Special Issue "Selected Papers From The 3rd International Symposium on Broomcorn Millet"

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Dipak Santra

Guest Editor
Panhandle Research & Extension Center, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 4502 Ave I, Scottsbluff, NE 69361, USA
Interests: plant breeding; genetics; genomics; plant germplasm; genetic diversity
Prof. Cheol H. Park

Guest Editor
College of Biomedical Science, 101-904, Ilsung Apt. Hyoja 3dong, Chuncheon, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, 24341 Korea
Interests: millets for food; nutrition; food chemistry; biomedical characterization
Dr. Koushik Brahmachari

Guest Editor
Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mahanpur, Nadia, 741252West Bengal, INDIA
Interests: agronomy; crop production; cropping system; weed and soil nutrient management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Millets are small-grained, annual cereal grasses and belong to the panicoid group of the Poaceae family. They are comprised of several species, including pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), and a number of minor or small millets, which include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), proso (also known as broomcorn or common) millet (Panicum miliaceum), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), little millet (Panicum sumatrense), and kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum). Although global production of these millets is significantly lower than major crops, such as corn, wheat, rice, and soybean, they have unique place in the 21st century, which faces challenges sustainable food production due to climate change, increasing human population, and decreasing farm land. 

Millets are well-adapted to adverse conditions, such drought, heat, and poor soil with low fertility. This has made millet a perfect crop for sustainable low-input food production in a changing climate. Millets are richer in nutrients than other major cereal crops. This millet is gluten-free with a starchy grain and has a low glycemic index, high fiber and essential minerals. Therefore, millets are, not only climate-friendly, but also good for human health. It is a common food ingredient in many Asian countries; however, in the USA, it is mostly used as bird seed, and not as human food.

In order to promote the development of millets around the world, an International Millet Symposium is being organized by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Colorado State University, and will be held in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, 8–12 August, 2018 (https://go.unl.edu/millet2018). This will strengthen exchange and cooperation among scientific researchers from countries with significant millet production, and increase socio-economic development. This Special Issue spotlights the role of millets in 21st century towards more sustainable agro-food production systems. Manuscripts (reviews, perspectives, or original articles) are invited and may include, but are not limited to, these topics:

  • Breeding: Genetics, germplasm, genomics and biotechnology
  • Agronomy and Production: Farming practices, production physiology, crop rotation
  • Products and Market: Quality for food, feed and beverages, nutrition and health, food chemistry and processing, new markets

Sincerely,

Dr. Dipak Santra
Prof. Cheol H. Park
Dr. Koushik Brahmachari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agriculture is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • panicoid species
  • ancient grain
  • bird seed
  • gluten-free
  • low glycemic index
  • climate-friendly
  • heat and drought tolerant
  • cereals with high water use efficiency
  • dryland farming

