Selected Papers from 2020 XIV International Conference of Food Physicists

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 52253

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Department of Physics and Control, Szent István University, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary
Interests: digital image processing; computer vision; data analysis; simulation; biophysics; food physics; food science and technology

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Department of Horticulture Sciences, Faculty of Horticulture, “Ion Ionescu de la Brad” Iasi University of Life Sciences, Mihail Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi, Romania
Interests: organic food science; management of vegetable growing; plant nutrition; conventional production systems; horticulture biodiversity
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Dear Colleagues,

In the present context of climate change, environmental protection needs, and population growth worldwide, the agricultural sector endeavours to provide safe, healthy, and nutritionally rich food.                 

Innovative farming management includes agronomic practices aimed at improving food quality and concurrently increasing the crop yield in the framework of the sustainability of the whole production chain, taking into account the fact that food is a combination of biological, ecological, and technological factors.              

Notably, many food attributes are determined by either their chemical composition or the spatial arrangement of their structural (physical) components.              

Recently, consumers have tended to target hygienic, nutraceutical, and minimally processed foods, thus boosting the development of future-oriented investigations addressing the demand for high textural and quality food profiles.              

Based on the abovementioned aspects, we invite colleagues to present original research or reviews mainly focusing on the physical and chemical characterization of foods and the influences of current technologies or biotechnologies on the texture and chemical composition of foods.

Prof. Gianluca Caruso
Prof. Dr. László Baranyai
Prof. Dr. Vasile Stoleru
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • physical and chemical analyses of food
  • equipment and technology
  • quality control and food safety
  • environmental physics
  • food biotechnology

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 3483 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Nutrients Uptake by Tomato Plants in Different Phenological Stages Using an Electrical Conductivity Technique
by Ilie Bodale, Gabriela Mihalache, Vladut Achiţei, Gabriel-Ciprian Teliban, Ana Cazacu and Vasile Stoleru
Agriculture 2021, 11(4), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040292 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7188
Abstract
Nutrient consumption by plants depends on the growth stage and environmental conditions. In general, plants take up species of elements at different speeds. We monitored and recorded the electrical charge flow through xylem sap of tomato plants (Brillante F1) using femto/picoammeter equipment (Keysight [...] Read more.
Nutrient consumption by plants depends on the growth stage and environmental conditions. In general, plants take up species of elements at different speeds. We monitored and recorded the electrical charge flow through xylem sap of tomato plants (Brillante F1) using femto/picoammeter equipment (Keysight B2981A). This technique evaluates the nutrient uptake of tomato treated with the most common macronutrients (KNO3; KH2PO4; Ca(NO3)2; KCl) by monitoring the electrical conductivity for 24 h. The electrical conductivity of each treatment correlated with the plant growth and development stages. The results showed that the tomato plants had a high consumption of nutrients in the vegetative stage, while in other stages, they had a specific consumption, like phosphorus for bulb formation, potassium for increasing the number of flowers and water for the ripening of fruits. The quantitative evaluation of the ions absorbed by the plant was based on the magnitude and shape of the electrical conductivity curves. Our technique is an efficient method to determine nutrient consumption and is useful in predicting the deficiency of a certain element in tomato plants. Full article
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10 pages, 998 KiB  
Article
Selective and Sensitive Quantification of Acetochlor and S-Metolachlor in Maize and Soybean Plant Samples by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
by Irina Gabriela Cara, Denis Topa, Lucian Raus, Anca Elena Calistru, Feodor Filipov and Gerard Jitareanu
Agriculture 2021, 11(4), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040283 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
Herbicide residue analysis has gained importance worldwide, mainly for food quality control to minimize potentially adverse impacts on human health. A Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for quantitative analysis of acetochlor and s-metolachlor in maize and soybean straw has been developed, validated [...] Read more.
