Special Issue "Antioxidant Metabolism in Plants and Algae"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2022 | Viewed by 3414

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Shan Lu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
Interests: chloroplast; terpenoids; carotenoid; metabolism; chlorophyll
Prof. Dr. Chunyi Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Crop Functional Genomics, Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: vitamin; metabolism; biofortification; molecular interaction; signaling
Prof. Dr. Aixia Cheng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
Interests: flavonoids; terpenoids; metabolism; phenylpropanoids; liverworts

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antioxidants are small molecular weight compounds that effectively scavenge free radicals, protect cells, delay aging, and prevent diseases. Photosynthetic organisms, including higher plants, algae, and also cyanobacteria, are constantly challenged by the oxidative environment and have thus developed sophisticated metabolic and regulatory networks for the biosynthesis of antioxidants. Moreover, humans are not able to synthesize most of the antioxidants and have to uptake them as essential phytonutrients from our diets. The elucidation of the metabolic reactions and their corresponding regulations, in addition to their evolution and specialization, would expand our understanding of the natural metabolic processes and also facilitate future biofortification research for enhancing the nutritional value of staple crops.

This Special Issue aims to collect papers dealing with all aspects of antioxidants from plants (including algae and cyanobacteria), such as, but not limited to, carotenoids, anthocyanins, vitamin C, vitamin E, and phenolics. Papers describing recent developments in the molecular regulation of these metabolisms and their responses to environmental challenges will be especially welcome, although molecular cloning and functional characterization of specialized enzymes are also within the scope of this Special Issue. Because there has been a large body of reports on the bioactivity of antioxidants to humans, and there are other more suitable Special Issues in this journal opening in parallel, those physiological and/or nutritional studies, and other studies using animal systems, will not be considered.

Prof. Dr. Shan Lu
Prof. Dr. Chunyi Zhang
Prof. Dr. Aixia Cheng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • phenylpropanoid
  • carotenoid
  • vitamin C
  • vitamin E
  • phenolics
  • metabolism
  • transcription factor
  • isolation and characterization
  • biofortification
  • gene expression
  • stress response