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Trait Diverse Germplasm Sources from Mini Core Collection for Sorghum Improvement
Agriculture 2019, 9(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9060121 - 10 Jun 2019
Abstract
Sorghum is a multipurpose crop cultivated in over 100 countries, but its productivity is constrained by several biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, sorghum improvement programs largely focus on developing high-yielding cultivars with multiple traits including stress resistance, bioenergy and nutritional quality. This study [...] Read more.
Sorghum is a multipurpose crop cultivated in over 100 countries, but its productivity is constrained by several biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, sorghum improvement programs largely focus on developing high-yielding cultivars with multiple traits including stress resistance, bioenergy and nutritional quality. This study was undertaken to meet breeders’ needs to develop such cultivars and identify diverse germplasm sources with multiple traits. The 242 sorghum mini core accessions were evaluated for agronomic traits (yield, maturity, 100-seed weight) in two post-rainy seasons under optimally irrigated and drought conditions and identified 21 accessions as a sources for agronomic traits. The evaluation of mini core revealed 70 accessions resistant to biotic stress, 12 to abiotic stress, 13 for bioenergy traits and 27 for nutritional traits. The 13,390 single nucleotide polymorphism markers on mini core were used to identify genetically diverse accessions with desirable agronomic traits: IS 23684 (nutrition traits, diseases, insect pests), IS 1212 (earliness, nutrition traits, drought, seedling vigor, diseases), IS 5094 (yield, drought, diseases, insect pests), IS 473 (earliness, diseases), IS 4698 (yield, Brix %, insect pests) and IS 23891 (greater seed weight, yield, Brix %, drought, diseases). These are useful genetic resources that meet breeders needs to develop agronomically superior sorghum cultivars with desirable combinations of multiple traits and a broad genetic base. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variability in the Global Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Germplasm Collection Conserved at the ICRISAT Genebank
Agriculture 2019, 9(5), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9050112 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), also known as common millet or broomcorn millet, is an important ancient crop mostly grown for food, feed, and fodder purposes largely in China, Russia, India, and the USA. It is an under-researched and under-utilized crop. Over [...] Read more.
Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), also known as common millet or broomcorn millet, is an important ancient crop mostly grown for food, feed, and fodder purposes largely in China, Russia, India, and the USA. It is an under-researched and under-utilized crop. Over 29,000 germplasm accessions have been conserved in genebanks globally. Five races (miliaceum, patentissimum, contractum, compactum, ovatum) have been recognized in proso millet based on panicle morphology and shape. The genebank at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics conserves 849 accessions of proso millet originating from 30 countries and represents all five races. Characterization of these germplasm accessions revealed large variability for morpho-agronomic traits, including for days to 50% flowering (26 to 50 days), plant height (20 to 133 cm), and inflorescence length (22 to 400 mm). On average, the race miliaceum was tall (62 cm) with long panicles (209 mm) and ovatum had short plants (46 cm) with small panicles (108 mm). The average Gower’s distance based on 18 morpho-agronomic traits on 841 accessions was 0.261. The race miliaceum had the highest among accessions within race average pairwise distance (0.254), while the distance was the lowest in ovatum (0.192). The races miliaceum and ovatum showed the highest divergence with each other (0.275), while the lowest divergence was observed between compactum and ovatum (0.229). Trait-specific sources were identified for early maturity, tall plants, long inflorescences, and greater seed size. The information on variability and trait-specific sources identified could potentially support proso millet improvement. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Beyond Bird Feed: Proso Millet for Human Health and Environment
Agriculture 2019, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9030064 - 24 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Domesticated in 8000–10,000 BP in northern China, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is the best adaptive rotational crop for semiarid central High Plains of the USA, where average annual precipitation is 356–407 mm. Proso millet has multiple benefits when consumed as human [...] Read more.
Domesticated in 8000–10,000 BP in northern China, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is the best adaptive rotational crop for semiarid central High Plains of the USA, where average annual precipitation is 356–407 mm. Proso millet has multiple benefits when consumed as human food. Proso millet is rich in minerals, dietary fiber, polyphenols, vitamins and proteins. It is gluten-free and therefore, ideal for the gluten intolerant people. Proso millet contains high lecithin which supports the neural health system. It is rich in vitamins (niacin, B-complex vitamins, folic acid), minerals (P, Ca, Zn, Fe) and essential amino acids (methionine and cysteine). It has a low glycemic index and reduces the risk of type-2 diabetes. Unfortunately, in the USA, it is mostly considered as bird feed, whereas it is mainly used as human food in many other countries. Besides human health benefits, proso millet has an impeccable environmental benefit. Proso millet possesses many unique characteristics (e.g., drought tolerance, short-growing season) which makes it a promising rotational crop for winter wheat-based dryland farming systems. Proso millet provides the most economical production system when used in a two years wheat/summer fallow cropping system in semiarid High Plains of the USA. It helps in controlling winter annual grass weeds, managing disease and insect pressure and preserving deep soil moisture for wheat. Proso millet can also be used as a rotational crop with corn or sorghum owing to its tolerance for atrazine, the primary herbicide used in corn and sorghum production systems. Proso millet certainly is a climate-smart, gluten-free, ancient, and small grain cereal, which is healthy to humans and the environment. The main challenge is to expand the proso millet market beyond bird feed into the human food industry. To overcome the challenge, unique proso millet varieties for human food and ready-to-use multiple food products must be developed. This requires successful collaboration among experts from diverse disciplines such as breeders, geneticists, food chemists and food industry partners. Full article
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