Special Issue "Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Innovative Cropping Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 6974

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Andrey Georgievich Koshchaev
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, Kuban State Agrarian University, 350004 Krasnodar, Russia
Interests: functional feed additives; pharmacology; toxicology; biological value; poultry; resource-saving technology; probiotics; prebiotics; vitamin preparations
Dr. Irina M. Donnik
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Infectious and Non-communicable Pathology, Ural State Agrarian University, 620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia
Interests: infectious animal diseases; animal leukemia; antibiotic resistance; physiology of farm animals
Dr. Viktor Stanislavovich Kukhar
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering Technology, Ural State Agrarian University, 620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia
Interests: nanotechnology; agricultural robots; bioethanol; renewable energy sources; agriculture; agricultural production; factor analysis model
Dr. Dzintra Dēķena
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Unit of Agronomic Research and Variety Testing, Institute of Horticulture (LatHort), Graudu Str. 1, Dobele LV-3701, Latvia
Interests: Prunus; Vitis; cultivars; rootstocks; genetic resources; winter hardiness; biochemical content; generative parameters

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New interesting scientific approaches and solutions to the main problems of crop production and animal husbandry are currently emerging in all agriculture branches. Crop production and animal husbandry are the main branches of agricultural production ensuring food security on our planet. At the present time, special attention is being paid to the issues of obtaining environmentally friendly and safe products as well as the development of offers reducing the impact of specific factors—seasonality, weather conditions, etc.

Modern animal husbandry dictates new approaches to the development of genomic technologies in animal breeding, ensuring high productivity, quality, and safety of animal products.

The development of genomic and marker breeding of animals makes it possible to predict the breeding value of animals and quickly obtain animals with the specified characteristics of productivity and product quality and resistance to various diseases in addition to reducing the spread of undesired genetic mutations in the population. In solving the problems of accelerated breeding, creating new breeds, lines, and types of animals, the methods of genomic evaluation, embryo transfer, genomic editing, and in vitro fertilization along with the development of breeding programs are highly effective. At present, there is intensive development of genomic research in this direction.

In recent decades, the main problems of a possible reduction in the yield of agricultural plants and animal productivity and longevity as well as the decrease in the quality of the obtained products are clearly visible. These are influenced by climate change, sharp deterioration in the environment, decrease in fertility and soil degradation, irrational use of natural resources, uneven distribution of productive forces, and stark differences in energy availability, resource availability, and the availability and use of modern adaptive resource-saving, environmental, and environmental-oriented agricultural production technologies. Nevertheless, due to various objective and subjective reasons, these areas have different levels of development, both in individual countries and around the world. Therefore, the acquisition of new scientific data in the field of crop and animal husbandry and the widespread expansion of best practices and knowledge remain the most relevant at the present stage. The world’s population is constantly growing, and ensuring the need for human food and animal feed has been and will remain a priority and strategic direction for the development of agriculture.

A certain result has already been achieved in this direction. New scientific and theoretical approaches have been developed to regulate the productivity of agricultural plants and reduce the dependence on any factors. To maximize the profit for farm enterprises, new approaches are proposed, including methods of cultivation diagnostics, varietal agricultural techniques, and use of adapted genotypes, among others.

Hence, this Special Issue is devoted to the issues of innovative technologies in crop production and animal husbandry; the submission of scientific articles or reviews covering a wide range of fundamental and applied scientific research, including genetics, animal science, virology, microbiology, immunology, food processing technology, pharmacology, as well as those of particular interest to the scientific community and farm enterprises are welcome for consideration. Of particular interest are discussions of gene technologies in the field of breeding and gene editing of farm animals, modern methods for ensuring the epizootic well-being of livestock farms, improving the productivity, quality, and safety of livestock products, and methods for the containment and control of the spread of antibiotic resistance. 

We look forward to receiving your contributions to our Special Issue “Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry”.

