Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 18403

Special Issue Editors

Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Domenico Montesano, 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: bioactive compounds; polyphenols; nutraceuticals; antioxidant activity; high-performance liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; orbitrap approach
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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Domenico Montesano, 49 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: mycotoxins; antioxidants; bioactive compounds; polyphenols; mass spectrometry; waste and byproduct valorization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, University of Naples, Federico II, Via Sergio Pansini, 5 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: gene expression studies; cell biology; ROS metabolism; apoptotic pathways

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds are substances that are naturally present in foods. In recent years, they have emerged as key food components in relation to healthy living and disease prevention. Their beneficial effects on human health have been reported by many scientific studies and include protective effects on human health such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activity, as well as effects on the cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and metabolic systems.

Healthy nutrition, mainly based on fruits and vegetables, is suggested to delay or positively modulate the dynamic balance between oxidants and antioxidants. This is thanks to plant food diversity in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. These compounds are naturally present in food and commonly taken with the daily diet. However, they can also be contained in by-products derived from industries.

Nowadays, the agro-food industry generates a large amount of waste and by-products, which are often used as animal feed products or poured into the environment, contributing to soil and water pollution. Food waste disposal has relevant consequences for the environment, and the reuse of the planet's resources in an efficient and sustainable way, incorporating the logic of the circular economy, could help to limit the environmental impact of these activities. A large number of scientific studies have reported that vegetal residues still contain an important amount of health-promoting bioactive compounds including phenolics, carotenoids, vitamins, proteins, fibers, etc., that may be recovered effectively and used as value-adding ingredients in the formulation of nutraceutical products, dietary supplements, fortified foods or cosmetics.

In this Special Issue, we invite original papers and reviews that focus on the identification and quantification of active compounds present in foods, food wastes, and by-products. Articles should highlight the use of innovative methodologies, and we will promote work that reports on the characterization of the bioactivities of the compounds recovered by vegetal matrices, through both in vivo and in vitro experimental designs, using cell line tests, enzymes assays, spectrophotometric methods, etc. Special attention will be given to deep insights studies on diverse biological analyses and into the chemical characterization of matrices using analytical methodologies (such as HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, LC-MS, GC-MS, HPLC–MS and NMR).

We look forward to receiving your contributions to this Special Issue in the form of original papers, case studies, or review papers on the new opportunities to obtain valuable ingredients using food wastes and by-products.

Sincerely yours,

Dr. Luana Izzo
Dr. Luigi Castaldo
Dr. Sivia Trombetti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • antioxidants
  • food waste valorization
  • mass spectrometry
  • health-promoting compounds
  • antioxidant activity
  • in vitro assays
  • cell line tests

