Barley Genetic Resources: Advancing Conservation and Applications for Breeding – Series II

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Breeding and Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 3769

Special Issue Editor

Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute—National Research Institute, Radzików, 05-870 Błonie, Poland
Interests: cereal; biodiversity; climate change; plant genetic resources; crop protection; ecology; sustainable agriculture; gene bank; genetics; plant breeding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gene banks harbor a large “green treasure” of plant genetic resources (PGRs). The growing world population requires support through a constant increase in agricultural production. A changing climate is forcing plant breeders to develop plant cultivars with effective and durable resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. These breeding activities can be supported by the broader exploitation of PGR. However, activities related to conservation of genetic resources in gene banks are characterized by high cost and long-term return. Therefore, there is an urgent need to harmonize efforts concerning both the conservation of genetic variability both in situ and ex situ for the future as well as the efficient utilization of available resources in plant breeding programs. Pre-breeding activities are also needed to effective link genetic resources and breeding programs.

The characterization of barley diversity is crucial for its sustainable production and effective exploitation by barley breeders in cooperation with gene banks. This is can be achieved by intensive phenotyping and genotyping of the world barley collection using advanced molecular, biochemical, and physiological methods.

This Special Issue will focus on “Barley Genetic Resources: Advancing Conservation and Applications for Breeding”. Contributions in the form of novel research, review, and opinion articles covering all aspects of the conservation of barley genetic resources and their application in breeding are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jerzy Henryk Czembor
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • barley
  • plant genetic resources
  • gene bank
  • pre-breeding
  • plant breeding
  • phenotyping
  • genotyping
  • stress resistance
  • climate change

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 779 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Scald Reactions of Some Turkish Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties Using GGE Biplot Analysis
Agronomy 2023, 13(12), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13122975 - 01 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Scald caused by the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune is a significant foliar disease affecting barley production on a global scale, and it leads to substantial reductions in both yield and quality of barley. In the current study, the reactions of 40 Turkish barley [...] Read more.
Scald caused by the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune is a significant foliar disease affecting barley production on a global scale, and it leads to substantial reductions in both yield and quality of barley. In the current study, the reactions of 40 Turkish barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties to scald were evaluated under natural conditions in Çanakkale and Kırşehir in 2021–2022, and Antalya and Siirt locations in 2022–2023 growing seasons. Field trials were conducted according to randomized block design with three replications in each year; the spore concentration was 1 × 106 spores per mL, and it was applied to the varieties three times at different growth stages. The reactions of barley varieties were assessed using a newly designed two-digit scale ranging from 11 to 99. Based on their scale values, the varieties were categorized as immune (0), resistant (11–35), moderately resistant (36–55), moderately susceptible (56–75), and susceptible (76–99). In addition, genotype plus genotype-by-environment (GGE) interactions of scale values were analyzed through GGE Biplot and explained 97.65% of the total variation. The ranking of genotypes based on scale groups generally showed consistency with GGE Biplot results, but GGE Biplot offered a more detailed classification, especially for moderately susceptible varieties. The relationship between the two methods indicated the relative stability of variety reactions, as GGE Biplot analysis also considered genotype stability. In conclusion, the use of the newly developed scale for evaluating scald reactions in barley gives reliable results. In addition, identified resistant varieties can serve as valuable genetic resources for further breeding studies. Full article
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16 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Sources of Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) Collected in Jordan, Lebanon, and Libya
Agronomy 2023, 13(10), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13102462 - 23 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Barley powdery mildew (BPM) is caused by the pathogen Blumeria hordei (Bh) and can lead to severe yield loss. Plant pathologists are looking for new sources of resistance to BPM. Barley accessions, including the wild subspecies Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Hvs [...] Read more.
Barley powdery mildew (BPM) is caused by the pathogen Blumeria hordei (Bh) and can lead to severe yield loss. Plant pathologists are looking for new sources of resistance to BPM. Barley accessions, including the wild subspecies Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Hvs), are stored in many gene banks and are often a valuable source of economically important characteristics. The wild barley Hvs could be a valuable resistance source for BPM. The aim of the presented investigation was to detect new sources of BPM resistance in 81 accessions of Hvs collected in Jordan (46), Lebanon (24), and Libya (11). European differential isolates of BPM were used, and resistant single plant lines were selected for use from fifteen accessions from Jordan and Libya. These resistant single plant lines were tested for the presence of specific resistance genes using a differential set of Bh isolates. Hypotheses about the presence of specific resistance genes were made by comparing the reaction spectra of the tested lines with those of differential lines. After an analysis of the obtained results, it was concluded that all 31 tested single plant lines of Hvs had genes for resistance that are not represented in the barley differential set for resistance genes to Bh. Twenty-six lines of Hvs selected from accessions originated in Jordan and Libya showed resistance reactions to all isolates used. These lines will be further tested as new sources of effective resistance and used in barley prebreeding programs. Full article
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22 pages, 19660 KiB  
Article
Determination of Physiochemical Characteristics Associated with Various Degrees of Cadmium Tolerance in Barley Accessions
Agronomy 2023, 13(6), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13061502 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Soil contamination by heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), which is present as a result of agricultural and industrial practices, is a critical problem in many countries around the world. High Cd concentrations in crops during the seedling stage can have a negative [...] Read more.
Soil contamination by heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), which is present as a result of agricultural and industrial practices, is a critical problem in many countries around the world. High Cd concentrations in crops during the seedling stage can have a negative impact on performance and growth. The aim of the present study, which involved 59 barley accessions, was to investigate the effects of different Cd concentrations (125, 250, and 500 µM) on the responses of the barley accessions and to identify the biomarker parameters that would aid in the early growth stage selection of the best-performing accession. Barley accessions differed significantly in their morphological and physiochemical characteristics. Compared to the untreated plants, treatments with Cd lowered germination percentages by 1.75–64.28%, 1.67–46.62%, and 1.66–61.90% for concentrations of 125, 250, and 500 μM, respectively. The average of all genotypes showed significant reductions in root length, shoot length, and fresh weight of seedlings, ranging from 37.08% to 77.88%, 18.70% to 44.10%, and 7.69% to 35.87%, respectively. In comparison to untreated plants, the average seed water absorption (WU) increased across all accessions by 42.21% and 20.74%, respectively, under Cd-125 and Cd-250 stress conditions. In contrast, all biochemical measurements increased when Cd concentrations were elevated, with the exception of guaiacol peroxidase (GPA) and catalase (CAT). Across all genotypes, the mean of proline (PC) and sugar (SSC) contents showed the largest increases (123% for PC and 98.63% for SSC) under the Cd-500 stress condition. Three barley accessions: Acsad-14, ABN, and Arabi Aswad, were found to be the most tolerant accessions under all cadmium exposure, whereas the performance of the other tested accessions: Black-Kalar, Bujayl 1-Shaqlawa, and Black-Chiman was inferior. The OMIC analysis identified the biomarker parameters for differentiating the high, moderate, and low tolerant groups as the WU for Cd-125 stress, GPA, WU, CAT, total phenolic content for Cd-250 stress, and all physiochemical traits, with the exception of the CAT feature for Cd-500 treatment. The majority of trait pairings showed significant correlations. Hence, Acsad-14, ABN, and Arabi Aswad barley accessions that had great performance under cadmium conditions can be candidates for selection in a breeding program to improve the growth of plants and output in lands infected by cadmium. It can be concluded that seed water uptake, guaiacol peroxidase, and proline content were biomarker traits that would aid in the early growth stage selection of the best-performing accession under Cd stress conditions. Full article
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