Prof. Dr. Andrey Georgievich Koshchaev
Dr. Irina M. Donnik
Dr. Viktor Stanislavovich Kukhar
Dr. Dzintra Dēķena
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • agricultural plants (genotypes)
  • agrochemistry
  • agricultural engineering
  • agrometeorology
  • physiological–biochemical and genetic methods
  • biotechnology
  • breeding and seed production
  • plant biologization
  • organic farming
  • infectious diseases of animals
  • animal leukemia
  • antibiotic resistance
  • physiology of farm animals
  • gene technologies
  • quality of agricultural products
  • ecology
  • genomic research
  • gene editing
  • gene knockout
  • CRISPR/Cas9
  • animal breeding
  • mutations
  • infectious diseases
  • animal productivity
  • antibiotic resistance
  • antibiotics
  • medicines
  • animal products
  • biological safety
  • plant breeding
  • plant protection
  • innovative garden care systems
  • the effect of soil

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Determination of Minimum Doses of Imazamox for Controlling Xanthium strumarium L. and Chenopodium album L. in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071557 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 412
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the minimum doses of the imazamox active ingredient (ai) that provide satisfactory efficacy (>90%) against fat hen (Chenopodium album L.) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.). These two weeds are among the most troublesome weeds [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the minimum doses of the imazamox active ingredient (ai) that provide satisfactory efficacy (>90%) against fat hen (Chenopodium album L.) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.). These two weeds are among the most troublesome weeds of bean fields. The minimum dose studies were carried out separately in the 2–4 and 6–8 true leaf stages of both weeds. The experiments were carried out in pots under greenhouse conditions. The experiments were repeated three times. In the first two experiments, the recommended dose of imazamox (100%) together with 75%, 50% and 25% doses were applied to the weeds during the above-mentioned leaf stages. Some pots were left untreated for control. In the third experiments, 12.50% and 6.25% of the recommended doses were also tested. Plant height and the number of leaves were recorded on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days following the herbicide application. As a result of the studies, it was determined that nearly half the recommended dose (48.18 g ai/da) provides 90% success in the control of common cocklebur (X. strumarium) when applied at the 2–4 true leaf stages, while a lower dose (36.11 g ai/da) is required for obtaining the same control when applied at the 6–8 true leaf stages. For the fat hen (C. album), only a 17.69 g ai/da application dose was found to provide 90% control at the period of 2–4 true leaves, while 21.21 g ai/da was noted to provide 90% control when applied at the 6–8 true leaf stage. The results suggest that the increase in leaf area reduces the imazamox requirement for the control of X. strumarium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry)
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Article
Dynamic Arches Destruction by a Bulk Material Flow Separator: A Case Study of the Separator Usage in Microwave Grain Processing Plants
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12050997 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Hoppers for unloading bulk materials are an indispensable feature of many technological machines and not only those employed in agricultural production. One of the problems in the operation of hoppers is the appearance of dynamic arches which make the outflow of grain uneven. [...] Read more.
Hoppers for unloading bulk materials are an indispensable feature of many technological machines and not only those employed in agricultural production. One of the problems in the operation of hoppers is the appearance of dynamic arches which make the outflow of grain uneven. Experimental studies have previously shown that the formation of dynamic arches creates an uneven outflow of grain along the vertical zones of outlet hoppers. This can lead to the processing mode violation of bulk material and loss of machine productivity. This paper theoretically shows that the use of arch-breaking devices with an element oscillating in the grain layer requires systems for automatic adjustment of oscillation frequency. This complicates the design and makes it more expensive. It is proposed to amend the type of material outflow as it moves along the hopper’s height to solve this problem. The possibility of employing this approach has been tested on the use of a bulk material flow separator in the outlet hopper. The bulk material flow separator is made in a plate form and is installed rigidly between two opposite walls of the outlet hopper. Thus, the volume of the hopper is divided into two vertical equal parts. With the help of experimental studies, it was determined that the lower side of the bulk material flow separator should be at a distance of 0.3 of the total hopper height from the discharge opening, while the upper side of the separator should be at a distance of 0.25 of the hopper’s height from the top edge of the hopper. The experimental verification of flow separator use confirmed its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry)
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Article
Study of Raspberry Genotypes by Biologically Valuable Traits under Conditions of Central Russia
Agronomy 2022, 12(3), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12030630 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
In Central Russia, the area of possible effective use of raspberry varieties and their productivity and production values are determined by the plant tolerance to a complex of adverse environmental factors. In this regard, the introduction of new varieties and hybrids should be [...] Read more.