Herbicide residue analysis has gained importance worldwide, mainly for food quality control to minimize potentially adverse impacts on human health. A Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for quantitative analysis of acetochlor and s-metolachlor in maize and soybean straw has been developed, validated and applied to analyze the residues of anilide herbicides. Straw material was dried, homogenized and extracted with a mixture of n-hexane and acetone by an accelerated solvent extraction method. Chromatographic separation of the target analytes was performed on an Agilent 7832 GC equipped with a mass spectrometer detector, a split-splitless injector and an HP-5 MS (5% phenylmethyl siloxane) capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm). Under these parameters, the limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.2 ng g−1 for acetochlor and 0.07 ng g−1 for s-metolachlor, with average recoveries between 86% and 119.7%. The method was validated for acetochlor and s-metolachlor in maize and soybean straw at 0.5 and 0.01 mg kg −1. Furthermore, the final residues of the two herbicides in maize and soybean straw were below the maximum residue limit (MRL) at harvest time. The proposed method is suitable for routine analysis. Full article
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18 pages, 36277 KiB  
Article
Effect of Combination of Salt and pH on Functional Properties of Frozen-Thawed Egg Yolk
by Karina Ilona Hidas, Ildikó Csilla Nyulas-Zeke, Anna Visy, László Baranyai, Lien Phuong Le Nguyen, Adrienn Tóth, László Friedrich, Attila Nagy and Csaba Németh
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030257 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4624
Abstract
Egg yolk undergoes an irreversible gelation process at temperatures below −6 °C, which greatly impairs its application and increases its apparent viscosity. This work was aimed to investigate the effect of salt and pH in preventing the gelation of frozen-thawed egg yolk. Before [...] Read more.
Egg yolk undergoes an irreversible gelation process at temperatures below −6 °C, which greatly impairs its application and increases its apparent viscosity. This work was aimed to investigate the effect of salt and pH in preventing the gelation of frozen-thawed egg yolk. Before freezing, 5% of salt was added into the pasteurized liquid egg yolk, then pH was adjusted to different levels (5.7, 6.0 and 6.3) with citric acid. After that, the yolk was stored at −18 °C for four weeks. Rheological and thermal properties of the fresh and frozen-thawed egg yolk were measured. In addition, the colour, turbidity and emulsifying properties were also determined. The results showed that pH of all samples increased during frozen storage, but at different rates. The combination of 5% of salt and pH at 6.0 and 6.3 could prevent the gelation, resulting in rheological properties more like the fresh liquid egg yolk. In addition, emulsifying properties also obtained better results for treated yolk. Moreover, L* value of treated egg yolk was higher before freezing and became lower after storage compared to control. The results of this work found that the combination of 5% of salt and adjusted pH could prevent the gelation of frozen-thawed liquid yolk. Full article
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17 pages, 4123 KiB  
Article
Quality Assessment of Raw Honey Issued from Eastern Romania
by Aida Albu, Cristina-Gabriela Radu-Rusu, Ioan Mircea Pop, Gabriela Frunza and Gherasim Nacu
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030247 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5680
Abstract
Romania is known among the main European honey producers, due to the variety of landforms as well as the diversity of the flora. Thirty-four honey samples of the acacia, linden and multifloral types, produced in eastern Romania and collected during 2013–2018, were physico-chemically [...] Read more.
