Special Issue "Antioxidant Micronutrients in Animal Diet: From Health to Meat Quality"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ana I. Rey
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Animal Production Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n., 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: vitamins; micronutrients; lipid metabolism; oxidative status; lipid oxidation; nutrition; digestive health; quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet is the main route of entry for exogenous antioxidants in the living animal. The enormous variability of food available, the particular interaction between different nutrients and those that show antioxidant activity, and the particular environment characteristics of each individual create a broad panorama of action in which the animal as an individual receives a special importance. Furthermore, the use of antioxidants through animal nutrition is one of the most used strategies, and with greater effects than administration on food, to improve the quality of products of animal origin, in terms of aspects ranging from their nutritional value to their stability, as well as characteristics which are highly appreciated by the consumer, such as their color, tenderness or aroma. Many compounds have been studied to date, and the combination of different substances is becoming more frequent in order to obtain the beneficial aspects of each, without often knowing the effects of their interaction or the real scope of their use on the wellbeing of the animal.

As guest editor, it is my pleasure to invite you to submit your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research concerning animal nutrition and the different antioxidant compounds whose addition may improve the health status of animals as well as the nutritional value and/or quality of the derived products. This research can include plant extracts, vitamins, minerals, micronutrients, etc. of natural or synthetic origin, applied at different species or physiological states relating to any of the following topics: antioxidants as an ingredient and feed stability; antioxidants in drinking water; antioxidants in nutrition and stress control; as a strategy to improve endogen antioxidants; health status; animal performances; digestive homeostasis; in vivo mechanisms of action; nutrients interactions in absorption and tissue accumulation; meat/egg quality; meat/egg nutritional value.

Dr. Ana I. Rey
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Micronutrients in animal intake (diets and water)
  • Oxidative stress
  • Physiological stress
  • Digestive homeostasis
  • Meat quality

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Feeding Broiler Chickens with Grape Seed and Skin Meals to Enhance α- and γ-Tocopherol Content and Meat Oxidative Stability
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050699 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Grape seeds (GS) and grape skins (GK) are natural sources of polyphenols with featured antioxidant capacity. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of these polyphenol sources in diets formulated to contain the same total extractable grape polyphenol content on growth performance, [...] Read more.
Grape seeds (GS) and grape skins (GK) are natural sources of polyphenols with featured antioxidant capacity. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of these polyphenol sources in diets formulated to contain the same total extractable grape polyphenol content on growth performance, protein and extractable polyphenol digestibility, plasma and meat α- and γ-tocopherol and thigh meat oxidation in broiler chickens. Five experimental diets were formulated: control, control + vitamin E (200 mg/kg), 30 g/kg GS diet, 110 g/kg GK diet, GS + GK diet (a mixture of 24.4 g/kg GS and 13.1 g/kg GK designed to simulate a reconstituted grape pomace). Feeding chickens with 110 g/kg GK reduced (p < 0.001) daily weight gain, worsened (p < 0.001) feed conversion ratio, increased (p < 0.001) non-extractable polyphenol content in the ileum and in the excreta and decreased (p < 0.05) ileal protein digestibility. Regardless of the grape polyphenol source used, the inclusion of grape byproducts in the diets led to an increase of total extractable polyphenol contents in the ileum (p < 0.01) and the excreta (p < 0.001), which resulted (p < 0.001) in a decrease of extractable polyphenol digestibilities. Alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations increased (p < 0.001) in plasma and in seven-day stored meat in birds fed the diet combining GS and GK with respect to the control group. As it happened with the vitamin E supplementation, feeding the combination of GS and GK also reduced (p < 0.001) the concentration of the lipid peroxidation marker (malondialdehyde) in the stored meat of chickens. Full article
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Article
Effect of Maternal Dietary Redox Levels on Antioxidative Status and Immunity of the Suckling Off-Spring
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030478 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
This study investigates two levels of dietary selenium (Se) and vitamin E in combination on their status in sows and their progeny, and influence on antioxidant status and immunological responses of the piglets at weaning. Female pigs (n = 6) were provided [...] Read more.