In Central Russia, the area of possible effective use of raspberry varieties and their productivity and production values are determined by the plant tolerance to a complex of adverse environmental factors. In this regard, the introduction of new varieties and hybrids should be accompanied by analyzing not only their productivity, but also their winter hardiness and drought resistance. In this paper, we analyzed the winter hardiness of raspberry varieties and indicators of their water regime in the field. By modeling the damaging factors of the winter period, we revealed the stability potential of raspberry varieties for the main components of winter hardiness. The drought resistance of raspberry varieties and forms were assessed in laboratory conditions. According to the results of the complex studies, we identified the frost-resistant accessions: 9-17, 9-35, and 9-70 (freezing ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 points) as well as the medium-hardy varieties Glen Ample, Glen Magna, and Laszka (freezing score ranged from 2.1 to 3.0 points). The indicators of the water regime in the field showed that during the growing season, the studied raspberry varieties were characterized by optimal hydration and water deficiency of the leaf apparatus. This positively affected the yield formation. When modeling drought, raspberry genotypes showed a medium level of drought resistance. At the same time, the Glen Ample, Glen Magna, Glen Lyon, and Laszka varieties as well as the accession 9-70 showed high yields (above 15 t/ha). As a result, promising raspberry genotypes Glen Ample, Glen Magna, Laszka, and 9-70 were selected for further breeding and production cultivation in Central Russia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry)
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Article
The Essential-Oil-Bearing Rose Collection Variability Study in Terms of Biochemical Parameters
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020529 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 496
Abstract
The primary task when breeding new varieties of essential-oil-bearing rose is to increase the essential oil content and quality. The purpose of the present research is to study the essential-oil-bearing rose collection variability in terms of the essential oil content and component composition [...] Read more.
The primary task when breeding new varieties of essential-oil-bearing rose is to increase the essential oil content and quality. The purpose of the present research is to study the essential-oil-bearing rose collection variability in terms of the essential oil content and component composition and to identify opportunities for isolating the specimens promising for selection. The study of a collection of 112 specimens was carried out in 2017–2020 in the context of the piedmont of Crimea. The decanted essential oil content was determined using the hydrodistillation method. The component composition of rose essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography on Crystal 5000.2. The essential oil components were identified by comparing their Kovats retention indices to the literature values. A high variability in the essential oil content in the collection (Cv = 36.3% at the average, over 4 years) and the major components content in the essential oil (Cv = 22.1–45.9%) was found. In the context of the piedmont of Crimea, the major components’ percentage content in essential oil from all the specimens including the five Bulgarian varieties did not meet the GOST ISO 9842-2017 standard requirements. This is indicative of a high-degree sensitivity to the soil and weather conditions in the region. It was found that the citronellol, geraniol, and nerol content in essential oil dropped significantly in extreme high temperature and drought conditions. Seven specimens rich in essential oil contained in the raw plant material (0.030–0.049%) and thirteen specimens with a high yield of concrete (0.31–0.39%) were identified and have been recommended for inclusion in the breeding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry)
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Article
Control of Postharvest Gray Mold at Strawberry Fruits Caused by Botrytis cinerea and Improving Fruit Storability through Origanum onites L. and Ziziphora clinopodioides L. Volatile Essential Oils
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020389 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
The present research was undertaken to study the antifungal activities of Origanum onites L. and Ziziphora clinopodioides L. essential oils against three different isolates (M1-5, M2-1 and M3-5) of Botrytis cinerea (in vitro tests) and to investigate the vapor contact impacts on fungus [...] Read more.
The present research was undertaken to study the antifungal activities of Origanum onites L. and Ziziphora clinopodioides L. essential oils against three different isolates (M1-5, M2-1 and M3-5) of Botrytis cinerea (in vitro tests) and to investigate the vapor contact impacts on fungus and strawberry fruit quality (in vivo tests). Antifungal activities of these oils were tested by following the poisoned food technique at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mL/L) against B. cinerea. In vitro studies suggested that the 0.50 mL/L and 1.00 mL/L doses of O. onites and 1.00 mL/L and 2.00 mL/L doses of Z. clinopodioides provide high mycelial growth inhibition, 85.29–94.12% and 39.12–94.12%, respectively, by direct addition to food. Thus, these doses were tested in in vivo conditions, as a vapor contact treatment against two isolates (M1-5 and M3-5) of B. cinerea inoculated on strawberry cv. Camarosa fruits. Results showed that both O. onites and Z. clinopodioides essential oils have a moderate to high impact on the prevention of gray mold. The oils were also found to have a slight to moderate impact on weight loss and the loss of soluble solids concentration. Overall, the results demonstrated that the tested oils are a potential biodegradable alternative to fungicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry)
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Article
Ecological Adaptability of Some Cultivars and Breeding Samples of Origanum vulgare L.
Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010016 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Since the registry of common oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivars does not involve regionalization, a comprehensive study of cultivars bred by different institutions in the intended cultivation region is valuable and relevant. The objective of the research was to assess the possibility [...] Read more.
