Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 47441

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Interests: periodontology; stem cells; regeneration; oral health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Interests: periodontology; stem cells; regeneration; oral health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR – Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 400019, India
Interests: fruits; diversity; traditional uses; ethnoveterinary; medicinal plants; characterization of phytochemicals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, global attention on the use of therapeutic herbs in the treatment of various oral diseases has been increasing extensively due to to their promising results and rare side effects. As explained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the majority of the world’s general population, mostly in developing nations, depend on natural remedies and traditional herbs for their main oral and systemic health care and disease treatment. Therefore, emerging countries are encouraged to integrate herbal therapies as a supplementary resource to promote the success of health care programs. The use of herbal antioxidants in oral health care can provide a promising natural therapy and protection from free-radical exposure. These antioxidants may be supplemented in their natural form or may be incorporated into bars, powders, liquids, gels, tablets or capsules. Lately, dental manufacturers and distributors have added natural antioxidant supplements into toothpastes, mouth rinses/mouthwashes, lozenges, oral gels and other dental products for the control of periodontal diseases and oral caries. The quickly progressing field of dental and oral pharmacotherapeutics has paved the way for the development of an extensive array of natural antioxidants that can have clinical advantages when used solely or adjunctive to regular oral treatments.

Prof. Dr. Christof E Dörfer
Dr. Mohamed Mekhemar
Dr. Manoj Kumar
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • oral health
  • periodontitis
  • caries
  • periodontal regeneration
  • natural oral health therapy

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2352 KiB  
Article
Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Damage in Experimental Periodontitis in Rats
by Vinicius Ruan Neves dos Santos, Deborah Ribeiro Frazão, Railson de Oliveira Ferreira, Paulo Fernando Santos Mendes, Daiane Claydes Baia-da-Silva, Deiweson Souza-Monteiro, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, João Daniel Mendonça de Moura, José Messias Perdigão, Bruno José Brito Teixeira, Everton Luiz Pompeu Varela, Gabriela de Souza Balbinot, Sandro Percário, Herve Rogez, Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares and Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Antioxidants 2022, 11(10), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11101902 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice is rich in phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity. It has been observed that the use of antioxidants may be an additional strategy to nonsurgical periodontal therapy as well as to prevent alveolar bone loss. Thus, the [...] Read more.
Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice is rich in phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity. It has been observed that the use of antioxidants may be an additional strategy to nonsurgical periodontal therapy as well as to prevent alveolar bone loss. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of açaí supplementation on experimental periodontitis in rats. Twenty male Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) rats were assigned into control, açaí, experimental periodontitis, and experimental periodontitis with açaí supplementation groups. Periodontitis was induced by placing ligatures around the lower first molars. Animals in the açaí groups received 0.01 mL/g of clarified açaí juice for 14 days by intragastric gavage. At the end of the experimental period, blood was collected to assess the reduced glutathione (GSH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels. Moreover, hemimandibles were analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for alveolar bone loss and bone quality. Açaí supplementation increased blood total antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation. It also reduced alveolar bone loss when compared to the experimental periodontitis group. Moreover, clarified açaí per se modulated the oxidative biochemistry and bone microstructure. Thus, açaí may be considered a viable alternative for managing periodontal oxidative stress and preventing alveolar bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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36 pages, 19839 KiB  
Article
Design, Characterization, and Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities of Mucoadhesive Oral Patches Loaded with Usnea barbata (L.) F. H. Wigg Ethanol Extract F-UBE-HPMC
by Violeta Popovici, Elena Matei, Georgeta Camelia Cozaru, Laura Bucur, Cerasela Elena Gîrd, Verginica Schröder, Emma Adriana Ozon, Mirela Adriana Mitu, Adina Magdalena Musuc, Simona Petrescu, Irina Atkinson, Adriana Rusu, Raul-Augustin Mitran, Mihai Anastasescu, Aureliana Caraiane, Dumitru Lupuliasa, Mariana Aschie, Eugen Dumitru and Victoria Badea
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091801 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3003
Abstract
The oral cavity’s common pathologies are tooth decay, periodontal disease, and oral cancer; oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent oral malignancy, with a high mortality rate. Our study aims to formulate, develop, characterize, and pharmacologically investigate the oral mucoadhesive patches [...] Read more.
