Special Issue "Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Horticultural and Floricultural Crops".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Helder Fraga Website E-Mail
Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: grapevine; winemaking; climate modelling; crop modelling; adaptation measures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The importance of viticulture and of the winemaking socio-economic sector is largely acknowledged for many regions worldwide. The most famous winemaking regions show very specific environmental characteristics, where climate usually plays a key role. Considering the strong influence of weather and climatic factors on grapevine yields and berry quality attributes, climate change may indeed significantly impact this crop. Recent-past trends already point to a pronounced increase in the growing season mean temperatures, as well as changes on the precipitation regimes, which has been influencing wine typicity across some of the most renowned winemaking regions worldwide. Moreover, several climate scenarios give evidence for enhanced stress conditions for grapevine growth until the end of the century. Although grapevines have a high resilience, the clear evidence for significant climate change in the upcoming decades urges adaptation and mitigation measures to be taken by the sector stakeholders. The current Special Issue of Agronomy welcomes articles related to the field of climate and climate change impacts on viticulture and winemaking, including the assessment of potential adaptation measures against these threats. Field trials and/or modelling approaches (crop or climate modelling) are also valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Dr. Helder Fraga
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Viticulture
  • Winemaking
  • Climatic influence
  • Climate change
  • Adaptation measures

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Genetical, Morphological and Physicochemical Characterization of the Autochthonous Cultivar ‘Uva Rey’ (Vitis vinifera L.)
Agronomy 2019, 9(9), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9090563 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
’Uva Rey’ is considered an Andalusian (Spain) ancient autochthonous cultivar with hard white grapes used for the production of wine and raisins and also for raw consumption. Currently, this cultivar is not included in the official register of Spanish grapevine varieties and there [...] Read more.
’Uva Rey’ is considered an Andalusian (Spain) ancient autochthonous cultivar with hard white grapes used for the production of wine and raisins and also for raw consumption. Currently, this cultivar is not included in the official register of Spanish grapevine varieties and there is neither a description nor a characterization that could facilitate its insertion in this register. In order to study this genetic resource, a genetic and morphological characterization of ’Uva Rey’ has been carried out in comparison with ’Palomino Fino’, the main cultivar in Andalusia (Spain). Additionally, grape must physicochemical characterization and grape berry texture profile analyses were performed. Genetically, ’Uva Rey’ was synonymous with the cultivar ’De Rey’. ’Uva Rey’ grape must physicochemical results showed a lower sugar concentration and a higher malic acid content compared to ’Palomino Fino’ must, while the analysis of the grape berry texture profile proved to be more consistent and cohesive. These results can be attributed to the longer phenological cycle presented by ’Uva Rey’. All these facts could lead to consideration of ’Uva Rey’ as a cultivar for the production of white wines in warm climate regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle
Modelling Approach for Predicting the Impact of Changing Temperature Conditions on Grapevine Canopy Architectures
Agronomy 2019, 9(8), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9080426 - 03 Aug 2019
Abstract
Future climatic conditions might have severe effects on grapevine architecture, which will be highly relevant for vineyard management decisions on shoot positioning, pruning or cutting. This study was designed to help gaining insight into how, in particular, increasing temperatures might affect grapevine canopies. [...] Read more.
Future climatic conditions might have severe effects on grapevine architecture, which will be highly relevant for vineyard management decisions on shoot positioning, pruning or cutting. This study was designed to help gaining insight into how, in particular, increasing temperatures might affect grapevine canopies. We developed a functional-structural model for Riesling, Virtual Riesling, based on digitised data of real plants and a comprehensive state-of-the-art data analysis. The model accounts for the variability in temperature-sensitive morphological processes, such as bud break and appearance rates. Our simulation study using historical weather data revealed significant effects of the thermal time course over the year on bud burst of the cane and on primary shoots. High variabilities in these events affect canopy growth and leaf area distribution. This report shows that Virtual Riesling can be useful in assessing the significance of changing temperatures for grapevine architecture and thereby considering management techniques such as vertical shoot positioning. Further developments of Virtual Riesling might support the knowledge gain for developing necessary adaptations in future vineyard management and, thus, facilitate future work on climate change research using functional-structural model approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Possible Decadal-Scale Cold Waves on Viticulture over Europe in a Context of Global Warming
Agronomy 2019, 9(7), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9070397 - 18 Jul 2019
Abstract
A comprehensive analysis of all the possible impacts of future climate change is crucial for strategic plans of adaptation for viticulture. Assessments of future climate are generally based on the ensemble mean of state-of-the-art climate model projections, which prefigures a gradual warming over [...] Read more.