Romania is known among the main European honey producers, due to the variety of landforms as well as the diversity of the flora. Thirty-four honey samples of the acacia, linden and multifloral types, produced in eastern Romania and collected during 2013–2018, were physico-chemically analyzed using methods provided by the national and EU standards. The results of water-insoluble solids, color and refractive index were found to be 0.023–0.131%, 0.3–76.4 mm Pfund and 1.485–1.499, respectively. The moisture content ranged between 15.20% and 20.77%, solid substances content ranged between 79.23% and 84.80% and total soluble substances content ranged between 77.83 °Brix and 83.26 °Brix. The obtained values of specific gravity were from 1.414 to 1.450 g/cm3, pH ranged from 3.673 to 5.503 and free acidity ranged between 2.4 meq and 50 meq kg−1. The ash content and the electrical conductivity varied between 0.030 and 0.543% and 130 and 679 µS cm−1, respectively. Pearsonʹs correlation analysis showed an intense association of the ash content with electrical conductivity (r = 0.81). Our findings reveal the qualitative level of Romanian honey and the variation in quality parameters due to factors such as geographical region, climatic conditions, botanical origin and handling or storage conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 1438 KiB  
Article
Alternative Winemaking Techniques to Improve the Content of Phenolic and Aromatic Compounds in Wines
by Georgiana-Diana Dumitriu (Gabur), Carmen Teodosiu, Iulian Gabur, Valeriu V. Cotea, Rafael A. Peinado and Nieves López de Lerma
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030233 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
In this study, a complete physical–chemical analysis was performed for Fetească neagră wine, aged with oak staves. Red wine samples were taken from grape varieties grown in Northeast Romania and produced during 2013 vintage. At the end of the fermentation process, four oak [...] Read more.
In this study, a complete physical–chemical analysis was performed for Fetească neagră wine, aged with oak staves. Red wine samples were taken from grape varieties grown in Northeast Romania and produced during 2013 vintage. At the end of the fermentation process, four oak mini staves (1 cm width × 10 cm length × 1 cm thickness) from heavy toasted French oak were added to 5 L of red wine. Samples were aged using two time periods, respectively at 1.5 and 3 months, in a room at 14–16 °C. Results showed that the initial content of total phenolic decreased during ageing, from 931.1 mg catechin/L at 1.5 months to 775.4 mg catechin/L at 3 months. In contrast, the initial content of total antioxidant activity increased after the same period of ageing to 13.3 mM Trolox as compared to the aged wines for 1.5 months, at 12.8 mM Trolox. The corregram representing the relationship between the total phenols, total antioxidant activity (TAA) and their fractions and CieLab parameters was performed. Thirty-seven minor volatile compounds were quantified by stir bars sorptive extraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). An increase in odor activity value (OAV) with ageing time was observed, especially for fruity, fatty and woody series. The oak staves used in ageing processes can contribute positively to the aromatic profile of wines and could be considered a good choice for producing short-aged wines. Full article
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14 pages, 6238 KiB  
Article
Industrial Processing Affects Product Yield and Quality of Diced Tomato
by Francesco De Sio, Mariateresa Rapacciuolo, Alessandro De Giorgi, Luca Sandei, Bonaventura Giuliano, Alessio Tallarita, Nadezhda Golubkina, Agnieszka Sekara, Vasile Stoleru, Antonio Cuciniello, Giuseppe Morano and Gianluca Caruso
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030230 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
The tomato industry has been searching for new genotypes with improved fruit production, both in the field and industrially processed, together with high-quality performance under sustainable management conditions. This research was carried out in Southern Italy with the aim of assessing the effects [...] Read more.
The tomato industry has been searching for new genotypes with improved fruit production, both in the field and industrially processed, together with high-quality performance under sustainable management conditions. This research was carried out in Southern Italy with the aim of assessing the effects of industrial processing on the yield and quality of four tomato hybrids grown according to organic farming methods and addressed at dicing. MAX 14111 and HMX 4228 showed the highest values of field and processing yield as well as reduced sugars and fructose. MAX 14111 had the highest values of total solids and soluble solids, titratable acidity, fiber, energetic value, polyphenols, and also rutin, though not significantly different from Impact. HMX 4228 performed best in terms of sugar ratio, color and naringenin. Concerning the diced products, the sensorial qualities of the four hybrids differed significantly. Total polyphenols, naringenin and rutin in the tomato fruits were higher in the processed than in the raw product. The appreciable fruit yield and quality resulting from both field and processing phase represent a promising perspective for identifying improved tomato genotypes addressed at dicing. Full article
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15 pages, 1938 KiB  
Article
Application of Novel Microorganism-Based Formulations as Alternative to the Use of Iron Chelates in Strawberry Cultivation
by Ivana Puglisi, Sergio Brida, Vasile Stoleru, Valentina Torino, Vincenzo Michele Sellitto and Andrea Baglieri
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030217 - 6 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2530
Abstract
The strawberry is a low-growing, herbaceous perennial plant, sensitive to iron deficiency. The iron deficiency represents a nutritional disorder, leading to a decreased content of photosynthetic pigments, which determines the yellow color characteristic of chlorotic leaves. Therefore, in calcareous soils, the use of [...] Read more.