The oral cavity’s common pathologies are tooth decay, periodontal disease, and oral cancer; oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent oral malignancy, with a high mortality rate. Our study aims to formulate, develop, characterize, and pharmacologically investigate the oral mucoadhesive patches (F-UBE-HPMC) loaded with Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg dry ethanol extract (UBE), using HPMC K100 as a film-forming polymer. Each patch contains 312 µg UBE, with a total phenolic content (TPC) of 178.849 µg and 33.924 µg usnic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed for their morphological characterization, followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Pharmacotechnical evaluation involved the measurement of the specific parameters for mucoadhesive oral patches as follows: weight uniformity, thickness, folding endurance, tensile strength, elongation, moisture content, pH, disintegration time, swelling rate, and ex vivo mucoadhesion time. Thus, each F-UBE-HPMC has 104 ± 4.31 mg, a pH = 7.05 ± 0.04, a disintegration time of 130 ± 4.14 s, a swelling ratio of 272 ± 6.31% after 6 h, and a mucoadhesion time of 102 ± 3.22 min. Then, F-UBE-HPMCs pharmacological effects were investigated using brine shrimp lethality assay (BSL assay) as a cytotoxicity prescreening test, followed by complex flow cytometry analyses on blood cell cultures and oral epithelial squamous cell carcinoma CLS-354 cell line. The results revealed significant anticancer effects by considerably increasing oxidative stress and blocking DNA synthesis in CLS-354 cancer cells. The antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27353, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 was assessed by a Resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method. The patches moderately inhibited both bacteria strains growing and displayed a significant antifungal effect, higher on C. albicans than on C. parapsilosis. All these properties lead to considering F-UBE-HPMC suitable for oral disease prevention and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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35 pages, 9329 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg Extract in Canola Oil Loaded in Bioadhesive Oral Films for Potential Applications in Oral Cavity Infections and Malignancy
by Violeta Popovici, Elena Matei, Georgeta Camelia Cozaru, Laura Bucur, Cerasela Elena Gîrd, Verginica Schröder, Emma Adriana Ozon, Oana Karampelas, Adina Magdalena Musuc, Irina Atkinson, Adriana Rusu, Simona Petrescu, Raul-Augustin Mitran, Mihai Anastasescu, Aureliana Caraiane, Dumitru Lupuliasa, Mariana Aschie and Victoria Badea
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081601 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4253
Abstract
Usnea lichens are known for their beneficial pharmacological effects with potential applications in oral medicine. This study aims to investigate the extract of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg from the Călimani Mountains in canola oil as an oral pharmaceutical formulation. In [...] Read more.