Since the registry of common oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivars does not involve regionalization, a comprehensive study of cultivars bred by different institutions in the intended cultivation region is valuable and relevant. The objective of the research was to assess the possibility of using various indices of ecological adaptability originally developed for grain crops for their use in the most adapted genotypes’ selection (breeding samples and cultivars) of Origanum vulgare L. to the temperate climate of the Crimean Peninsula. The research was carried out in the piedmont zone of Crimea from 2016 to 2019. The study material consisted of breeding samples No. 10 and No. 82 from the collection of FSBSI “Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea”, as well as cultivars Zima, Raduga, and Slavnitsa selected by the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ARSRIMAP). Genotype had the greatest influence on yield of fresh oregano material (43%) with the influence of the weather conditions of the year being 2%. On the contrary, meteorological conditions had a much greater effect on the essential oil accumulation and its areal yield, which were 30% and 25%, respectively. In terms of the coefficient of ecological variation of fresh yield, sample No. 82 and Slavnitsa cultivar were the best (11.47–16.7%). The local genotypes No. 10 and No. 82 varied less by the essential oil content and its yield. The genotype effect value was greater than 0 in the Raduga cultivar and local genotype No. 82 for the yield, but only in No. 82 genotype for the other two characteristics. Cultivars Zima and Raduga were classified as intensive (bi > 1) by the environmental flexibility of fresh yield, while local genotype No. 82 and Slavnitsa cultivar formed the group of intensive ones by essential oil content and essential oil yield. Local genotypes No. 10 and No. 82 were better than the introduced cultivars in terms of essential oil content homeostability and essential oil yield (Hom = 1.91–2.18). Thus, local genotypes proved to be more adapted to the region’s conditions in terms of essential oil accumulation. However, they were inferior to the registered cultivars of ARSRIMAP breeding in terms of fresh yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry)
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Article
Effect of Dynamic Bridging on Homogeneous Grain Movement in a Microwave Processing Zone
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11102014 - 07 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
This article describes the influence of dynamic bridging in the unloading of a hopper at a processing plant on the grain flow homogeneity in a convective-microwave zone. In accordance with calculation methods for unloading hoppers, the parameters of the hopper unit and those [...] Read more.
This article describes the influence of dynamic bridging in the unloading of a hopper at a processing plant on the grain flow homogeneity in a convective-microwave zone. In accordance with calculation methods for unloading hoppers, the parameters of the hopper unit and those of the outlet hole insuring that grain flows without static bridging formation is defined. It was found that moisture content fluctuations do not affect the process of grain transport. The equation for dynamic bridging rise depending on its position on the vertical axis of the unloading hopper has been deduced that enables the definition of the inhomogeneity of grain flow from its outlet hole. Calculations show that a certain inhomogeneity occurred between the right and the left parts of the unloading hopper in relation to its vertical axis in the course of grain discharging. This effect underlies the inhomogeneity of grain processing and reduction of its effectiveness in convective-microwave zones. An experimental model of unloading the hopper has been manufactured in order to perform investigational studies. The results of studies have completely confirmed the hypotheses. It has been found that dynamic bridge formation in unloading of the hopper results in the inhomogeneity of grain flow in convective-microwave zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry)
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Article
Agrometeorological and Morpho-Physiological Studies of the Response of Red Currant to Abiotic Stresses
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081522 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the mechanism of climatic adaptation of red currant genotypes (Ribes rubrum L.) on the basis of physiological, biochemical and agrometeorological measurements and to determine the different phenophases of plant development identify adaptive genotypes for [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the mechanism of climatic adaptation of red currant genotypes (Ribes rubrum L.) on the basis of physiological, biochemical and agrometeorological measurements and to determine the different phenophases of plant development identify adaptive genotypes for introduction. The studies were carried out in 2014–2017. The indicators of the water status of annual shoots (water content, water retention capacity), the biochemical composition of berries (vitamin C) and phenological observations were evaluated, taking into account meteorological data. The genotypes of R. petraeum Wulf. and R. multiflorum Kit. had the longest production period. Ambiguous data on the influence of temperature on the content of ascorbic acid in berries were revealed. High temperatures (>+26 °C) contributed to a greater accumulation of ascorbic acid in the cultivars of R. vulgare Lam. High accumulations of vitamin C in the range of +25–27 °C were found in R. petraeum Wulf. and R. multiflorum Kit.. High water content and water loss contributed to early recovery from the dormant state and reduced resistance to spring temperature changes in R. vulgare Lam. Genotypes of R. vulgare Lam., and R. multiflorum Kit. are promising for growing in a zone with a temperate continental climate. The genotypes of the species R. petraeum Wulf are suitable for introduction to the areas with a continental climate. The obtained results are important for adaptive gardening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Crop Production and Animal Husbandry)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Farmers’ Motivation and Expectations for Using IoT Technologies: A Case Study
Authors: Egor Skvortsov, Ivan Sandu, Natalia Ziablitckaia, Natalia Ryzhenkova, Lyudmila Botasheva, Igor Tihonov 