A comprehensive analysis of all the possible impacts of future climate change is crucial for strategic plans of adaptation for viticulture. Assessments of future climate are generally based on the ensemble mean of state-of-the-art climate model projections, which prefigures a gradual warming over Europe for the 21st century. However, a few models project single or multiple O(10) year temperature drops over the North Atlantic due to a collapsing subpolar gyre (SPG) oceanic convection. The occurrence of these decadal-scale “cold waves” may have strong repercussions over the continent, yet their actual impact is ruled out in a multi-model ensemble mean analysis. Here, we investigate these potential implications for viticulture over Europe by coupling dynamical downscaled EUR-CORDEX temperature projections for the representative concentration pathways (RCP)4.5 scenario from seven different climate models—including CSIRO-Mk3-6-0 exhibiting a SPG convection collapse—with three different phenological models simulating the main developmental stages of the grapevine. The 21st century temperature increase projected by all the models leads to an anticipation of all the developmental stages of the grapevine, shifting the optimal region for a given grapevine variety northward, and making climatic conditions suitable for high-quality wine production in some European regions that are currently not. However, in the CSIRO-Mk3-6-0 model, this long-term warming trend is suddenly interrupted by decadal-scale cold waves, abruptly pushing the suitability pattern back to conditions that are very similar to the present. These findings are crucial for winemakers in the evaluation of proper strategies to face climate change, and, overall, provide additional information for long-term plans of adaptation, which, so far, are mainly oriented towards the possibility of continuous warming conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Reflectance Indices to Assess Vine Water Status under Mild to Moderate Water Deficits
Agronomy 2019, 9(7), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9070346 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
The monitoring of vine water status is of interest for irrigation management in order to improve water use while optimizing both berry yield and quality. Remote-sensing techniques might provide accurate, rapid, and non-destructive estimates of vine water status. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
The monitoring of vine water status is of interest for irrigation management in order to improve water use while optimizing both berry yield and quality. Remote-sensing techniques might provide accurate, rapid, and non-destructive estimates of vine water status. The objective of this study was to test the capability of the reflectance-based water index (WI) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) to characterize Vitis vinifera L. cv. Xarel·lo water status under mild to moderate water deficits. The study was conducted at the leaf level in irrigated potted plants and at the plant level on five commercial rain-fed vineyards in 2009 and 2010. In potted plants, the reflectance indices PRI and WI closely tracked variation in the leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT) with r2 = 0.81 and r2 = 0.83, for WI and PRI, respectively (p < 0.01). In addition, in potted plants, both PRI and WI showed significant relationships with light-use efficiency (LUE)—calculated as the ratio between net CO2 assimilation rate (An) and incident photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) at the leaf surface—with r2 = 0.92 and r2 = 0.74 for PRI and WI, respectively. At the canopy level, vine predawn water potential (Ψpd) was related to the canopy-to-air temperature difference (ΔTm) across years (r2 = 0.37, p < 0.05). In the years of study, the relationships between PRI and WI showed variable degrees of correlation against Ψpd and ΔTm. Across years, PRI and WI showed significant relationships with Ψpd, with r2 = 0.41 and r2 = 0.37 (p < 0.01), for WI and PRI, respectively. Indices formulated to account for variation in canopy structure (i.e., PRInorm and WInorm) showed similar degrees of correlation against Ψpd to their original formulations. In addition, PRI and WI were capable of differentiating (p < 0.01) between mild (Ψpd > −0.4 MPa) and moderate (Ψpd < −0.4 MPa) water deficits, and a similar response was observed when PRInorm and WInorm—formulated to account for variation in canopy structure—were considered. Thus, at the leaf level, our result suggest that WI and PRI can be used to adequately predict the diurnal dynamics of stomatal aperture and transpiration. In addition, at the canopy level, PRI and WI effectively differentiated vines under mild water deficits from those experiencing moderate water deficits. Thus, our results show the capability of WI and PRI in characterizing vine water status under mild to moderate water deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Elevated CO2 Levels Impact Fitness Traits of Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret, but Not Its Parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard
Agronomy 2019, 9(6), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060326 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the primary factors driving climate change impacts on plants, pests, and natural enemies. The present study reports the effects of different atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and its parasitoid [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the primary factors driving climate change impacts on plants, pests, and natural enemies. The present study reports the effects of different atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and its parasitoid wasp Leptomastix dactylopii (Howard). We investigated the life-history parameters of both species on grapevine Vitis vinifera (L.) plants grown under elevated (eCO2) and ambient (aCO2) CO2 levels in a greenhouse and in a vineyard free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) facility. The greenhouse experiments with an eCO2 level of around 800 ppm showed a significant increase in survival rates, a strong trend towards declining body size, and an increasing fecundity of female mealybugs, while fertility and development time did not change. However, none of these parameters were altered by different CO2 concentrations in the VineyardFACE facility (eCO2 level around 450 ppm). On the other hand, the parasitism success, development time and sex ratio of L. dactylopii, reared on P. ficus under eCO2 or aCO2, varied neither in the greenhouse nor in the FACE facility. These results suggest that future CO2 levels might cause small-scale changes in vine mealybug fitness; however, this is not necessarily reflected by parasitoid performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Transpirant Effects on Vine Physiology, Berry and Wine Composition of cv. Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L.) Grown in South Italy
Agronomy 2019, 9(5), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9050244 - 14 May 2019
Abstract
In viticulture, global warming requires reconsideration of current production models. At the base of this need there are some emerging phenomena: modification of phenological phases; acceleration of the maturation process of grapes, with significant increases in the concentration of sugar musts; decoupling between [...] Read more.