Usnea lichens are known for their beneficial pharmacological effects with potential applications in oral medicine. This study aims to investigate the extract of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg from the Călimani Mountains in canola oil as an oral pharmaceutical formulation. In the present work, bioadhesive oral films (F-UBO) with U. barbata extract in canola oil (UBO) were formulated, characterized, and evaluated, evidencing their pharmacological potential. The UBO-loaded films were analyzed using standard methods regarding physicochemical and pharmacotechnical characteristics to verify their suitability for topical administration on the oral mucosa. F-UBO suitability confirmation allowed for the investigation of antimicrobial and anticancer potential. The antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27353, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 were evaluated by a resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method. The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSL assay) was the animal model cytotoxicity prescreen, followed by flow cytometry analyses on normal blood cells and oral epithelial squamous cell carcinoma CLS-354 cell line, determining cellular apoptosis, caspase-3/7 activity, nuclear condensation and lysosomal activity, oxidative stress, cell cycle, and cell proliferation. The results indicate that a UBO-loaded bioadhesive film’s weight is 63 ± 1.79 mg. It contains 315 µg UBO, has a pH = 6.97 ± 0.01, a disintegration time of 124 ± 3.67 s, and a bioadhesion time of 86 ± 4.12 min, being suitable for topical administration on the oral mucosa. F-UBO showed moderate dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the growth of both bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, in CLS-354 tumor cells, F-UBO increased oxidative stress, diminished DNA synthesis, and induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. All these properties led to considering UBO-loaded bioadhesive oral films as a suitable phytotherapeutic formulation with potential application in oral infections and neoplasia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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13 pages, 688 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Hyaluronic Acid Adjunctive Therapy of Periodontitis on Salivary Markers of Oxidative Stress: Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial
by Iwona Olszewska-Czyz, Kristina Kralik, Marin Tota and Jelena Prpic
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010135 - 7 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
Periodontitis is a common oral disease affecting the tooth-supporting tissues. Bacteria have been long viewed as the main causative factor in its development; however, many investigations have proved that aberrant immune and inflammatory response and the resulting misbalance between the damage caused by [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a common oral disease affecting the tooth-supporting tissues. Bacteria have been long viewed as the main causative factor in its development; however, many investigations have proved that aberrant immune and inflammatory response and the resulting misbalance between the damage caused by reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant capacity of tissues may be an underlying factor in disease progression that reduces healing potential. The objective of the current trial is to assess the outcomes of the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA) to standard non-surgical periodontal therapy (NST) on some major oxidative stress markers in saliva. HA-based gel designed for dental application was used and the measurements were taken after 3 months. HA adjunctive therapy had a significantly greater increase in markers with antioxidant properties as well as total antioxidant capacity compared to standard NST alone. Furthermore, clinically measured levels of gingival inflammation (bleeding on probing-BOP) and periodontal destruction (clinical attachment loss-CAL) were significantly correlated with these markers, and the correlation was negative. This investigation demonstrates that HA may indeed express antioxidant properties and improve the antioxidant capacity of periodontal tissues, thus improving the prognosis for the teeth and the results of periodontal therapy. Further investigations will be necessary to determine the duration of these effects over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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15 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Complex Extracts of Ligularia stenocephala Matsum. & Koidz. and Secale cereale L. Sprout in Chronic Gingivitis: In Vitro Investigation and Randomized Clinical Trial
by Inpyo Hong, Jin-Young Park, Yoo-Hun Noh, Su-Hee Jeon, Jeong-Won Paik, Jung-Seok Lee, Seong-Ho Choi and Jae-Kook Cha
Antioxidants 2021, 10(10), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101586 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2589
Abstract
Complex extracts of Ligularia stenocephala Matsum. & Koidz. (LSE) and Secale cereale L. sprout (SCSE) (TEES-10®) were prepared. The purposes of the study were to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of TEES-10® in vitro and to observe resolution of gingivitis in human [...] Read more.
