Crop Responses and Tolerance to Abiotic Stress

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Production".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2023) | Viewed by 6466

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, National Research Council (IMEM-CNR), Parco Area Delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
Interests: precision agriculture; drought stress; phenotyping; sensors; abiotic stresses; wheat; tomato; transpiration; plant growth

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Department of Biosciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Giovanni Celoria 26, 20133 Milano, Italy
Interests: plant physiology; organellar calcium signaling; calcium imaging; signal transduction; molecular biology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the summer, the climate crisis dominated the headlines, with food security severely hampered by the increasing world population and the occurrence of severe environmental condition changes and meteorological events.

Abiotic stresses can impact crop yields terribly; thus, understanding the molecular and physiological bases of the tolerance mechanisms triggered during abiotic stresses, together with a deep characterization of contrasting phenotypes, are key aspects for addressing the needs of more tolerant crops. Droughts, heat, cold, salinity, heavy metal pollution, mineral deficiency and ultraviolet radiation limit plant growth and development, leading to yield reductions worldwide.

This Special Issue aims to collect reviews and original paper covering advances in understanding the tolerance to abiotic stresses and focusing on stress mitigation strategies, including novel approaches spanning the characterization of novel genetic materials, the exploitation of genetic resources and the use of novel agrochemical inputs to promote the plant defense response to abiotic stresses.

Dr. Michela Janni
Dr. Francesca Resentini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • plant phenotyping
  • genetic material
  • genetic resources
  • defense response mechanisms
  • sensing technology
  • omics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