 

2. Dynamics of the Immune Status of Cows Associated With the Combined Administration of Topical and Alimentary-Mediated Phytobiotics
Authors: Anna Krivonogova, Antonina Porivaeva, Albina Isaeva, Irina Donnik, Irina Shkuratova, Maksim Petropavlovsky, Elisey Bespamyatnykh

 

3. Comparative Analysis of Phytobiotics Effectiveness for the Correction of Mucous Membranes Dysbiosis in Cattle
Authors: Anna Krivonogova, Antonina Porivaeva, Albina Isaeva, Irina Donnik, Irina Shkuratova, Maksim Petropavlovsky, Elisey Bespamyatnykh, Ksenia Moiseeva, Anastasia Chentsova

 

4. Application of Thermal Processes and Methods of Optical Analysis To Increase and Forecast the Shelf Life of Plant-Based Beverages
Author: Marina Shkolnikova

 

5. Use of Physical Methods of Assessment for the Recovery and Microclonal Propagation of Potato Using the Example of the “Ermak” Variety
Author: Svetlana Artyukhova

 

6. Changes of Morphobiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Japanese Cabbage Depending on the Light Source

Authors: Alexei Dorokhov, Inna Knyazeva, Oksana Vershinina, Vladimir Gudimo, Andrei Grishin
 
Abstract: Taking into account the priority of the issues of nature conservation and environmental sustainability, the need to minimize the costs of energy and other resources in the context of modern high-intensity agricultural production, an important task is to develop technologies and technical units for the controlled cultivation of vegetables in urban conditions. Growth rates, plant biomass and the concentration of beneficial compounds largely depend on the quality and intensity of illumination. The research of the influence of the light source on the development and physicochemical parameters of cabbage plants of the Japanese variety 'Mizuna Red' was carried out in 2020-2021 in the department of closed artificial agroecosystems for plant growing on the basis of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM", Moscow. Plants of the ‘Mizuna Red’ variety were grown using a low-volume technology in a regulated agroecosystem of a tiered hydroponic module produced by VIM (Russia). The plants were illuminated by specially designed LED lamps manufactured by VIM (Russia) with a dynamically controlled spectral composition in 4 channels. For experimental researches, the design of the lighting system included several modes of radiation: continuous, pulsed and scanning with a radiation intensity of 15000 lux and a total PAR of 321 mmol / m²s: blue - 97 mmol / m²s; green - 84 mmol / m²s; red - 122 mmol / m²s; far red - 18 mmol / m²s (Proportions B: G: R ~ 30:26:44). The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different modes of radiation on productivity, physicochemical indicators and to develop technological methods for obtaining high-quality commercial products of Japanese cabbage variety 'Mizuna Red' grown in a longline hydroponic module. We compared different modes of radiation for the content of dry and ash substances, dietary fiber, the quantitative content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) and anthocyanins in the leaves of ‘Mizuna Red’. The parameters of photosynthetic activity of the plant leaf apparatus were evaluated. Analyzes were carried out on the accumulation of mineral substances by plants based on the content of anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate ions) and cations (ammonium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium) in plant raw materials. Taking into account the fact that plants serve as sources of not only useful substances, but can also include substances that pose a danger to the human body, the nitrate content was determined for compliance with the requirements of TR CU 021/2011 "On food safety". As a result of evaluating the efficiency of using different sources of light radiation to increase the productivity of cabbage of the Japanese variety 'Mizuna Red' in artificial agroecosystems, a technological method of using pulsed radiation was determined.