The strawberry is a low-growing, herbaceous perennial plant, sensitive to iron deficiency. The iron deficiency represents a nutritional disorder, leading to a decreased content of photosynthetic pigments, which determines the yellow color characteristic of chlorotic leaves. Therefore, in calcareous soils, the use of synthetic iron chelate is often mandatory in strawberry cultivation. The employment of novel microorganism-based formulations as alternatives to the use of iron chelates, was evaluated during strawberry cultivation by monitoring the morpho-biometric parameters, chlorophylls, the iron content in leaves and roots, and the Fe chelate reductase activity involved in absorption of iron during the chlorosis event in plants using the strategy I. The experimental design envisaged growing strawberry seedlings on an inert substrate (pumice), irrigated with Hoagland solution iron-free, with a 12 h photoperiod. After 42 days, at the first appearance of chlorosis symptoms, plants were transplanted into a calcareous soil, and after seven days, they were treated, by a single application, with a microorganism-based formulations (MBF), an inoculum (In) of Trichoderma spp. and Streptomyces spp., or Sequestrene (Sq). Strawberry plants were sampled and analyzed at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days from the treatments. The results showed that microorganism-based formulations positively affected the strawberry seedlings, by reducing the chlorosis symptoms, producing comparable effects to the Sequestrene treatment. Full article
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10 pages, 1248 KiB  
Article
Effects of Development Stage and Sodium Salts on the Antioxidant Properties of White Cabbage Microgreens
by Antoanela Patras
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030200 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Microgreens, considered “superfood”, are easy to cultivate and very rich in health-promoting compounds, as antioxidants. White cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) microgreens contain high quantities of phenolics, which contribute together with other bioactive compounds to their important antioxidant properties. The present [...] Read more.
Microgreens, considered “superfood”, are easy to cultivate and very rich in health-promoting compounds, as antioxidants. White cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) microgreens contain high quantities of phenolics, which contribute together with other bioactive compounds to their important antioxidant properties. The present study analyses the effects of development stage (5-, 7- and 9-days) and two sodium salts, NaCl and Na2SO4, in two concentrations (0.01 M and 0.1 M), on the antioxidant properties of white cabbage microgreens. Among the three development levels, the 5-day microgreens revealed the highest total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging and total reducing capacities. Concerning the effects of sodium salts, 0.01 M NaCl and 0.1 M Na2SO4 determined higher total reducing capacity. Additionally, 0.01 M NaCl induced the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity, while the most important total phenolics and anthocyanins contents were obtained in case of 0.1 M Na2SO4. In conclusion, from the developmental point of view, the 5-day old microgreens present, globally, the best characteristics. Considering the elicitor effects of sodium salts, 0.01 M NaCl and 0.1 M Na2SO4 generally determined the strongest antioxidant properties. The results could be used to develop new production technologies for antioxidant-enriched microgreens. Full article
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13 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Fertilization Management Improves the Yield and Capsaicinoid Content of Chili Peppers
by Teodor Stan, Neculai Munteanu, Gabriel-Ciprian Teliban, Alexandru Cojocaru and Vasile Stoleru
Agriculture 2021, 11(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11020181 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5159
Abstract
Chili, one of the most cultivated plants in the world, from the genus Capsicum sp., has great importance both in human nutrition and in the pharmaceutical industry. This study provides detailed information on the impact of chili crop fertilization on the production and [...] Read more.