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3059 KiB  
Article
Plant-Wide Target Metabolomics Provides a Novel Interpretation of the Changes in Chemical Components during Dendrobium officinale Traditional Processing
by Pengfei Liu, Bei Fan, Yuwen Mu, Litao Tong, Cong Lu, Long Li, Jiameng Liu, Jing Sun and Fengzhong Wang
Antioxidants 2023, 12(11), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12111995 - 12 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The traditional processing of Dendrobium officinale (DO) is performed in five necessary processing steps: processing fresh strips, drying at 85 °C, curling, molding, and drying at 35 °C (Fengdou). The antioxidant activity of DO is increased after it is processed into Fengdou. To [...] Read more.
The traditional processing of Dendrobium officinale (DO) is performed in five necessary processing steps: processing fresh strips, drying at 85 °C, curling, molding, and drying at 35 °C (Fengdou). The antioxidant activity of DO is increased after it is processed into Fengdou. To comprehensively analyze the changes in the functional components, a plant-wide target metabolomics approach was employed. In total, 739 differential chemical components were identified in five processing treatments, mainly highlighting differences in the levels of phenolic acids, flavonoids, lipids, and amino acids and their derivatives, and the glycosylation of aglycone resulted in the upregulation of flavonoid glycoside levels. Temperature is a key factor in DO processing during production. In addition, the enrichment of specific differential chemical components was found mainly in five different metabolic pathways: glucosinolate biosynthesis, linoleic acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and ubiquinone and other terpene quinone biosynthesis. A correlation analysis clarified that total phenols and flavonoids show a significant positive correlation with antioxidant capacity. This study provides new insights into the influence of the processing processes on DO quality, which may provide guidance for the high-quality production of DO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product)
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15 pages, 1179 KiB  
Article
Influence of Post-Harvest 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Treatment and Refrigeration on Chemical Composition, Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Modifications during Storage of Abate Fétel Pears
by Paola Tedeschi, Silvia Marzocchi, Nicola Marchetti, Francisco J. Barba and Annalisa Maietti
Antioxidants 2023, 12(11), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12111955 - 2 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
‘Abate Fétel’, a winter cultivar, is the most important pear cultivar in Italy; its fruits are appreciated by consumers for their aroma, texture and balanced sweet and sour taste. Maintaining high-quality characteristics to prolong the shelf-life of fruit and preserve the sensory and [...] Read more.
‘Abate Fétel’, a winter cultivar, is the most important pear cultivar in Italy; its fruits are appreciated by consumers for their aroma, texture and balanced sweet and sour taste. Maintaining high-quality characteristics to prolong the shelf-life of fruit and preserve the sensory and nutritional quality is a priority for the food industry. The aim of our study was to test the effectiveness of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and cold storage in prolonging the shelf-life of these fruits, which were harvested at maturity at two different times. This work focused on the effects of different storage treatments and two ripening times on (i) the chemical composition of Abate Fétel pulp fruits to preserve their sweet taste and aroma and (ii) the phenolic profile composition and antioxidant activity of the peel, which is naturally rich in phytochemicals and important for the fruit’s shelf-life and in the functional food industry for its high nutritional value. Abate Fétel fruits were harvested at the optimal commercial maturity stage, first on 15 September, having been treated with 1-MCP and stored for 2 months at cold temperatures; the other fruits were harvested at the end of September and stored in a cold cell for 2 months. The fruit pulp was tested for glucose and fructose, pH, acidity and organic acids (malic, citric, fumaric and shikimic), phenolic content and phenolic compounds (chlorogenic and caffeic acids, rutin, hyperoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside and isoquercitrin), and the antioxidant activities in the fruit peels were measured. Treating the fruits with 1-MCP better preserved the phytochemical compounds compared to simple refrigeration, preserving the fruit’s quality and prolonging its shelf-life. All the treatments help to maintain the glucose and fructose content and the acidity, preserving the aroma and organoleptic characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product)
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17 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Combining Conventional Organic Solvent Extraction, Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, and Chromatographic Techniques to Obtain Pure Betanin from Beetroot for Clinical Purposes
by Davi Vieira Teixeira Da Silva, Diego dos Santos Baião, Alviclér Magalhães, Nathan Farias Almeida, Carlos Adam Conte, Jr. and Vania Margaret Flosi Paschoalin
Antioxidants 2023, 12(10), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12101823 - 2 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Red beetroot extract (E162) is a natural colorant that owes its color to betanin, its major red pigment. Betanin displays remarkable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective properties mediated by its structure and influence on gene expression. However, the betanin employed in most preclinical assays [...] Read more.
Red beetroot extract (E162) is a natural colorant that owes its color to betanin, its major red pigment. Betanin displays remarkable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective properties mediated by its structure and influence on gene expression. However, the betanin employed in most preclinical assays is a beetroot extract diluted in dextrin, not pure betanin, as no isolated compound is commercially available. This makes its use inaccurate concerning product content estimates and biological effect assessments. Herein, a combination of conventional extraction under orbital shaking and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to purify betanin by semi-preparative HPLC was performed. The employed methodology extracts betalains at over a 90% yield, achieving 1.74 ± 0.01 mg of pure betanin/g beetroot, a 41% yield from beetroot contents increasing to 50 %, considering the betalains pool. The purified betanin exhibited an 85% purity degree against 32 or 72% of a commercial standard evaluated by LC-MS or HPLC methods, respectively. The identity of purified betanin was confirmed by UV-Vis, LC-MS, and 1H NMR. The combination of a conventional extraction, UAE, and semi-preparative HPLC allowed for betanin purification with a high yield, superior purity, and almost three times more antioxidant power compared to commercial betanin, being, therefore, more suitable for clinical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product)