This study investigates two levels of dietary selenium (Se) and vitamin E in combination on their status in sows and their progeny, and influence on antioxidant status and immunological responses of the piglets at weaning. Female pigs (n = 6) were provided LOW or HIGH antioxidant nutrition (Se and vitamin E) from mating until weaning of their off-spring. The HIGH treatment elevated the concentration of Se (p = 0.015) and α-tocopherol (p = 0.023) in plasma of piglets compared with piglets of the LOW treatment. Treatments also affected the concentrations of milk and sow plasma immunoglobulins. Piglets from sows on the HIGH treatment had increased (p < 0.001) activity of glutathione peroxidase, lower serum levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.005), haptoglobin (p = 0.05) and albumin (p = 0.05), and the number of white blood cells (p = 0.023) and the ratio of NEU to LYM was lower (p = 0.025) than in piglets from sows on the LOW group. Furthermore, the dietary antioxidant level influenced responses of cytokines (interleukine (IL) 6 (p = 0.007), 12 (p = 0.01) and 18 (p = 0.01)) in piglets’ plasma. In conclusion, improved antioxidant status via dietary maternal provision improves the robustness of the offspring via immunomodulatory mechanisms. Full article
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Article
Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Celta Pig Carcass Locations as Affected by the Finishing Diet (Chestnuts or Commercial Feed)
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010005 - 23 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the total phenol content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and commercial feed employed in the finishing diet of the Celta pig breed and analyze the effect of the feeding [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the total phenol content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and commercial feed employed in the finishing diet of the Celta pig breed and analyze the effect of the feeding (chestnuts vs. commercial feed) in the finishing diet on total phenol content and antioxidant activity of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, Psoas major, and Biceps femoris muscles and liver of the Celta pig breed. The antioxidant activity of the feed and animal tissue was investigated using three antioxidant methods (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2-2′-Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate] (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay). The determination of the total phenol content and total flavonoids showed that chestnut had a significantly lower concentration than commercial feed in these compounds (130.00 vs. 312.89 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight and 8.58 vs. 32.18 mg catechin equivalents/100 g fresh weight, respectively). However, the results displayed that chestnuts had a higher antioxidant activity when compared with the commercial feed through the DPPH and ABTS methods (1152.42 vs. 957.33 µg Trolox equivalents/g fresh weight, and 9379.74 vs. 7613.44 µg Trolox equivalents/g fresh weight, for DPPH and ABTS assay, respectively), while the antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP assay turned out to show higher values for commercial feed (1777.49 and 1946.09 µmol Fe2+/100 fresh weight for chestnut and commercial feed, respectively), although significant differences were only found in the ABTS assay. On the other hand, the present study found that chestnut significantly reduces the total phenol content and declines the antioxidant activity of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, Psoas major, and Biceps femoris muscles and liver of the Celta pig breed. Finally, it has been found that liver is the location that has the best antioxidant characteristics compared to any muscle, regardless of diet utilized. Full article
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Article
Effect of Castor and Cashew Nut Shell Oils, Selenium and Vitamin E as Antioxidants on the Health and Meat Stability of Lambs Fed a High-Concentrate Diet
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121298 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 826
Abstract
Functional oils are known for their compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, and are used in ruminant nutrition as alternatives to chemicals in order to improve performance. This study aimed to compare the influence of castor and cashew nut shell oils with [...] Read more.
Functional oils are known for their compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, and are used in ruminant nutrition as alternatives to chemicals in order to improve performance. This study aimed to compare the influence of castor and cashew nut shell oils with pure organic selenium (hydroxy-selenomethionine) plus vitamin E, which are known and well-stablished antioxidants, on the performance traits, shelf life and microbial quality of the meat, physiological functions and oxidative stress control of lambs. Thirty-two Dorper x Santa Ines lambs (initial bodyweight of 22.42 ± 3.9 kg and 60 days of age) were submitted to a diet consisting of Cynodon dactylon hay (6%) and concentrate (94%). The animals were divided into four treatments: control, without additives; functional oils (FO), 0.50 g/kg DM of castor and cashew nut shell oils; hydroxy-selenomethionine and vitamin E (SeE), 0.50 mg/kg of organic selenium and 100 IU/kg DM of vitamin E; FO plus SeE, at the same doses as the other groups. Blood samples were collected after 1, 30 and 53 days on feed. After 54 days, the lambs were slaughtered and rumen health, carcass and meat traits, shelf life, and microbiological quality were evaluated. There were no differences in performance or carcass traits. A higher muscle and serum Se concentration (p < 0.0001), lower lipid peroxidation in meat during display (p < 0.0001), and a lower count of psychrotrophic microorganisms on day 5 were observed in the SeE and FO plus SeE groups. The treatments reduced the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, and Staphylococcus spp. FO animals showed higher GSH-Px activity on day 30, while the peroxidase activity was higher in FO plus SeE animals (p = 0.035). SeE and FO plus SeE animals had lower serum ALT and AST levels. Functional oils improved the microbiological quality of meat. Hydroxy-selenomethionine and vitamin E prevented oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and microbial spoilage. Full article
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Article
MARGRA Lamb Eating Quality and Human Health-Promoting Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Profiles of Tattykeel Australian White Sheep: Linebreeding and Gender Effects
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111118 - 12 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Health-conscious consumers increasingly demand healthier, tastier, and more nutritious meat, hence the continuous need to meet market specifications and demand for high-quality lamb. We evaluated the longissimus dorsi muscle of 147 Tattykeel Australian White (TAW) sheep fed on antioxidant-rich ryegrass pastures exclusive to [...] Read more.