In viticulture, global warming requires reconsideration of current production models. At the base of this need there are some emerging phenomena: modification of phenological phases; acceleration of the maturation process of grapes, with significant increases in the concentration of sugar musts; decoupling between technological grape maturity and phenolic maturity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a natural anti-transpirant on grapevine physiology, berry, and wine composition of Aglianico cultivar. For two years, Aglianico vines were treated at veraison with the anti-transpirant Vapor Gard and compared with a control sprayed with only water. A bunch thinning was also applied to both treatments. The effectiveness of Vapor Gard were assessed through measurements of net photosynthesis and transpiration and analyzing the vegetative, productive and qualitative parameters. The results demonstrate that the application of anti-transpirant reduced assimilation and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, berry sugar accumulation, and wine alcohol content. No significant differences between treatments were observed for other berry and wine compositional parameters. This method may be a useful tool to reduce berry sugar content and to produce wines with a lower alcohol content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Grapevine Phenology of cv. Touriga Franca and Touriga Nacional in the Douro Wine Region: Modelling and Climate Change Projections
Agronomy 2019, 9(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9040210 - 25 Apr 2019
Abstract
Projections of grapevine phenophases under future climate change scenarios are strategic decision support tools for viticulturists and wine producers. Several phenological models are tested for budburst, flowering, and veraison and for two main grapevine varieties (cv. Touriga Franca and Touriga Nacional) growing [...] Read more.
Projections of grapevine phenophases under future climate change scenarios are strategic decision support tools for viticulturists and wine producers. Several phenological models are tested for budburst, flowering, and veraison and for two main grapevine varieties (cv. Touriga Franca and Touriga Nacional) growing in the Douro Demarcated Region. Four forcing models (Growing degree-days, Richardson, Sigmoid, and Wang) and three dormancy models (Bidabe, Smoothed Utah and Chuine), with different parameterizations and combinations, are used. New datasets, combing phenology with weather station data, widespread over the Douro wine region, were used for this purpose. The eight best performing models and parameterizations were selected for each phenophase and variety, based on performance metrics. For both cultivars, results revealed moderate performances (0.4 < R2 < 0.7) for budburst, while high performances (R2 > 0.7) were found for flowering and veraison, particularly when Growing degree-days or Sigmoid models are used, respectively. Climate change projections were based on a two-member climate model ensemble from the EURO-CORDEX project under RCP4.5. Projections depicted an anticipation of phenophase timings by 6, 8 or 10–12 days until the end of the century for budburst, flowering, and veraison, respectively. The inter-model variability is of approximately 2–4 days for flowering and veraison and 4–6 days for budburst. These results establish grounds for the implementation of a decision support system for monitoring and short-term prediction of grapevine phenology, thus promoting a more efficient viticulture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Natural Hail on the Growth, Physiological Characteristics, Yield, and Quality of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless under Mediterranean Growing Conditions
Agronomy 2019, 9(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9040197 - 17 Apr 2019
Abstract
Hailstorms are typically localized events, and very little is known about their effect on crops. The objective of this study was to examine the physiological and vine performance responses to natural hail, registered four weeks after full bloom, of field-grown Thompson seedless ( [...] Read more.