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15 pages, 370 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Antioxidant Stability of Meat Pâté with Allium cepa Husk Extract
by Irina Chernukha, Nadezhda Kupaeva, Daniil Khvostov, Yuliya Bogdanova, Jutta Smirnova and Elena Kotenkova
Antioxidants 2023, 12(5), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12051103 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Antioxidants play a very important role in the food industry. Recently, both science and industry have shown substantial preference for natural antioxidants, including searching for antioxidant substances from natural sources without undesirable side effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Antioxidants play a very important role in the food industry. Recently, both science and industry have shown substantial preference for natural antioxidants, including searching for antioxidant substances from natural sources without undesirable side effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding Allium cepa husk extract at a volume of 68 or 34 μL/g of unsalted blanched materials to replace 34% and 17% of the beef broth, respectively, which corresponded to a total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of 44.4 or 22.2 μmol-equiv. Q/100 g meat pté (i.e., 13.42 or 6.71 mg of quercetin/100 g meat pté), on the quality and safety indicators of the developed meat pté. The TAC according to a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and physicochemical and microbiological characteristics were determined during the storage of the meat pté. Proximal and UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS analyses were also performed. The addition of yellow onion husk ethanolic extract to the meat pté at both volumes allowed the maintenance of an increased content of antioxidants, which contributed to a decrease in the generation of secondary products of lipid peroxidation for 14 days of storage at 4 C. The results of the microbiological analyses showed that the developed meat ptés were safe according to all indicators of microbial spoilage within 10 days of production. The results supported the use of yellow onion husk extract in the food industry to contribute to improving the functionality of meat products, developing products for a healthy lifestyle, and providing clean-label foods without or with a minimal content of synthetic additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product)
14 pages, 1018 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Potential of Tamarillo Fruits—Chemical and Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis
by Miguel Rito, Joana Marques, Ricardo M. F. da Costa, Sandra Correia, Tércia Lopes, Daniel Martin, Jorge M. P. L. Canhoto, Luís A. E. Batista de Carvalho and Maria Paula M. Marques
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020536 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2641
Abstract
Native to South America, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is a small tree cultivated as a fruit crop in several regions of the world. Known for its sweet and sour taste, tamarillo fruits are very nutritious due to the presence of health-beneficial components such [...] Read more.
Native to South America, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is a small tree cultivated as a fruit crop in several regions of the world. Known for its sweet and sour taste, tamarillo fruits are very nutritious due to the presence of health-beneficial components such as fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants. Despite its nutritional value, tamarillo remains poorly known in global markets. The present work aims to study the antioxidant activity of four genotypes of tamarillo. Several chemical assays were performed to assess the antioxidant components and antioxidant activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts from each genotype. Overall, the Mealhada genotype (a red cultivar) showed the most interesting results, displaying the highest amount of total phenolic, flavonoids, and anthocyanin contents, as well as higher antioxidant activity. To evaluate the composition of the extract, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize important components in aqueous ethanolic extracts of the fruits, having revealed the presence of high amounts of phenols (the main compounds responsible for antioxidant activity), as well as triterpenoids and polysaccharides. The present results highlight the potential nutraceutical importance of tamarillo fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product)
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12 pages, 1398 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Classification of Spanish Honeydew and Blossom Honeys Based on Their Antioxidant Capacity
by Mónica Fernández-Estellé, Víctor Hernández-González, Javier Saurina, Oscar Núñez and Sonia Sentellas
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020495 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
Honey is a very appreciated product for its nutritional characteristics and its benefits for human health, comprising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. These attributes depend on the specific composition of each honey variety, with the botanical origin as one of the distinctive [...] Read more.
Honey is a very appreciated product for its nutritional characteristics and its benefits for human health, comprising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. These attributes depend on the specific composition of each honey variety, with the botanical origin as one of the distinctive features. Indeed, honeydew and blossom honeys show different physicochemical properties, being the antioxidant capacity, mainly relying on the phenolic compound content, one of the most important. In this work, Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) index, total flavonoid content (TFC), and the antioxidant capacity based on the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were determined for a total of 73 honeys (50 blossom honeys and 23 honeydew honeys). Mean content of oxidizable species (FC index) ranges from 0.17 to 0.7 mg eq. gallic acid g−1, with honeydew honeys being the ones with higher values. Regarding TFC, mean values above 1.5 mg eq. quercetin g−1 (method applied in the absence of NaNO2) were obtained for honeydew honeys and heather honey. Lower and not discriminatory values (below 0.3 mg eq. epicatechin g−1) were obtained in the presence of NaNO2. The maximum antioxidant capacity was observed for thyme honeys (2.2 mg eq. Trolox g−1) followed by honeydew and heather honeys. Individually, only the FC index was able to discriminate between honeydew and blossom honeys, while the other spectroscopic indexes tested allowed the differentiation of some honey types according to the botanical origin. Thus, a holistic treatment of the results was performed using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification purposes using FC, TFC, and FRAP results as data. Honeydew and blossom honey were satisfactorily discriminated (error 5%). In addition, blossom honeys can be perfectly classified according to their botanical origin based on two-class PLS-DA classification models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product)
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Review