Complex extracts of Ligularia stenocephala Matsum. & Koidz. (LSE) and Secale cereale L. sprout (SCSE) (TEES-10®) were prepared. The purposes of the study were to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of TEES-10® in vitro and to observe resolution of gingivitis in human with oral administration of TEES-10®. The effects of TEES-10® on normal periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced PDL cell viability and the changes of inflammatory mediator expression were evaluated in vitro. In the clinical trial, 150 mg of TEES-10® powder containing capsule was administered twice daily to the test group, while the control group administered placebos in a total 100 participants with gingivitis. Probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss, gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks. Administering TEES-10® showed significant increase in PDL cell viability compared to administering LSE or SCSE alone. In addition, treating TEES-10® to LPS induced PDL cell significantly increased PDL cell viability compared to control. TEES-10® suppressed expression of NF-κB, p-ERK, ERK, COX-2, c-Fos and p-STAT and promoted expression of PPARγ in LPS induced PDL cells. In the clinical trial, significant improvement of GI and BOP was observed in the test group at 4 weeks. In addition, the number of patients diagnosed with gingivitis was significantly reduced in the test group at 4 weeks. Salivary MMP-8 and MMP-9 was also significantly decreased compared to placebo group. Within the limitations of this study, the TEES-10® would have an anti-inflammatory potential clinically in the chronic gingivitis patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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Review

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23 pages, 1540 KiB  
Review
Apitherapy and Periodontal Disease: Insights into In Vitro, In Vivo, and Clinical Studies
by Manoj Kumar, Suraj Prakash, Radha, José M. Lorenzo, Deepak Chandran, Sangram Dhumal, Abhijit Dey, Marisennayya Senapathy, Nadeem Rais, Surinder Singh, Phillip Kalkreuter, Rahul D. Damale, Suman Natta, Marthandan Vishvanathan, Sangeetha Kizhakkumkara Sathyaseelan, Sureshkumar Rajalingam, Sabareeshwari Viswanathan, Yasodha Murugesan, Muthamilselvan Muthukumar, Aravind Jayaraman, Murugasridevi Kalirajan, Samy Selim, Ryszard Amarowicz and Mohamed Mekhemaradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050823 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5292
Abstract
Periodontal diseases are caused mainly by inflammation of the gums and bones surrounding the teeth or by dysbiosis of the oral microbiome, and the Global Burden of Disease study (2019) reported that periodontal disease affects 20–50% of the global population. In recent years, [...] Read more.
Periodontal diseases are caused mainly by inflammation of the gums and bones surrounding the teeth or by dysbiosis of the oral microbiome, and the Global Burden of Disease study (2019) reported that periodontal disease affects 20–50% of the global population. In recent years, more preference has been given to natural therapies compared to synthetic drugs in the treatment of periodontal disease, and several oral care products, such as toothpaste, mouthwash, and dentifrices, have been developed comprising honeybee products, such as propolis, honey, royal jelly, and purified bee venom. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature on the treatment of periodontitis using honeybee products. A literature search was performed using various databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, and Google Scholar. A total of 31 studies were reviewed using eligibility criteria published between January 2016 and December 2021. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies (randomized clinical trials) were included. Based on the results of these studies, honeybee products, such as propolis and purified bee venom, were concluded to be effective and safe for use in the treatment of periodontitis mainly due to their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, to obtain reliable results from randomized clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of honeybee products in periodontal treatment with long-term follow-up, a broader sample size and assessment of various clinical parameters are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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34 pages, 2106 KiB  
Review
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Bioactives and Its Role in Alleviating Oral Pathologies
by Minnu Sasi, Sandeep Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Sandhya Thapa, Uma Prajapati, Yamini Tak, Sushil Changan, Vivek Saurabh, Shweta Kumari, Ashok Kumar, Muzaffar Hasan, Deepak Chandran, Radha, Sneh Punia Bangar, Sangram Dhumal, Marisennayya Senapathy, Anitha Thiyagarajan, Ahmad Alhariri, Abhijit Dey, Surinder Singh, Suraj Prakash, Ravi Pandiselvam and Mohamed Mekhemaradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111847 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 10508
Abstract
Garlic (Allium sativa L.) is a bulbous flowering plant belongs to the family of Amaryllidaceae and is a predominant horticultural crop originating from central Asia. Garlic and its products are chiefly used for culinary and therapeutic purposes in many countries. Bulbs of [...] Read more.