35 pages, 2523 KiB  
Article
Unraveling Drought Tolerance and Sensitivity in Coffee Genotypes: Insights from Seed Traits, Germination, and Growth-Physiological Responses
by Habtamu Chekol, Yimegnu Bezuayehu, Bikila Warkineh, Tesfaye Shimber, Agnieszka Mierek-Adamska, Grażyna B. Dąbrowska and Asfaw Degu
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13091754 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
The coffee plant is highly susceptible to drought, and different genotypes exhibit varying degrees of tolerance to low soil moisture. The goal of this work was to explore the interrelation between seed traits and germination events, growth patterns, and physiological responses of coffee [...] Read more.
The coffee plant is highly susceptible to drought, and different genotypes exhibit varying degrees of tolerance to low soil moisture. The goal of this work was to explore the interrelation between seed traits and germination events, growth patterns, and physiological responses of coffee genotypes, aiming to identify significant associations that may facilitate the selection of coffee genotypes exhibiting enhanced drought tolerance and yield potential. Two consecutive experiments were conducted to examine the impact of these factors. In the first experiment, germination performance was examined for three groups of coffee genotypes: relatively tolerant (Ca74140, Ca74112, and Ca74110), moderately sensitive (Ca74158, Ca74165, and CaJ-21), and sensitive (Ca754, CaJ-19, and CaGeisha). The subsequent experiment focused on the growth and physiological responses of two relatively tolerant (Ca74110 and Ca74112) and two sensitive (CaJ-19 and Ca754) genotypes under drought stress condition. The relatively tolerant genotypes showed quicker and more complete germination compared to other groups. This was associated with higher moisture content, higher seed surface area to volume ratio, and higher coefficient of velocity of germination, coefficient of variation of germination time, and germination index. Additionally, the relatively tolerant genotypes showed higher seedling vigor. The results of the second experiment demonstrated superior growth performance in relative tolerant genotypes compared to the sensitive groups. Young coffee plants belonging to relatively tolerant genotypes exhibited higher growth performance than the sensitive genotypes, with a net assimilation rate strongly correlated to relative water content, leaf number, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll-a. In addition, a strong correlation was exhibited between the growth of young coffee plants and the surface area to volume ratio of the seeds, as well as the germination percentage. The seedling vigor index showed a strong correlation with net assimilation rate, chlorophyll content, seedling growth, and cell membrane stability. Furthermore, principal component analysis illustrated distinct clustering of genotypes based on their germination and growth-physiological performance. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that seed traits, germination, and post-germination events are integral factors in determining drought tolerance and sensitivity, as well as the growth and physiological responses of adult coffee plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Responses and Tolerance to Abiotic Stress)
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15 pages, 3379 KiB  
Article
Hydroponic Cultivation of Laranja Cherry Tomatoes under Salt Stress and Foliar Application of Hydrogen Peroxide
by Maria Amanda Guedes, André Alisson Rodrigues da Silva, Geovani Soares de Lima, Hans Raj Gheyi, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Luderlândio de Andrade Silva, Valeska Karolini Nunes Oliveira, Reynaldo Teodoro de Fátima, Reginaldo Gomes Nobre, Jackson Silva Nóbrega, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo, Saulo Soares da Silva and Josivanda Palmeira Gomes
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13091688 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the foliar application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in mitigating the effects of salt stress on cherry tomato cultivation in a hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in a [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the foliar application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in mitigating the effects of salt stress on cherry tomato cultivation in a hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using a Nutrient Film Technique hydroponic system. The experimental design used was completely randomized in a split-plot scheme, with four levels of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution—ECns (2.1, 2.8, 3.5, and 4.2 dS m−1), considered as plots, and five H2O2 concentrations (0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 µM), regarded as subplots, with four replicates and two plants per plot. An increase in the electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution negatively affected the production components of cherry tomatoes. However, it did not affect the post-harvest quality of the fruits. Despite the reductions observed in the production components due to the increase in the electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution, foliar application of H2O2 at concentrations esteemed between 22 and 25 µM attenuated the deleterious effects of salt stress on the number of fruits and ascorbic acid content and increased the total fruit production per plant of cherry tomatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Responses and Tolerance to Abiotic Stress)
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15 pages, 6823 KiB  
Article
Combined Effects of Drought and Soil Fertility on the Synthesis of Vitamins in Green Leafy Vegetables
by Taewan Park, Sahrah Fischer, Christine Lambert, Thomas Hilger, Irmgard Jordan and Georg Cadisch
Agriculture 2023, 13(5), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13050984 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Green leafy vegetables, such as Vigna unguiculata, Brassica oleraceae, and Solanum scabrum, are important sources of vitamins A, B1, and C. Although vitamin deficiencies considerably affect human health, not much is known about the effects of changing soil and climate [...] Read more.
Green leafy vegetables, such as Vigna unguiculata, Brassica oleraceae, and Solanum scabrum, are important sources of vitamins A, B1, and C. Although vitamin deficiencies considerably affect human health, not much is known about the effects of changing soil and climate conditions on vegetable vitamin concentrations. The effects of high or low soil fertility and three drought intensities (75%, 50%, and 25% pot capacity) on three plant species were analysed (n = 48 pots) in a greenhouse trial. The fresh yield was reduced in all the vegetables as a result of lower soil fertility during a severe drought. The vitamin concentrations increased with increasing drought stress in some species. Regardless, the total vitamin yields showed a net decrease due to the significant biomass loss. Changes in vitamin concentrations as a result of a degrading environment and increasing climate change events are an important factor to be considered for food composition calculations and nutrient balances, particularly due to the consequences on human health, and should therefore be considered in agricultural trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Responses and Tolerance to Abiotic Stress)
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16 pages, 1855 KiB  
Article
The Promotive Effect of Putrescine on Growth, Biochemical Constituents, and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Plants under Water Stress
by Hebat-Allah A. Hussein, Shifaa O. Alshammari, Marwa E. Abd El-Sadek, Sahar K. M. Kenawy and Ali A. Badawy
Agriculture 2023, 13(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13030587 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Drought stress is a significant environmental variable affecting wheat growth and development. Plant stress tolerance is intimately related to growth regulators of plants as polyamines. The study assessed the impact of drought (50% water irrigation and 100% water irrigation), priming of grains in [...] Read more.
Drought stress is a significant environmental variable affecting wheat growth and development. Plant stress tolerance is intimately related to growth regulators of plants as polyamines. The study assessed the impact of drought (50% water irrigation and 100% water irrigation), priming of grains in putrescine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mM), and their interactions on the growth, yield, and physiological attributes of wheat plants. Drought conditions declined plant height, fresh and dry weights, leaves and tillers numbers, and flag leaf area. However, applying putrescine, especially at (1 mM), enhanced wheat growth performance in normal or water-deficit conditions. Drought stress decreased spike length (28.6%), number of spikelets (15.6%), number of grains (30.3%), the weight of the spike (23.5%), and the weight of the grains/spike (37.5%). In addition, drought decreased the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, free amino acids, and total phenols, while applying putrescine enhanced wheat plant growth performance in normal or drought conditions. Putrescine at (1 mM) achieved the highest increase in plant height (38.8%), root length (50%), leaves number (166%), tillers number (80%), flag leaf area (70.3%), shoot fresh weight (99.4%), shoot dry weight (98.4%), root fresh weight (97.8%), root dry weight (210%) compared to the untreated plants. Moreover, pretreatment with putrescine improved chlorophyll a (13.3%), chlorophyll b (70.3%), carotenoids (61.8%), soluble sugars (49.1%), amino acids (42.7%), phenols (52.4%), number of spikelets (59.3%), number of grains (81.1%), and weight of spike (45.4%). Moreover, variations in the protein profile of wheat plants were due to drought conditions and putrescine application. In conclusion, priming wheat grains with putrescine effectively induces protective mechanisms against water stress and improves wheat plants’ physiological attributes and yield components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Responses and Tolerance to Abiotic Stress)
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