Special Issue "Barley Genetic Resources: Advancing Conservation and Applications for Breeding"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Breeding and Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2022 | Viewed by 6585

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jerzy Henryk Czembor
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute, Radzików, 05-870 Błonie, Poland
Interests: agricultural sciences, plant pathology, plant physiology, genetics, integrated pest management, plant genetic resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Alan H. Schulman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Luonnonvarakeskus, LUKE, Helsinki, Finland
Interests: plant genomics; physiology; physiological phenotyping
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Guoping Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: evaluation and utilization of crop germplasm; crop molecular physiology of abiotic stress; crop quality physiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gene banks harbor a large “green treasure” of plant genetic resources (PGRs). The growing world population requires support through a constant increase in agricultural production. A changing climate is forcing plant breeders to develop plant cultivars with effective and durable resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. These breeding activities can be supported by the broader exploitation of PGR. However, activities related to conservation of genetic resources in gene banks are characterized by high cost and long-term return. Therefore, there is an urgent need to harmonize efforts concerning both the conservation of genetic variability both in situ and ex situ for the future as well as the efficient utilization of available resources in plant breeding programs. Pre-breeding activities are also needed to effective link genetic resources and breeding programs.

The characterization of barley diversity is crucial for its sustainable production and effective exploitation by barley breeders in cooperation with gene banks. This is can be achieved by intensive phenotyping and genotyping of the world barley collection using advanced molecular, biochemical, and physiological methods.

This Special Issue will focus on “Barley Genetic Resources: Advancing Conservation and Applications for Breeding”. Contributions in the form of novel research, review, and opinion articles covering all aspects of the conservation of barley genetic resources and their application in breeding are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jerzy Henryk Czembor
Prof. Dr. Alan H. Schulman
Prof. Dr. Guoping Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • barley
  • plant genetic resources
  • gene bank
  • pre-breeding
  • plant breeding
  • phenotyping
  • genotyping
  • stress resistance
  • climate change

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
A Gene Encoding a SHINE1/WAX INDUCER1 Transcription Factor Controls Cuticular Wax in Barley
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051088 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 357
Abstract
All land plants seal their above ground body parts with a lipid-rich hydrophobic barrier called the cuticle to protect themselves from dehydration and other terrestrial threats. Mutational studies in several model species have identified multiple loci regulating cuticular metabolism and development. Of particular [...] Read more.
All land plants seal their above ground body parts with a lipid-rich hydrophobic barrier called the cuticle to protect themselves from dehydration and other terrestrial threats. Mutational studies in several model species have identified multiple loci regulating cuticular metabolism and development. Of particular importance are the eceriferum (cer) mutants characterized by a loss of cuticular wax. Some barley cer mutants, including cer-x, show defects in the distinctive β-diketone-enriched wax bloom on reproductive stage leaf sheaths, stems, and spikes. We exploited extensive allelic populations, near-isogenic lines, and powerful genotyping platforms to identify variation in the HvWAX INDUCER1 (HvWIN1) gene, encoding a SHINE transcription factor, as underlying cer-x. Comparing the cer-x allelic glossy sheath4.l Bowman Near Isogenic Line BW407 to cv. Bowman revealed an increased cuticular permeability in tissues showing reduced accumulation of β-diketones and altered cuticular metabolic gene expression in BW407. Analyses across the barley pangenome and hundreds of exome-capture datasets revealed high sequence conservation of HvWIN1 and two non-synonymous variants exclusive to the cultivated germplasm. Taken together, we suggest that variation in HvWIN1 controls multiple cuticular features in barley. Full article
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Article
Genome-Wide Association Study for Resistance to Rhynchosporium in a Diverse Collection of Spring Barley Germplasm
Agronomy 2022, 12(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12040782 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Rhynchosporium is one of the main biotic stresses on barley production worldwide. A set of 312 spring barley accessions was tested in four different locations over 3 years, to identify novel genetic resistances to rhynchosporium and to explore the allelic diversity for resistance [...] Read more.