Garlic (Allium sativa L.) is a bulbous flowering plant belongs to the family of Amaryllidaceae and is a predominant horticultural crop originating from central Asia. Garlic and its products are chiefly used for culinary and therapeutic purposes in many countries. Bulbs of raw garlic have been investigated for their role in oral health, which are ascribed to a myriad of biologically active compounds such as alliin, allicin, methiin, S-allylcysteine (SAC), diallyl sulfide (DAS), S-ally-mercapto cysteine (SAMC), diallyl disulphide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS) and methyl allyl disulphide. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA statement. Scopus, PubMed, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Science direct databases were searched between 12 April 2021 to 4 September 2021. A total of 148 studies were included and the qualitative synthesis phytochemical profile of GE, biological activities, therapeutic applications of garlic extract (GE) in oral health care system, and its mechanism of action in curing various oral pathologies have been discussed. Furthermore, the safety of incorporation of GE as food supplements is also critically discussed. To conclude, GE could conceivably make a treatment recourse for patients suffering from diverse oral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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27 pages, 3860 KiB  
Review
Plant-Based Antioxidant Extracts and Compounds in the Management of Oral Cancer
by Suraj Prakash, Radha, Manoj Kumar, Neeraj Kumari, Mamta Thakur, Sonia Rathour, Ashok Pundir, Abhishek Kumar Sharma, Sneh Punia Bangar, Sangram Dhumal, Surinder Singh, Anitha Thiyagarajan, Anshu Sharma, Munisha Sharma, Sushil Changan, Minnu Sasi, Marisennayya Senapathy, Prakash Chandra Pradhan, Nitin Kumar Garg, Tamilselvan Ilakiya, Mukesh Nitin, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Sunil Puri, Suman Natta, Abhijit Dey, Ryszard Amarowicz and Mohamed Mekhemaradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091358 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6100
Abstract
Oral cancer continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is particularly high in developing countries, where people chew tobacco and betel nut on a regular basis. Radiation-, chemo-, targeted-, immuno-, and hormone-based therapies along with surgery are commonly [...] Read more.
Oral cancer continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is particularly high in developing countries, where people chew tobacco and betel nut on a regular basis. Radiation-, chemo-, targeted-, immuno-, and hormone-based therapies along with surgery are commonly used as part of a treatment plan. However, these treatments frequently result in various unwanted short- to long-term side effects. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop treatment options for oral cancer that have little or no adverse effects. Numerous bioactive compounds derived from various plants have recently attracted attention as therapeutic options for cancer treatment. Antioxidants found in medicinal plants, such as vitamins E, C, and A, reduce damage to the mucosa by neutralizing free radicals found in various oral mucosal lesions. Phytochemicals found in medicinal plants have the potential to modulate cellular signalling pathways that alter the cellular defence mechanisms to protect normal cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of various medicinal plants and phytoconstituents that have shown the potential to be used as oral cancer therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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32 pages, 1566 KiB  
Review
Beneficial Role of Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites from Medicinal Plants in Maintaining Oral Health
by Manoj Kumar, Suraj Prakash, Radha, Neeraj Kumari, Ashok Pundir, Sneh Punia, Vivek Saurabh, Poonam Choudhary, Sushil Changan, Sangram Dhumal, Prakash Chandra Pradhan, Omar Alajil, Sudha Singh, Neha Sharma, Tamilselvan Ilakiya, Surinder Singh and Mohamed Mekhemar
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071061 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 9227
Abstract
Plant-derived phytochemicals have been touted as viable substitutes in a variety of diseases. All over the world, dentists have turned to natural remedies for dental cure due to the negative possessions of certain antibacterial mediators used in dentistry. Antimicrobial and other drugs are [...] Read more.
Plant-derived phytochemicals have been touted as viable substitutes in a variety of diseases. All over the world, dentists have turned to natural remedies for dental cure due to the negative possessions of certain antibacterial mediators used in dentistry. Antimicrobial and other drugs are currently in use, but they show some side effects. Since ancient times, antioxidant EOs have been used for different ailments and have grown in popularity over time. Several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials have shown the safety and effectiveness of antioxidant essential oils (EOs) in oral health obtained from medicinal plants. The current review of literature provides a summary of secondary metabolites, more specifically EOs from 20 most commonly used medicinal plants and their applications in maintaining oral health. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common and preventable global infectious diseases, with diseases of the oral cavity being considered major diseases affecting a person’s health. Several clinical studies have shown a connection between oral diseases and oral microbiota. This review discusses the role of antioxidant secondary metabolites in inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens and reducing the formation of dental plaque, and as well as reducing the symptoms of oral diseases. This review article contributes a basic outline of essential oils and their healing actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Oral Health)
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