Hailstorms are typically localized events, and very little is known about their effect on crops. The objective of this study was to examine the physiological and vine performance responses to natural hail, registered four weeks after full bloom, of field-grown Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines, one of the most important table grape varieties cultivated in Greece and especially in the Corinthian region in northeastern Peloponnese. Leaf gas exchange, vegetative growth, vine balance indices, cane wood reserves, yield components, and fruit chemical composition were recorded from hail-damaged vines and compared with control vines. Visibly, the extent of the hailstorm damage was great enough to injure or remove leaves as well as cause partial stem bruising and partial injury or total cracking of berries. Our results indicated that natural hail did not affect leaf photosynthesis, berry weight, total acidity, and cane wood reserves but significantly reduced the total leaf area, yield, and the total phenolics of berries at harvest. At the same time, hail-damaged vines increased the leaf area of lateral canes and presented a higher total soluble solid (TSS) accumulation, while no effect on the next year’s fertility was registered. The present work is the first attempt to enhance our understanding of the vegetative yield, berry quality, and physiological responses of grapevines to natural hail, which is an extreme and complex natural phenomenon that is likely to increase due to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Semi-Minimal Pruned Hedge: A Potential Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in Viticulture
Agronomy 2019, 9(4), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9040173 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The low-input viticultural training system ‘Semi-minimal pruned hedge’ (SMPH) is progressively being more widely applied in the Central European grapegrowing regions. The present study examined the influence of (i) the training system (SMPH versus the vertical shoot position (VSP) system), (ii) the timing [...] Read more.
The low-input viticultural training system ‘Semi-minimal pruned hedge’ (SMPH) is progressively being more widely applied in the Central European grapegrowing regions. The present study examined the influence of (i) the training system (SMPH versus the vertical shoot position (VSP) system), (ii) the timing of shoot topping in SMPH, and (iii) the effects of mechanical thinning in SMPH on the bunch rot epidemic, grape maturity, and yield. Six-year field trials on Pinot blanc in Luxembourg demonstrated that yield levels in non-thinned SMPH treatments were 74% higher, and total soluble solids (TSS) at harvest 2.2 brix lower than in VSP. Non-thinned SMPH delayed the bunch rot epidemic and the maturity progress by 18 and 11 days compared to VSP, respectively. Different shoot-topping timings in SMPH did not affect the tested parameters. Mechanical thinning regimes reduced the yield by 28% (moderate thinning) and 53% (severe thinning) compared to non-thinned SMPH and increased TSS by 0.8 and 1.3 brix, respectively. Delayed bunch rot epidemic and maturity progress give rise to the opportunity for a longer maturity period in cooler conditions, making this system of particular interest in future, warmer climatic conditions. Providing that yield levels are managed properly, SMPH might represent an interesting climate change adaptation strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Anthocyanin Accumulation and Color Development of ‘Benitaka’ Table Grape Subjected to Exogenous Abscisic Acid Application at Different Timings of Ripening
Agronomy 2019, 9(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9040164 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In colored table grapes, the anthocyanin contents are inhibited by the high temperature during ripening and berries suffer a lack of skin color, thus affecting their market value. In order to overcome this issue, a research study was planned to evaluate the influence [...] Read more.
In colored table grapes, the anthocyanin contents are inhibited by the high temperature during ripening and berries suffer a lack of skin color, thus affecting their market value. In order to overcome this issue, a research study was planned to evaluate the influence of (S)-cis-abscisic acid (S-ABA) on rates of anthocyanin accumulation in table grapes when applied at different timings of ripening, and to quantify the gradual increase of berry color. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard of ‘Benitaka’ table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), grown under double annual cropping system in a subtropical area. The trials were carried out during two consecutive seasons (i.e., summer season of 2015 and off-season of 2016). The treatments used for the experiments contained 400 mg L−1 S-ABA applied at different timings of veraison (the onset of ripening), as follows: control (with no application); at pre-veraison (PRV); at veraison (V); and at post-veraison (POV). For all S-ABA treatments, a second application was performed 10 days after the first application. Berries were analyzed for weekly and daily anthocyanin accumulations, weekly and daily color index development (CIRG), total soluble solids (TSS) content, titratable acidity (TA), and maturation index (TSS/TA). Grapes subjected to exogenous application of S-ABA at any time of veraison, especially at PRV or at V, significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation as well as berry color index development. Other chemical properties of grapes (i.e., TSS, TA, and TSS/TA evolution) were not affected by the use of S-ABA and followed a predictable pattern in relation to days of berries ripening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Variability among Young Table Grape Cultivars in Response to Water Deficit and Water Use Efficiency
Agronomy 2019, 9(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9030135 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Climate change will lead to higher frequencies and durations of water limitations during the growing season, which may affect table grape yield. The aim of this experiment was to determine the variability among 3-year old table grape cultivars under the influence of prolonged [...] Read more.
