport chain by providing an adequate, efficient supply of energy, has another relevant function as an antioxidant, acting in mitochondria, other cell compartments, and plasma lipoproteins. CoQ10 deficiency [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which plays a key role in the electron transport chain by providing an adequate, efficient supply of energy, has another relevant function as an antioxidant, acting in mitochondria, other cell compartments, and plasma lipoproteins. CoQ10 deficiency is present in chronic and age-related diseases. In particular, in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), there is a reduced bioavailability of CoQ10 since statins, one of the most common lipid-lowering drugs, inhibit the common pathway shared by CoQ10 endogenous biosynthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis. Different clinical trials have analyzed the effect of CoQ10 supplementation as a treatment to ameliorate these deficiencies in the context of CVDs. In this review, we focus on recent advances in CoQ10 supplementation and the clinical implications in the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors (such as lipid and lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, or endothelial function) as well as in a therapeutic approach for the reduction of the clinical complications of CVD. Full article
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Review
Ubisol-Q10, a Nanomicellar and Water-Dispersible Formulation of Coenzyme-Q10 as a Potential Treatment for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050764 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
The world continues a desperate search for therapies that could bring hope and relief to millions suffering from progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD). With oxidative stress thought to be a core stressor, interests have long been focused on [...] Read more.
The world continues a desperate search for therapies that could bring hope and relief to millions suffering from progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD). With oxidative stress thought to be a core stressor, interests have long been focused on applying redox therapies including coenzyme-Q10. Therapeutic use has failed to show efficacy in human clinical trials due to poor bioavailability of this lipophilic compound. A nanomicellar, water-dispersible formulation of coenzyme-Q10, Ubisol-Q10, has been developed by combining coenzyme-Q10 with an amphiphilic, self-emulsifying molecule of polyoxyethanyl α-tocopheryl sebacate (derivatized vitamin E). This discovery made possible, for the first time, a proper assessment of the true therapeutic value of coenzyme-Q10. Micromolar concentrations of Ubisol-Q10 show unprecedented neuroprotection against neurotoxin exposure in in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration and was extremely effective when delivered either prior to, at the time of, and most significantly, post-neurotoxin exposure. These findings indicate a possible way forward for clinical development due to effective doses well within Federal Drug Administration guidelines. Ubisol-Q10 is a potent mobilizer of astroglia, antioxidant, senescence preventer, autophagy activator, anti-inflammatory, and mitochondrial stabilizer. Here we summarize the work with oil-soluble coenzyme-Q10, its limitations, and focus mainly on efficacy of water-soluble coenzyme-Q10 in neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Review
Coenzyme Q10 and Immune Function: An Overview
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050759 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has a number of important roles in the cell that are required for optimal functioning of the immune system. These include its essential role as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, enabling the process of oxidative phosphorylation to [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has a number of important roles in the cell that are required for optimal functioning of the immune system. These include its essential role as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, enabling the process of oxidative phosphorylation to occur with the concomitant production of ATP, together with its role as a potential lipid-soluble antioxidant, protecting the cell against free radical-induced oxidation. Furthermore, CoQ10 has also been reported to have an anti-inflammatory role via its ability to repress inflammatory gene expression. Recently, CoQ10 has also been reported to play an important function within the lysosome, an organelle central to the immune response. In view of the differing roles CoQ10 plays in the immune system, together with the reported ability of CoQ10 supplementation to improve the functioning of this system, the aim of this article is to review the current literature available on both the role of CoQ10 in human immune function and the effect of CoQ10 supplementation on this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Review
The Use of Coenzyme Q10 in Cardiovascular Diseases
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050755 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
CoQ10 is an endogenous antioxidant produced in all cells that plays an essential role in energy metabolism and antioxidant protection. CoQ10 distribution is not uniform among different organs, and the highest concentration is observed in the heart, though its levels decrease with age. [...] Read more.