 

7. Field and Laboratory Tests of Nigella L. Genotypes of European-Asian Origin

Authors: Victor Nemtinov, Yuliya Kostanchuk, Svetlana Motyleva, Olga Pekhova, Lidiya Timasheva, Vladimir Pashtetskiy, Alena Katskaya
FSBSI «Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea», st. Kievskaya, 150, Simferopol, RussiaFederal Horticultural Research Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery, st. Zagorevskaj, 4, Moscow, Russia
 
Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the productivity of nigella plants, the quality of fatty and essential oils and the mineral composition of 8 nigella genotypes, 2 of which originate from the Crimea. Genotypes from three European-Asian countries - Dagestan, Pakistan and Sweden were distinguished by the highest seed productivity: 1.6-1.0 g/plant, which is 2.7-1.7 times more than the control variety Krymchanka. The productivity of seeds of the Nigella damascena genotype of the Yalita control variety was 1.5 times greater than the sample from Belgium. The sample from Dagestan for fatty seed oil exceeded the control by 17.3%. The highest fatty oil content was observed in Nigella indica 29.9%, which exceeded other species - Nigella sativa and Nigella damascena (Yalita variety) by 16-22%. Nigella's fatty oils also contained essential oils - 0.5% (N. sativa) and 1.2% (N. damascena). In N. sativa essential oil, the dominant components were p-cymene - 53.5% and thymoquinone - 19.2%, and in N. damascena essential oil, p-cymol – 82.2% was noted, with the advantage of other components. The identified samples with the maximum accumulation of fatty and essential oils, macro and microelements, can be used to treat and replenish the deficiency of elements in the human body. The correlation between the number of genotypes and high accumulation of elements in the leaves and seeds were as follows: 5 genotypes for K, two of them in the leaves with wt., to 26.5% (at > from Uzbekistan) and three in seed, wt., 13.1 and 14.2% (at > from Belgium); 4 for Ca, with two of them in the leaves, wt., 13.9−16.4% (at > from Russia, Yalita variety) and two in the seeds, wt., 12.6 and 13.1% (at > From India); 4 for Mn, one of them in the leaves, wt., 0,7% (from Belgium) and three seed, wt. 0,4−0,5% (with > from Pakistan). The peculiarities of accumulation of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo on Nigella genotypes, which depends on many factors, including specific genes of plants, at 5 genotypes, Fe in two of them in the leaves contained 0.9−1.3 wt., % (at > from India ) and three in the seeds 1.0−1.3 wt., % (at > from Belgium); 12 for Cu, of them in the leaves 0.9 and 1.4 wt., % (at > from Uzbekistan and Pakistan) and seven in the seeds 0.4−0.5 wt., % (at > from Dagestan and Uzbekistan); 9 for Zn, of them in the leaves, wt. 5.4−6.1% (with > from Russia, Yalita variety) and seven in the seeds 1.2−1.6 wt., % (at > from Russia, the Krymchanka variety and from Uzbekistan) and 6 for Mo, of them in the leaves, wt., 4,4.-5,8% (at > from Uzbekistan) and 3 in the seed, wt. 3,3-4,0% (at > from Pakistan).
 
Keywords: samples, Nigella genotypes, leaves, seeds, fatty and essential oils, mineral elements, submicroscopical scanning, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis.
 
 
 
8. Assessment of Natural and Cultivated Diversity Bird Cherry (Prunus) and Mountain Ash (Sorbus) Potential for Breeding in Siberia
 
Authors: Sergey V. Asbaganov, Anna V. Lokteva
Affiliation: Central Siberian Botanical Garden of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
 
Abstract: Harsh climatic conditions of the northern regions, increasing climate fluctuations and intensive economic activity complicate the creation of a comfortable urbanized environment with a rich variety of ornamental and fruit tree varieties resistant to a complex of adverse factors. Despite the poor species composition of the Siberian dendroflora, some species of fruit trees have extensive ranges with a wide polymorphism of economically valuable traits. Study assesses the breeding potential of natural diversity of species bird cherry and mountain ash, shows promising directions for the creation of food and universal varieties fully resistant in Siberia. Morphometric and tasting characteristics polymorphism of natural samples of native species was studied in comparison with the most stable cultivars from other regions. Prospects remote of interspecific hybridization in bird cherry breeding and interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in mountain ash breeding for the creation of highly decorative and highly productive varieties completely stable in Siberia are shown. Using intergeneric hybridization of Sorbus and Sorbocotoneaster as an example, the use effectiveness of molecular markers for early diagnosis and selection of hybrid offspring is shown. Characteristics of the created universal and food varieties bird cherry and mountain ash are given.
 