Climate change will lead to higher frequencies and durations of water limitations during the growing season, which may affect table grape yield. The aim of this experiment was to determine the variability among 3-year old table grape cultivars under the influence of prolonged water deficit during fruit development on gas exchange, growth, and water use efficiency. Six own rooted, potted table grape cultivars (cv. ‘Muscat Bleu’, ‘Fanny’, ‘Nero’, ‘Palatina’, ‘Crimson Seedless’ and ‘Thompson Seedless’) were subjected to three water deficit treatments (Control treatment with daily irrigation to 75% of available water capacity (AWC), moderate (50% AWC), and severe water deficit treatment (25% AWC)) for three consecutive years during vegetative growth/fruit development. Water deficit reduced assimilation, stomatal conductance, and transpiration, and increased water use efficiencies (WUE) with severity of water limitation. While leaf area and number of leaves were not affected by treatments in any of the tested cultivars, the response of specific leaf area to water deficit depended on the cultivar. Plant dry mass decreased with increasing water limitation. Overall, high variability of cultivars to gas exchange and water use efficiencies in response to water limitation was observed. ’Palatina’ was the cultivar having a high productivity (high net assimilation) and low water use (low stomatal conductance) and the cultivar ‘Fanny’ was characterized by the highest amount of total annual dry mass as well as the highest total dry mass production per water supplied during the experiment (WUEDM). Hence, ‘Fanny’ and ‘Palatina’ have shown to be cultivars able to cope with water limiting conditions and should be extensively tested in further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Description and Preliminary Simulations with the Italian Vineyard Integrated Numerical Model for Estimating Physiological Values (IVINE)
Agronomy 2019, 9(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9020094 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The numerical crop growth model Italian Vineyard Integrated Numerical model for Estimating physiological values (IVINE) was developed in order to evaluate environmental forcing effects on vine growth. The IVINE model simulates vine growth processes with parameterizations, allowing the understanding of plant conditions at [...] Read more.
The numerical crop growth model Italian Vineyard Integrated Numerical model for Estimating physiological values (IVINE) was developed in order to evaluate environmental forcing effects on vine growth. The IVINE model simulates vine growth processes with parameterizations, allowing the understanding of plant conditions at a vineyard scale. It requires a set of meteorology data and soil water status as boundary conditions. The primary model outputs are main phenological stages, leaf development, yield, and sugar concentration. The model requires setting some variety information depending on the cultivar: At present, IVINE is optimized for Vitis vinifera L. Nebbiolo, a variety grown mostly in the Piedmont region (northwestern Italy). In order to evaluate the model accuracy, IVINE was validated using experimental observations gathered in Piedmontese vineyards, showing performances similar or slightly better than those of other widely used crop models. The results of a sensitivity analysis performed to highlight the effects of the variations of air temperature and soil water potential input variables on IVINE outputs showed that most phenological stages anticipated with increasing temperatures, while berry sugar content saturated at about 25.5 °Bx. Long-term (60 years, in the period 1950–2009) simulations performed over a Piedmontese subregion showed statistically significant variations of most IVINE output variables, with larger time trend slopes referring to the most recent 30-year period (1980–2009), thus confirming that ongoing climate change started influencing Piedmontese vineyards in 1980. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
An Update on the Impact of Climate Change in Viticulture and Potential Adaptations
Agronomy 2019, 9(9), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9090514 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Climate change will impose increasingly warm and dry conditions on vineyards. Wine quality and yield are strongly influenced by climatic conditions and depend on complex interactions between temperatures, water availability, plant material, and viticultural techniques. In established winegrowing regions, growers have optimized yield [...] Read more.
Climate change will impose increasingly warm and dry conditions on vineyards. Wine quality and yield are strongly influenced by climatic conditions and depend on complex interactions between temperatures, water availability, plant material, and viticultural techniques. In established winegrowing regions, growers have optimized yield and quality by choosing plant material and viticultural techniques according to local climatic conditions, but as the climate changes, these will need to be adjusted. Adaptations to higher temperatures include changing plant material (e.g., rootstocks, cultivars and clones) and modifying viticultural techniques (e.g., changing trunk height, leaf area to fruit weight ratio, timing of pruning) such that harvest dates are maintained in the optimal period at the end of September or early October in the Northern Hemisphere. Vineyards can be made more resilient to drought by planting drought resistant plant material, modifying training systems (e.g., goblet bush vines, or trellised vineyards at wider row spacing), or selecting soils with greater soil water holding capacity. While most vineyards in Europe are currently dry-farmed, irrigation may also be an option to grow sustainable yields under increasingly dry conditions but consideration must be given to associated impacts on water resources and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture and Winemaking under Climate Change)
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