Oxidative Stress in Microbial Infections

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2024) | Viewed by 4924

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University “G. d'Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Interests: chemical modification of natural compounds; medicinal chemistry; food chemistry; antioxidants; antimicrobials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Interests: drug design; innovative targets in medicinal chemistry; oxidative stress; drug repositioning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a bivalent role in cells, being involved in the host immune defenses against pathogens and, when overproduced, creating a highly cytotoxic milieu that contributes to direct organ/tissue damage. Thus, their production and role must be carefully modulated. Scavenging and metal chelating compounds can be used alone or in concert to currently available therapies to address this issue.

In microorganisms, redox metabolism is generally based on specific enzymatic processes, affecting their morphological and functional integrity. Thus, the counteraction of these pathways could represent a valuable therapeutic strategy to fight microbial infections. It is hardly surprising that the search for innovative antimicrobial agents, endowed with new mechanisms of action, led to the design of modulators of microbial redox balance, such as inducers of oxidative stress and inhibitors of antioxidant molecules with minimal or no interference on the host antioxidant defenses. In this way, redox-balance-targeting antimicrobials act directly or indirectly on oxidative stress in a complex interplay. Recently, co-administration or multi-targeting approaches have been proposed to treat infections, limiting oxidative damage.

Therefore, this Special Issue aims to gather studies addressing the subcellular, cellular, and molecular bases of the redox status, especially if associated with infectious diseases. Antioxidants of natural and synthetic origin can be used to limit the exacerbation of this physiological process or to stimulate the natural immune response to external harmful stimuli. It will shed light on the microbial redox system and its role in the pathogenesis of infections, along with host–pathogen interactions. It will also focus on the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents able to modulate the oxidant–antioxidant equilibrium in both pathogens and hosts.

Dr. Simone Carradori
Dr. Ilaria D'Agostino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • drug design
  • innovative targets in medicinal chemistry
  • natural products
  • antimicrobial activity
  • antioxidants and prooxidants
  • antibiofilm activity
  • oxidative stress
  • drug repositioning
  • in silico screening
  • host–pathogen interaction
  • microbiota
  • combination therapy
  • multi-target agents

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2410 KiB  
Article
Anastrozole Protects against Human Coronavirus Infection by Ameliorating the Reactive Oxygen Species–Mediated Inflammatory Response
by Eun-Bin Kwon, Buyun Kim, Young Soo Kim and Jang-Gi Choi
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010116 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
The common human coronavirus (HCoV) exhibits mild disease with upper respiratory infection and common cold symptoms. HCoV-OC43, one of the HCoVs, can be used to screen drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. We determined the antiviral effects of FDA/EMA-approved drug anastrozole (AZ) on two human [...] Read more.
The common human coronavirus (HCoV) exhibits mild disease with upper respiratory infection and common cold symptoms. HCoV-OC43, one of the HCoVs, can be used to screen drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. We determined the antiviral effects of FDA/EMA-approved drug anastrozole (AZ) on two human coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E, using MRC-5 cells in vitro. The AZ exhibited antiviral effects against HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E infection. Subsequent studies focused on HCoV-OC43, which is related to the SARS-CoV-2 family. AZ exhibited anti-viral effects and reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. It also inhibited NF-κB translocation to effectively suppress the inflammatory response. AZ reduced intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, including mitochondrial ROS and Ca2+, induced by the virus. AZ inhibited the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components and cleaved IL-1β, suggesting that it blocks NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HCoV-OC43-infected cells. Moreover, AZ enhanced cell viability and reduced the expression of cleaved gasdermin D (GSDMD), a marker of pyroptosis. Overall, we demonstrated that AZ exhibits antiviral activity against HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. We specifically focused on its efficacy against HCoV-OC43 and showed its potential to reduce inflammation, inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation, mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppress pyroptosis in infected cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Microbial Infections)
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14 pages, 6790 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Action of Arabidopsis thaliana TCP21 via Induction of Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis
by Seong-Cheol Park, A-Mi Yoon, Young-Min Kim, Min-Young Lee and Jung Ro Lee
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091767 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
The realm of antimicrobial proteins in plants is extensive but remains relatively uncharted. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the action of plant antifungal proteins (AFPs) holds promise for antifungal strategies. This study aimed to bridge this knowledge gap by comprehensively screening Arabidopsis thaliana species [...] Read more.
The realm of antimicrobial proteins in plants is extensive but remains relatively uncharted. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the action of plant antifungal proteins (AFPs) holds promise for antifungal strategies. This study aimed to bridge this knowledge gap by comprehensively screening Arabidopsis thaliana species to identify novel AFPs. Using MALDI-TOF analysis, we identified a member of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) family of transcription factors as a novel AFP, A. thaliana TCP21 (AtTCP21; accession number NP_196450). Bacterially purified recombinant AtTCP21 inhibited the growth of various pathogenic fungal cells. AtTCP21 was more potent than melittin, a well-known AFP, in combating Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Growth inhibition assays against various fungal pathogens and yeasts confirmed the pH-dependent antimicrobial activity of AtTCP21. Without inducing any membrane alterations, AtTCP21 penetrates the fungal cell wall and membrane, where it instigates a repressive milieu for fungal cell growth by generating intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxides; resulting in morphological changes and apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate the redox-regulating effects of AtTCP21 and point to its potential as an antimicrobial agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Microbial Infections)
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14 pages, 1425 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effect of Biodegradable Films Containing Pitaya (Stenocereus thurberi) Extracts during the Refrigerated Storage of Fish
by Daniela Castro-Enríquez, José M. Miranda, Marcos Trigo, Francisco Rodríguez-Félix, Santiago P. Aubourg and Jorge Barros-Velázquez
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030544 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
This study focused on the quality loss inhibition of fish muscle during refrigerated storage. Two parallel experiments were carried out that were focused on the employment of pitaya (Stenocereus thurberi) extracts in biodegradable packing films. On the one hand, a pitaya–gelatin [...] Read more.
This study focused on the quality loss inhibition of fish muscle during refrigerated storage. Two parallel experiments were carried out that were focused on the employment of pitaya (Stenocereus thurberi) extracts in biodegradable packing films. On the one hand, a pitaya–gelatin film was employed for hake (Merluccius merluccius) muscle storage. On the other hand, a pitaya–polylactic acid (PLA) film was used for Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) muscle storage. In both experiments, fish-packing systems were stored at 4 °C for 8 days. Quality loss was determined by lipid damage and microbial activity development. The presence of the pitaya extract led to an inhibitory effect (p < 0.05) on peroxide, fluorescent compound, and free fatty acid (FFA) values in the gelatin–hake system and to a lower (p < 0.05) formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, fluorescent compounds, and FFAs in the PLA–mackerel system. Additionally, the inclusion of pitaya extracts in the packing films slowed down (p < 0.05) the growth of aerobes, anaerobes, psychrotrophs, and proteolytic bacteria in the case of the pitaya–gelatin films and of aerobes, anaerobes, and proteolytic bacteria in the case of pitaya–PLA films. The current preservative effects are explained on the basis of the preservative compound presence (betalains and phenolic compounds) in the pitaya extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Microbial Infections)
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