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22 pages, 1577 KiB  
Review
Natural Carotenoids: Recent Advances on Separation from Microbial Biomass and Methods of Analysis
by Harris Papapostolou, Vasiliki Kachrimanidou, Maria Alexandri, Stavros Plessas, Aikaterini Papadaki and Nikolaos Kopsahelis
Antioxidants 2023, 12(5), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12051030 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4083
Abstract
Biotechnologically produced carotenoids occupy an important place in the scientific research. Owing to their role as natural pigments and their high antioxidant properties, microbial carotenoids have been proposed as alternatives to their synthetic counterparts. To this end, many studies are focusing on their [...] Read more.
Biotechnologically produced carotenoids occupy an important place in the scientific research. Owing to their role as natural pigments and their high antioxidant properties, microbial carotenoids have been proposed as alternatives to their synthetic counterparts. To this end, many studies are focusing on their efficient and sustainable production from renewable substrates. Besides the development of an efficient upstream process, their separation and purification as well as their analysis from the microbial biomass confers another important aspect. Currently, the use of organic solvents constitutes the main extraction process; however, environmental concerns along with potential toxicity towards human health necessitate the employment of “greener” techniques. Hence, many research groups are focusing on applying emerging technologies such as ultrasounds, microwaves, ionic liquids or eutectic solvents for the separation of carotenoids from microbial cells. This review aims to summarize the progress on both the biotechnological production of carotenoids and the methods for their effective extraction. In the framework of circular economy and sustainability, the focus is given on green recovery methods targeting high-value applications such as novel functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Finally, methods for carotenoids identification and quantification are also discussed in order to create a roadmap for successful carotenoids analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product)
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22 pages, 1407 KiB  
Review
Interaction between Dietary Fibre and Bioactive Compounds in Plant By-Products: Impact on Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability
by Vanesa Núñez-Gómez, Rocío González-Barrio and María Jesús Periago
Antioxidants 2023, 12(4), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040976 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3179
Abstract
In Europe, around 31 million tonnes of food by-products are generated during primary production and trade. The management of these by-products may cause a negative impact, both at the economic and environmental levels, for both industry and society. In this regard, taking into [...] Read more.
In Europe, around 31 million tonnes of food by-products are generated during primary production and trade. The management of these by-products may cause a negative impact, both at the economic and environmental levels, for both industry and society. In this regard, taking into consideration that these by-products retain the dietary fibre compositions and the bioactive compounds of the starting materials, plant food agro-industries have an interest in taking advantage of them, from a nutritional point of view. Therefore, this review evaluates the role of dietary fibre and bioactive compounds in these by-products as well as the potential interactions of both components and their implications for health, since the bioactive compounds associated with fibre may reach the colon, where they can be metabolised into postbiotic compounds, providing important health benefits (prebiotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, etc.). Consequently, this aspect, on which there are few studies, is very relevant and must be considered in the revaluation of by-products to obtain new ingredients for food processing with improved nutritional and technological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food, Food Waste, and By-Product)
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