Rhynchosporium is one of the main biotic stresses on barley production worldwide. A set of 312 spring barley accessions was tested in four different locations over 3 years, to identify novel genetic resistances to rhynchosporium and to explore the allelic diversity for resistance genes present in this global germplasm collection. High-density genotypes from exome capture and RNA-seq were used to conduct high-resolution association mapping. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, including one in the Rrs2 region, amongst five containing known resistances. Relatively short physical intervals harbouring these resistances were proposed, providing a platform for the identification of underlying genes and tightly linked genetic markers for use in marker assisted selection. Genes encoding kinases were present in four of the QTL, in addition to Rrs1 and Rrs18, two loci known to contribute to rhynchosporium resistance. The frequencies and distributions of these novel and known QTL were superimposed on the regional origin of the landrace genotypes comprising the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) panel, highlighting the value of genetic resources as a source of diverse genetically controlled resistance to rhynchosporium. The detected QTL along with their linked genetic markers, could be exploited either directly for breeding purposes or for candidate gene identification in future studies. Full article
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Article
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Genetic Factors Related to Callus Induction in Barley
Agronomy 2022, 12(3), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12030749 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Barley is an important cereal crop worldwide. Its genetic transformation is now limited to very few cultivars because of the high genotype dependence of embryogenic callus. To reveal the key genes or factors controlling the callus induction and plantlet regeneration in barley, we [...] Read more.
Barley is an important cereal crop worldwide. Its genetic transformation is now limited to very few cultivars because of the high genotype dependence of embryogenic callus. To reveal the key genes or factors controlling the callus induction and plantlet regeneration in barley, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of immature embryos of Golden Promise and ZU9, which differed dramatically in the efficiency of the genetic transformation. The samples were taken at 0, 5, 10 and 20 days of the culture, respectively. In total, 5386 up-regulated and 6257 down-regulated genes were identified in Golden Promise. Several genes, identified exclusively in GP callus, were selected for further investigation. These genes were mainly involved in protein metabolism, energy metabolism, stress response, detoxification and ubiquitin–proteasome. Four YUCCA flavin monooxygenases, one PIN-FORMED, one tryptophan aminotransferase related, three small auxin up RNA, three indole-3-acetic acid and one adenylate isopentenyl transferase, seven cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, three Arabidopsis histidine kinase, three Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer protein, and one Arabidopsis response regulator were differentially expressed in the calli of the two barley genotypes, suggesting that biosynthesis, response and transport of auxin and cytokinin might be associated with cell reprogramming during callus induction. The current results provide insights into molecular mechanisms of callus induction at an early developmental stage and are helpful for optimizing the tissue culture system in barley. Full article
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Article
Genome-Wide Association Study for Powdery Mildew and Rusts Adult Plant Resistance in European Spring Barley from Polish Gene Bank
Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010007 - 21 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Rusts and powdery mildew are diseases that have a major effect on yield loss in barley. Adult Plant Resistance (APR) is a post-seedling resistance mechanism and its expression is influenced by many factors, including host susceptibility and weather conditions, as well as the [...] Read more.
Rusts and powdery mildew are diseases that have a major effect on yield loss in barley. Adult Plant Resistance (APR) is a post-seedling resistance mechanism and its expression is influenced by many factors, including host susceptibility and weather conditions, as well as the timing and severity of disease outbreaks. There are two mechanisms associated with APR: non-hypersensitive and minor gene APR. In this study, 431 European barley accessions were evaluated phenotypically over 2 years (2018–2019) under field conditions, scoring APR to powdery mildew (PM), barley brown rust (BBR), and stem rust (SR), and genotypically using DArTseq. Accessions were grouped into sub-collections by cultivation period (group A—cultivated prior 1985, B—cultivated after 1985, and C—Polish landraces) and by European country of origin or European region. GWAS was conducted for PM, BBR, and SR, and scored at the heading (HA) and milky-waxy (MW) seed stages in 2019 and maximum scores across all replicates were obtained 2018–2019. Disease severity was sufficient to differentiate the collection according to cultivation time and country of origin and to determine SNPs. Overall, the GWAS analysis identified 73 marker–trait associations (MTAs) with these traits. For PM resistance, we identified five MTAs at both the HA stage and when considering the maximal disease score across both growth stages and both years. One marker (3432490-28-T/C) was shared between these two traits; it is located on chromosome 4H. For BBR resistance, six MTAs at HA and one MTA at the MW stage in 2019 and seven MTAs, when considering the maximal disease score across both growth stages and both years, were identified. Of the 48 markers identified as being associated with SR resistance, 12 were on chromosome 7H, 1 was in the telomeric region of the short arm, and 7 were in the telomeric region of the long arm. Rpg1 has previously been mapped to 7HS. The results of this study will be used to create a Polish Gene Bank platform for precise breeding programs. The resistant genotypes and MTA markers will serve as a valuable resource for breeding for PM, BBR, and SR resistance in barley. Full article
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Article
Mining Middle Eastern and Central Asian Barley Germplasm to Understand Diversity for Resistance to Puccinia hordei, Causal Agent of Leaf Rust
Agronomy 2021, 11(11), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112146 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Vast collections of barley germplasm have been established and conserved in various global gene banks. These collections hold tremendous genetic diversity for resistance genes to Puccinia hordei, a causal agent of barley leaf rust. This study was undertaken to discover, characterize and [...] Read more.