CoQ10 is an endogenous antioxidant produced in all cells that plays an essential role in energy metabolism and antioxidant protection. CoQ10 distribution is not uniform among different organs, and the highest concentration is observed in the heart, though its levels decrease with age. Advanced age is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and endothelial dysfunction triggered by oxidative stress that impairs mitochondrial bioenergetic and reduces NO bioavailability, thus affecting vasodilatation. The rationale of the use of CoQ10 in cardiovascular diseases is that the loss of contractile function due to an energy depletion status in the mitochondria and reduced levels of NO for vasodilatation has been associated with low endogenous CoQ10 levels. Clinical evidence shows that CoQ10 supplementation for prolonged periods is safe, well-tolerated and significantly increases the concentration of CoQ10 in plasma up to 3–5 µg/mL. CoQ10 supplementation reduces oxidative stress and mortality from cardiovascular causes and improves clinical outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, prevents the accumulation of oxLDL in arteries, decreases vascular stiffness and hypertension, improves endothelial dysfunction by reducing the source of ROS in the vascular system and increases the NO levels for vasodilation. Full article
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Review
Therapeutic Potential and Immunomodulatory Role of Coenzyme Q10 and Its Analogues in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040600 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a mitochondrial electron carrier and a powerful lipophilic antioxidant located in membranes and plasma lipoproteins. CoQ10 is endogenously synthesized and obtained from the diet, which has raised interest in its therapeutic potential against pathologies related [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a mitochondrial electron carrier and a powerful lipophilic antioxidant located in membranes and plasma lipoproteins. CoQ10 is endogenously synthesized and obtained from the diet, which has raised interest in its therapeutic potential against pathologies related to mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced oxidative stress. Novel formulations of solubilized CoQ10 and the stabilization of reduced CoQ10 (ubiquinol) have improved its bioavailability and efficacy. Synthetic analogues with increased solubility, such as idebenone, or accumulated selectively in mitochondria, such as MitoQ, have also demonstrated promising properties. CoQ10 has shown beneficial effects in autoimmune diseases. Leukocytes from antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients exhibit an oxidative perturbation closely related to the prothrombotic status. In vivo ubiquinol supplementation in APS modulated the overexpression of inflammatory and thrombotic risk-markers. Mitochondrial abnormalities also contribute to immune dysregulation and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Idebenone and MitoQ improved clinical and immunological features of lupus-like disease in mice. Clinical trials and experimental models have further demonstrated a therapeutic role for CoQ10 in Rheumatoid Arthritis, multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. This review summarizes the effects of CoQ10 and its analogs in modulating processes involved in autoimmune disorders, highlighting the potential of these therapeutic approaches for patients with immune-mediated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Review
Metabolic Targets of Coenzyme Q10 in Mitochondria
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040520 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is classically viewed as an important endogenous antioxidant and key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. For this second function, CoQ molecules seem to be dynamically segmented in a pool attached and engulfed by the super-complexes I + [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is classically viewed as an important endogenous antioxidant and key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. For this second function, CoQ molecules seem to be dynamically segmented in a pool attached and engulfed by the super-complexes I + III, and a free pool available for complex II or any other mitochondrial enzyme that uses CoQ as a cofactor. This CoQ-free pool is, therefore, used by enzymes that link the mitochondrial respiratory chain to other pathways, such as the pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation and amino acid catabolism, glycine metabolism, proline, glyoxylate and arginine metabolism, and sulfide oxidation metabolism. Some of these mitochondrial pathways are also connected to metabolic pathways in other compartments of the cell and, consequently, CoQ could indirectly modulate metabolic pathways located outside the mitochondria. Thus, we review the most relevant findings in all these metabolic functions of CoQ and their relations with the pathomechanisms of some metabolic diseases, highlighting some future perspectives and potential therapeutic implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Review
Preventing Myocardial Injury Following Non-Cardiac Surgery: A Potential Role for Preoperative Antioxidant Therapy with Ubiquinone
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020276 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
Over 240 million non-cardiac operations occur each year and are associated with a 15–20% incidence of adverse perioperative cardiovascular events. Unfortunately, preoperative therapies that have been useful for chronic ischemic heart diseases, such as coronary artery revascularization, antiplatelet agents, and beta-blockers have failed [...] Read more.
Over 240 million non-cardiac operations occur each year and are associated with a 15–20% incidence of adverse perioperative cardiovascular events. Unfortunately, preoperative therapies that have been useful for chronic ischemic heart diseases, such as coronary artery revascularization, antiplatelet agents, and beta-blockers have failed to improve outcomes. In a pre-clinical swine model of ischemic heart disease, we showed that daily administration of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10, CoQ10) enhances the antioxidant status of mitochondria within chronically ischemic heart tissue, potentially via a PGC1α-dependent mechanism. In a randomized controlled trial, among high-risk patients undergoing elective vascular surgery, we showed that NT Pro-BNP levels are an important means of risk-stratification during the perioperative period and can be lowered with administration of CoQ10 (400 mg/day) for 3 days prior to surgery. The review provides background information for the role of oxidant stress and inflammation during high-risk operations and the potential novel application of ubiquinone as a preoperative antioxidant therapy that might reduce perioperative adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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Systematic Review
Coenzyme Q10 and Male Infertility: A Systematic Review
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060874 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Infertility affects 15% of couples worldwide. A male factor is involved in 50% of cases. The etiology of male infertility is poorly understood, but there is evidence for a strong association between oxidative stress (OS) and poor seminal fluid quality. For this reason, [...] Read more.
Infertility affects 15% of couples worldwide. A male factor is involved in 50% of cases. The etiology of male infertility is poorly understood, but there is evidence for a strong association between oxidative stress (OS) and poor seminal fluid quality. For this reason, therapy with antioxidants is one of the cornerstones of empirical treatment of male infertility. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)—an essential cofactor for energy production with major antioxidant properties—is commonly used to support spermatogenesis in idiopathic male infertility. This systematic review aims to elucidate the usefulness of CoQ10 supplementation in the treatment of male infertility, particularly with regard to semen quality assessed by conventional and advanced methods, and pregnancy rates. All studies report a beneficial effect of CoQ10 supplementation on semen parameters, although randomized controlled trials are a minority. Moreover, the optimal dosage of CoQ10 or how it can be combined with other antioxidant molecules to maximize its effect is unknown. However, CoQ10 is still one of the most promising molecules to treat idiopathic male infertility and warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Coenzyme Q10)
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