 
 
9. Effect of Mowing on Floristic Composition of Weeds in Turfgrass in Two Consecutive Years

Authors: Ramazan Gürbüz, Harun Alptekin, Olga Panfilova, İbrahim Kahramanoğlu and Mikhail Karpukhin

Abstract: Mowing is among the most important factor affecting weed populations dynamics in turfgrass. The density of some weed species may increase while some others decreases with mowing. For that reason, a two-year (2019-2020) field experiment was carried out in order to determine the impact of mowing on the frequency and density of different weed species in a newly established turf areas at the foot of Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey. From early April to early October mowing process was done at 5 cm height with 20 days intervals. The first survey was conducted on 1st of April 2019 before mowing and repeated after 2 mows. Therefore, 4 surveys were carried out in a year (a total of 8 surveys). Accordingly, 39 different weed species belonging to 15 families were identified, including 1 parasite, 9 narrow-leaved and 29 broad-leaved weeds. The most common weed species were Chenopodium album in the first 3 surveys while Trifolium repens and Cynodon dactylon were the most observed species in the 4th survey. The annual weeds like C. album was decreased while perennial weeds like T. repens and C. dactylon were increased depending on the mowing process. According to the similarity index; the highest similarity was between surveys 7-8, with a value of 100%, and the lowest similarity was between 1-8 with a value of 55.55%.

 

10. Growth and Yield Potential of Ten Elite Accessions of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) under Varying Sowing Regimes

Authors: Ariba Asif, Shahbaz Khan, Bareera Asif, Danish Ibrar, Zuhair Hasnain, Saqib Bashir, Sohail Irshad, Muhammad Nawaz, Tasawer Abbas and Naila Farooq

Abstract: Optimization of agronomic practices for cultivation of quinoa, a super food and climate resilient crop, is very critical to obtain its maximum grain yield under the current scenario of climate change. In the present experimentation, we evaluated the optimum sowing time of ten elite accessions of quinoa, already screened from USDA germplasm. Seeds of each accession were sown in the experimental area at Square No. 22, Block No. 5, Directorate of Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan on November 15, November 30 and December 15 during quinoa cultivation season of 2019-20. Sowing time significantly affected the days taken to anthesis, chlorophyll contents, sodium and potassium concentrations in leaf, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area, panicle length, grain yield and 1000-grain weight. Accessions; PIA-922, PIA-924, PIA-928 and PIA-929 performed better under first sowing and produced higher grain yield as compared to other accessions. Similarly, PIA-921, PIA-922, PIA-925 and PIA-932 produced maximum biomass and grain yield under second sowing date while in case of third sowing date, PIA-926, PIA-928, PIA-930 and PIA-931 were observed more responsive regarding growth and yield attributes. A diversified pattern of agronomic, growth and yield contributing attributes of quinoa genotypes was observed when cultivated under varying sowing dates. The collected data will be very informative for the breeders and agronomists during the selection and variety development process in future.

Keywords: quinoa; germplasm; growth, sowing dates; yield

 

11. Methodological Approach to Determining the Optimal Location of the Organic Crop Production

Authors: Natalya Zaruk; Maria Kagirova; Anna Kharitonova; Elena Kolomeeva; Rishat Migunov; Yulia Romantseva; Anastasia Babanskaya
Affiliation: Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to substantiate the methodological approach to the optimal distribution of organic crop production across the territory, taking into account soil-climatic, environmental, economic and social characteristics. The object of the study is the regions of Russia located in various climatic zones and differentiated by the level of economic development. The system of statistical indicators has been developed to identify typical groups of units according to the possibility of producing organic products. It includes 33 elements, providing a description of the regions in terms of the state and potential of economic development; level of agricultural production; climatic and ecological conditions; demand potential for organic products. The methodology is based on Factor and Cluster analysis. Factor analysis selected five components underlying the grouping of regions. The use of cluster analysis made it possible to identify with a high level of accuracy seven groups of regions with different agricultural conditions and the potential for the development of organic production, which, according to individual characteristics, are justified for the production of certain types of crops. Optimization of the location of the organic production is explained by the satisfaction of requirements of plants and consumers within the territories.

Keywords: organic products; crop production; statistical indicators; location of agricultural production

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