Chili, one of the most cultivated plants in the world, from the genus Capsicum sp., has great importance both in human nutrition and in the pharmaceutical industry. This study provides detailed information on the impact of chili crop fertilization on the production and accumulation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. During the vegetation period, 235 kg∙ha−1 NPK (chemical—Ch), 270 kg∙ha−1 NPK (organic—O) and 250 kg∙ha−1 NPK (mixed—Ch + O) fertilizers were applied on six varieties of chili pepper (De Cayenne, Traian 2, Turkish, Sigaretta di Bergamo, Jovial and Chorbadjiiski); all versions were compared with the control (Ct). The determination of capsaicinoid compounds from chili pepper samples was done using high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC-UV/VIS. The chili pepper plants reacted differently according to the fertilizers used, both in terms of the production and accumulation of capsaicinoids. The highest production was obtained for the case of mixed treatments in all cultivars, with the highest production being found for Sigaretta di Bergamo (40.61 t∙ha−1). The capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content was influenced by both the type of fertilizer used and the variety of chili pepper. The accumulation of capsaicinoids in the chili fruits was found to be dependent on cultivar and fertilization management; higher amounts of capsaicinoids were found to accumulate in the fruits of the Chorbadjiiski variety treated with chemicals (0.83 mg∙g−1 capsaicin and 0.53 mg∙g−1 dihydrocapsaicin) compared with the amounts found for untreated De Cayenne (0.52 mg∙g−1 capsaicin and 0.33 mg∙g−1 dihydrocapsaicin). Full article
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17 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Myco-Biocontrol Based Formulates on Yield, Physiology and Secondary Products of Organically Grown Basil
by Gabriel-Ciprian Teliban, Marian Burducea, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Ivayla Dincheva, Ilian Badjakov, Neculai Munteanu, Gabriela Mihalache, Alexandru Cojocaru, Lorena-Diana Popa and Vasile Stoleru
Agriculture 2021, 11(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11020180 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3492
Abstract
The development of organic farming as a result of increasing consumer preference for organic food has led to the development and registration of new pest-control products for certified organic production. In this study, the effects of three biocontrol products containing spores and mycelium [...] Read more.
The development of organic farming as a result of increasing consumer preference for organic food has led to the development and registration of new pest-control products for certified organic production. In this study, the effects of three biocontrol products containing spores and mycelium of Arthrobotrys oligospora—Artis®, Beauveria bassiana—Bora®, and Coniothyrium minitans—Öko-ni® were tested on four basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars: ‘Aromat de Buzau’, ‘Serafim’, ‘Macedon’ and ‘Cuisoare’. The application of Öko-ni® increased basil yields by 8% relative to Control. The application of Bora® increased chlorophyll content of basil leaves by 2% and the activity of photosynthesis by 66% relative to the Control. Basil essential oil (EO) content was increased by 18% with the application of Artis® and by 34% with the application of Bora® and Öko-ni®, respectively. The content of phenolic compounds analyzed by HPLC varied; caffeic acid concentration was higher in the plants treated with Öko-ni®, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and rutin concentrations were higher in those treated with Artis®, while the quercitrin content was higher in Bora®-treated plants. The two main EO constituents that were identified were linalool and methyl chavicol in ‘Aromat de Buzau’, linalool and eugenol in ‘Serafim’, neral and geranial in ‘Macedon’, also linalool and eugenol in ‘Cuisoare’. The investigated myco-biocontrol products had positive effects on basil fresh biomass and EO content and also influenced the content of phenolic compounds. Full article
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10 pages, 1763 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) Genotypes for Improved Frost Tolerance
by Danut Petru Simioniuc, Violeta Simioniuc, Denis Topa, Merlijn van den Berg, Udo Prins, Penelope J. Bebeli and Iulian Gabur
Agriculture 2021, 11(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11020155 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4250
Abstract
Spring frost poses a challenge for all major crops and, in the case of Lupinus mutabilis (Andean lupin) can cause severe damage or even total loss of the crop. Within the LIBBIO project consortium, we conducted a series of experiments in order to [...] Read more.