Vast collections of barley germplasm have been established and conserved in various global gene banks. These collections hold tremendous genetic diversity for resistance genes to Puccinia hordei, a causal agent of barley leaf rust. This study was undertaken to discover, characterize and postulate the known Rph genes (resistance to Puccinia hordei) and identify novel sources of ASR (all-stage resistance) and APR (adult plant resistance) to P. hordei. A core set of 315 barley lines were rust-tested as seedlings for their response to eight Australian pathotypes of P. hordei and genotyped with molecular markers linked to the known characterised ASR and APR genes. These tests led to the postulation of ASR leaf rust resistance genes Rph1, Rph2, Rph3, Rph9.am, Rph12, Rph15, Rph19 and Rph25 singly or in combination. Field tests revealed that the vast majority of lines (84%) carried APR. Genotyping of the APR-carrying lines with markers bPb-0837, Ebmac0603 and sun43-44 identified lines that likely carry the known APR genes Rph20, Rph23 and Rph24 singly or in combination. Thirty-nine per cent of the lines were negative for all the three markers and were thus postulated to carry uncharacterized APR. The sources of resistance identified in this study provide a valuable resource to breeders for further utilization and diversifying the genetic basis of leaf rust resistance in barley. Full article
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Article
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Serbian Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Collection during a 40-Year Long Breeding Period
Agronomy 2021, 11(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010118 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
Determination of genetic diversity and population structure of breeding material is an important prerequisite for discovering novel and valuable alleles aimed at crop improvement. This study’s main objective was to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of a collection representing a 40-year long [...] Read more.
Determination of genetic diversity and population structure of breeding material is an important prerequisite for discovering novel and valuable alleles aimed at crop improvement. This study’s main objective was to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of a collection representing a 40-year long historical period of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding, using microsatellites, pedigree, and phenotypic data. The set of 90 barley genotypes was phenotyped during three growing seasons and genotyped with 338 polymorphic alleles. The indicators of genetic diversity showed differentiation changes throughout the breeding periods. The population structure discriminated the breeding material into three distinctive groups. The principal coordinate analysis grouped the genotypes according to their growth habit and row type. An analysis of phenotypic variance (ANOVA) showed that almost all investigated traits varied significantly between row types, seasons, and breeding periods. A positive effect on yield progress during the 40-year long breeding period could be partly attributed to breeding for shorter plants, which reduced lodging and thus provided higher yield stability. The breeding material revealed a considerable diversity level based on microsatellite and phenotypic data without a tendency of genetic erosion throughout the breeding history and implied dynamic changes in genetic backgrounds, providing a great gene pool suitable for further barley improvement. Full article
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Article
Multifaceted Analysis of Barley Landraces Collected during Gene Bank Expeditions in Poland at the End of the 20th Century
Agronomy 2020, 10(12), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121958 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
The extensive genetic diversity of crop landraces deposited in gene banks is an important part of future breeding programs. However, in order to exploit this potential, it is necessary both to preserve germplasm and to collect and share a wide range of data [...] Read more.
The extensive genetic diversity of crop landraces deposited in gene banks is an important part of future breeding programs. However, in order to exploit this potential, it is necessary both to preserve germplasm and to collect and share a wide range of data on its characteristics and evaluation. The main objective of the presented paper was to evaluate the diversity of spring barley landraces originating from Poland. Historical data from standard field evaluation of agronomic traits, genetic data obtained from Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) analysis and grain morphometric data were used. The analysis showed that groups of hulled and hulls barley accessions were substantially separate. Genetic and grain morphological variation did not show any relationship with eco-geographical conditions in the place of origin. There was also no clear division into forms with two- and six-row ears. The combination of the results of various types of analyzes describing this collection makes us believe that its chances of being used in research and breeding will increase. Full article
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