Health-conscious consumers increasingly demand healthier, tastier, and more nutritious meat, hence the continuous need to meet market specifications and demand for high-quality lamb. We evaluated the longissimus dorsi muscle of 147 Tattykeel Australian White (TAW) sheep fed on antioxidant-rich ryegrass pastures exclusive to MAGRA lamb brand for meat eating quality parameters of intramuscular fat (IMF) content, fat melting point (FMP) and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). The aim was to assess the impact of linebreeding and gender on pasture-fed lamb eating quality and to test the hypothesis that variation in healthy lamb eating quality is a function of lamb gender and not its antioxidant status or inbreeding coefficient (IC). After solid-phase extraction and purification, phenolics and antioxidant enzyme activities were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. IMF and fatty acid composition were determined using solvent extraction and gas chromatography, respectively. IC was classified into low (0–5%), medium (6–10%) and high (>10%) and ranged from 0–15.6%. FMP and IMF ranged from 28 to 39 °C and 3.4% to 8.2%, with overall means of 34.6 ± 2.3 °C and 4.4 ± 0.2%, respectively, and n-3 LC-PUFA ranged from “source” to “good source” levels of 33–69 mg/100 g. Ewes had significantly (P ˂ 0.0001) higher IMF, C22:5n-3 (DPA), C22:6n-3 (DHA), C18:3n-6, C20:3, C22:4n-6, C22:5n-6, total monounsaturated (MUFA), PUFA and Σn-3 fatty acids and lower total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and FMP, than rams. As IC increased, there were no differences in FMP and IMF. Folin–Ciocalteu total phenolics, ferric reducing antioxidant power and antioxidant activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes did not differ by either gender or IC. This study provides evidence that IC is inconsequential in affecting antioxidant status, IMF, FMP and n-3 LC-PUFA in linebred and pasture-fed TAW sheep because the observed variation in individual fatty acids was mainly driven by gender differences between ewes and rams, hence the need to accept the tested hypothesis. This finding reinforces the consistent healthy eating quality of MARGRA lamb brand from TAW sheep regardless of its linebred origin. Full article
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Article
Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Drinking Water Prior to Slaughter Improves Oxidative Status, Physiological Stress, and Quality of Pork
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060559 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 administration in drinking water during lairage time prior to slaughter on physiological stress, oxidative status, and pork quality characteristics. Two experiments were carried out. The first one was performed [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 administration in drinking water during lairage time prior to slaughter on physiological stress, oxidative status, and pork quality characteristics. Two experiments were carried out. The first one was performed to examine the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in drinking water, and the second one to check the effect of supplementation dose (500,000 IU/L vs. 700,000 IU/L). Serum calcium concentration was greater in pigs receiving vitamin D3 in water when compared to the control group. In experiment 1, a 40% α-tocopherol increase in meat from the group supplemented with vitamin D3 (500,000 IU/animal) was observed, that resulted in a tendency of decreased meat malondialdehyde (MDA) values at days 5 and 8 after refrigerated storage. In experiment 2, since water intake was higher (800,000 IU and 1,120,000 IU/animal of vitamin D3 consumption) effects on oxidative status were more profound and vitamin D3 supplementation increased serum α-tocopherol and decreased cortisol and serum TBARS. These effects were also observed in meat; TBARS levels were decreased after 3 days of refrigerated storage. In both experiments meat from pigs that received vitamin D3 in drinking water had a lower proportion of total free-polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly n-6) when compared to the unsupplemented pigs, and these were positively correlated with TBARS production at day 5 of refrigerated storage (r = 0.53 and 0.38 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Meat from pigs receiving vitamin D3 in water showed reduced cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness values compared to the control group. The magnetic resonance imaging study of muscle confirmed the effects on water retention with lesser transverse relaxation time in pigs supplemented with vitamin D3. No vitamin D3 dose effect was observed, apart from muscle α-tocopherol concentration that was higher in pigs supplemented with 700,000 compared to those supplemented with 500,000 UI/L. Full article
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Review

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Review
Essential Oils in Livestock: From Health to Food Quality
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020330 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Using plant essential oils (EOs) contributes to the growing number of natural plants’ applications in livestock. Scientific data supporting the efficacy of EOs as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant molecules accumulates over time; however, the cumulative evidence is not always sufficient. EOs antioxidant properties [...] Read more.
Using plant essential oils (EOs) contributes to the growing number of natural plants’ applications in livestock. Scientific data supporting the efficacy of EOs as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant molecules accumulates over time; however, the cumulative evidence is not always sufficient. EOs antioxidant properties have been investigated mainly from human perspectives. Still, so far, our review is the first to combine the beneficial supporting properties of EOs in a One Health approach and as an animal product quality enhancer, opening new possibilities for their utilization in the livestock and nutrition sectors. We aim to compile the currently available data on the main anti-inflammatory effects of EOs, whether encapsulated or not, with a focus on mammary gland inflammation. We will also review the EOs’ antioxidant activities when given in the diet or as a food preservative to counteract oxidative stress. We emphasize EOs’ in vitro and in vivo ruminal microbiota and mechanisms of action to promote animal health and performance. Given the concept of DOHaD (Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases), supplementing animals with EOs in early life opens new perspectives in the nutrition sector. However, effective evaluation of the significant safety components is required before extending their use to livestock and veterinary medicine. Full article
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