Spring frost poses a challenge for all major crops and, in the case of Lupinus mutabilis (Andean lupin) can cause severe damage or even total loss of the crop. Within the LIBBIO project consortium, we conducted a series of experiments in order to develop a suitable protocol for screening lupin germplasm under frost-simulation conditions. Four lupin accessions, one Lupinus albus and three Andean lupins were used in the experiments (L. albus Mihai, L. mutabilis LIB 220, LIB 221, LIB 222). Seedlings at four developmental stages were challenged with five different levels of ‘frost’ stress from low (−2 °C) to high (−10 °C). Notably, young seedling (cotyledons just breaking through the soil surface) showed little evidence of frost damage for temperatures down to −6 °C. At −8 °C, however, damage was evident, suggesting a cold tolerance threshold occurs at this temperature. Interestingly, for later developmental stages, when the first and second leaves were visible, notable differences were observed starting at −6 °C. The results indicate that the plant growth stage is an important parameter when screening for frost tolerance in germplasm. Overall, by identifying Andean lupin genotypes adapted to high abiotic stress factors, farmers will be able to use it as a reference crop with potentially a commercial interest from the food sector, or cosmetics, and biofuel industries. Full article
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8 pages, 2039 KiB  
Communication
Hydrothermal Treatments Affecting the Concentration of Neochlorogenic Acid in Dough of Tartary Buckwheat
by Mateja Germ, Július Árvay, Alena Vollmannová, Tomáš Tóth, Ivan Kreft and Aleksandra Golob
Agriculture 2020, 10(12), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10120601 - 3 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of initial temperature treatments of gluten-free doughs made from Tartary buckwheat flour, and time of methanol extraction from the cooked doughs of neochlorogenic acid, an important polyphenol metabolite. The doughs were hydrothermally treated from 25 °C to 95 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of initial temperature treatments of gluten-free doughs made from Tartary buckwheat flour, and time of methanol extraction from the cooked doughs of neochlorogenic acid, an important polyphenol metabolite. The doughs were hydrothermally treated from 25 °C to 95 °C, cooked at 95 °C for 20 min, and extracted using 80% aqueous methanol at the room temperature for 20 min, 2 h, and 8 h. For the control, nonhydrothermally treated Tartary buckwheat flour samples, the extractable neochlorogenic acid was similar for these extraction times. For the cooked dough samples, the hydrothermal treatments were important in terms of extractability of neochlorogenic acid. The extractable neochlorogenic acid was higher for the control samples in comparison to the hydrothermally treated and cooked dough samples. Among these hydrothermally treated dough samples, the high extractable neochlorogenic acid concentrations were maintained for temperatures of at least 80 °C. These high-temperature initial treatments during dough preparation appear to prevent degradation of the neochlorogenic acid in Tartary buckwheat flour. During hydrothermal treatment, neochlorogenic acid is bound to grain structures in such a way that prolonged extraction time is needed to extract it. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 389 KiB  
Review
A Review of Representative Methods Used in Wine Authentication
by Andreea Popîrdă, Camelia Elena Luchian, Valeriu V. Cotea, Lucia Cintia Colibaba, Elena Cristina Scutarașu and Ana Maria Toader
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030225 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4418
Abstract
Authenticity and the methods for determining fraud are two of the most important issues in the field of quality control and food safety. In the winemaking field, the study of authenticity is all the more necessary, with wine being one of the most [...] Read more.
Authenticity and the methods for determining fraud are two of the most important issues in the field of quality control and food safety. In the winemaking field, the study of authenticity is all the more necessary, with wine being one of the most adulterated foods, as the monthly reports of the European Commission show. This results in a two-fold problem: consumer expectations are not met and there is a disloyal competition among wine producers in the field. Authenticity has been a priority research direction worldwide for centuries. Today, researchers are working on improving already existing methods of authenticity monitoring, but also on creating new ones. The intention is to have results that are as accurate, fast and inexpensive as possible for confirmation or rejection of the hypothesis. The bibliographic study of the literature undertaken for the development of this article aims to identify the classical methods of establishing authenticity, describe them and establish their degree of efficiency. Moreover, a review of the current research trends is presented in this work. Full article
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