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Molecular Regulation of Antioxidant Melatonin Biosynthesis by Brassinosteroid Acting as an Endogenous Elicitor of Melatonin Induction in Rice Seedlings
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050918 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 496
Abstract
Gibberellic acid (GA) was recently shown to induce melatonin synthesis in rice. Here, we examined whether brassinosteroids (BRs) also induce melatonin synthesis because BRs and GA show redundancy in many functions. Among several plant hormones, exogenous BR treatment induced melatonin synthesis by twofold [...] Read more.
Gibberellic acid (GA) was recently shown to induce melatonin synthesis in rice. Here, we examined whether brassinosteroids (BRs) also induce melatonin synthesis because BRs and GA show redundancy in many functions. Among several plant hormones, exogenous BR treatment induced melatonin synthesis by twofold compared to control treatment, whereas ethylene, 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) showed negligible effects on melatonin synthesis. Correspondingly, BR treatment also induced a number of melatonin biosynthetic genes in conjunction with the suppression of melatonin catabolic gene expression. Several transgenic rice plants with downregulated BR biosynthesis-related genes, such as DWARF4, DWARF11, and RAV-Like1 (RAVL1), were generated and exhibited decreased melatonin synthesis, indicating that BRs act as endogenous elicitors of melatonin synthesis. Notably, treatment with either GA or BR fully restored melatonin synthesis in the presence of paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor. Moreover, exogenous BR treatment partially restored melatonin synthesis in both RAVL1 and RNAi transgenic rice plants, whereas GA treatment fully restored melatonin synthesis comparable to wild type in RAVL1 RNAi plants. Taken together, our results highlight a role of BR as an endogenous elicitor of melatonin synthesis in a GA-independent manner in rice plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Metabolism in Plants and Algae)
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Article
Identification and Characterization of Two Bibenzyl Glycosyltransferases from the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040735 - 08 Apr 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Liverworts are rich in bibenzyls and related O-glycosides, which show antioxidant activity. However, glycosyltransferases that catalyze the glycosylation of bibenzyls have not yet been characterized. Here, we identified two bibenzyl UDP-glucosyltransferases named MpUGT737B1 and MpUGT741A1 from the model liverwort Marchantia [...] Read more.
Liverworts are rich in bibenzyls and related O-glycosides, which show antioxidant activity. However, glycosyltransferases that catalyze the glycosylation of bibenzyls have not yet been characterized. Here, we identified two bibenzyl UDP-glucosyltransferases named MpUGT737B1 and MpUGT741A1 from the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The in vitro enzymatic assay revealed that MpUGT741A1 specifically accepted the bibenzyl lunularin as substrate. MpUGT737B1 could accept bibenzyls, dihydrochalcone and phenylpropanoids as substrates, and could convert phloretin to phloretin-4-O-glucoside and phloridzin, which showed inhibitory activity against tyrosinase and antioxidant activity. The results of sugar donor selectivity showed that MpUGT737B1 and MpUGT741A1 could only accept UDP-glucose as a substrate. The expression levels of these MpUGTs were considerably increased after UV irradiation, which generally caused oxidative damage. This result indicates that MpUGT737B1 and MpUGT741A1 may play a role in plant stress adaption. Subcellular localization indicates that MpUGT737B1 and MpUGT741A1 were expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus. These enzymes should provide candidate genes for the synthesis of bioactive bibenzyl O-glucosides and the improvement of plant antioxidant capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Metabolism in Plants and Algae)
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Article
Plant Response to Cold Stress: Cold Stress Changes Antioxidant Metabolism in Heading Type Kimchi Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040700 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Cold stress is known as the important yield-limiting factor of heading type Kimchi cabbage (HtKc, Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), which is an economically important crop worldwide. However, the biochemical and molecular responses to cold stress in HtKc are largely unknown. In this [...] Read more.
Cold stress is known as the important yield-limiting factor of heading type Kimchi cabbage (HtKc, Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), which is an economically important crop worldwide. However, the biochemical and molecular responses to cold stress in HtKc are largely unknown. In this study, we conducted transcriptome analyses on HtKc grown under normal versus cold conditions to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying HtKc responses to cold stress. A total of 2131 genes (936 up-regulated and 1195 down-regulated) were identified as differentially expressed genes and were significantly annotated in the category of “response to stimulus”. In addition, cold stress caused the accumulation of polyphenolic compounds, including p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids, in HtKc by inducing the phenylpropanoid pathway. The results of the chemical-based antioxidant assay indicated that the cold-induced polyphenolic compounds improved the free-radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity, suggesting that the phenylpropanoid pathway induced by cold stress contributes to resistance to cold-induced reactive oxygen species in HtKc. Taken together, our results will serve as an important base to improve the cold tolerance in plants via enhancing the antioxidant machinery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Metabolism in Plants and Algae)
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Article
Culture Conditions Affect Antioxidant Production, Metabolism and Related Biomarkers of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020411 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyta) is a worldwide-distributed diatom with the ability to adapt and survive in different environmental habitats and nutrient-limited conditions. In this research, we investigated the growth performance, the total lipids productivity, the major categories of fatty acids, and the antioxidant content [...] Read more.
Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyta) is a worldwide-distributed diatom with the ability to adapt and survive in different environmental habitats and nutrient-limited conditions. In this research, we investigated the growth performance, the total lipids productivity, the major categories of fatty acids, and the antioxidant content in P. tricornutum subjected for 15 days to nitrogen deprivation (N−) compared to standard culture conditions (N+). Furthermore, genes and pathways related to lipid biosynthesis (i.e., glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, citrate synthase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase) and photosynthetic activity (i.e., ribulose-1,5-bisphospate carboxylase/oxygenase and fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c binding protein B) were investigated through molecular approaches. P. tricornutum grown under starvation condition (N−) increased lipids production (42.5 ± 0.19 g/100 g) and decreased secondary metabolites productivity (phenolic content: 3.071 ± 0.17 mg GAE g−1; carotenoids: 0.35 ± 0.01 mg g−1) when compared to standard culture conditions (N+). Moreover, N deprivation led to an increase in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and a decrease in genes related to photosynthesis. These results could be used as indicators of nitrogen limitation for environmental or industrial monitoring of P. tricornutum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Metabolism in Plants and Algae)
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