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Bacteria, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 3 articles

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12 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
Impact of Novel Functional Ingredients on Lactobacillus casei Viability
by Ricardo S. Aleman, Franklin Delarca, Mallerly Sarmientos, Jhunior Marcia, Ajitesh Yaday and Aryana Kayanush
Bacteria 2024, 3(1), 30-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3010003 - 19 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Nipple fruit (Solanum mammosum), teosinte (Dioon mejiae), Caesar mushroom (Amanita caesarea), and weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum) powders have shown great nutritional content with meaningful dietary applications. This study aspired to investigate the impact of nipple fruit, teosinte, [...] Read more.
Nipple fruit (Solanum mammosum), teosinte (Dioon mejiae), Caesar mushroom (Amanita caesarea), and weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum) powders have shown great nutritional content with meaningful dietary applications. This study aspired to investigate the impact of nipple fruit, teosinte, Caesar mushroom, and weevil powders on the bile tolerance, acid tolerance, lysozyme tolerance, gastric juice resistance, and protease activity of Lactobacillus casei. Nipple fruit, teosinte, Caesar mushroom, and weevil powders were combined at 2% (wt/vol), whereas the control samples did not include the ingredients. The bile and acid tolerances were analyzed in Difco De Man–Rogosa–Sharpe broth incubated under aerobic conditions at 37 °C. The bile tolerance was investigated by adding 0.3% oxgall, whereas the acid tolerance was studied by modifying the pH to 2.0. The lysozyme tolerance was studied in electrolyte solution containing lysozyme (100 mg/L), while the gastric juice tolerance was analyzed at pH levels of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. The protease activity was studied spectrophotometrically at 340 nm in skim milk incubated under aerobic conditions at 37 °C. The results show that nipple fruit increased the counts, whereas Caesar mushroom and weevil powders resulted in lower counts for bile tolerance, acid tolerance, lysozyme resistance, and simulated gastric juice tolerance characteristics. Furthermore, the protease activity increased by adding nipple fruit to skim milk. According to the results, nipple fruit may improve the characteristics of L. casei in cultured dairy by-products. Full article
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15 pages, 1827 KiB  
Review
Harnessing the Power of Zinc-Solubilizing Bacteria: A Catalyst for a Sustainable Agrosystem
by Swapnil Singh, Rohit Chhabra, Ashish Sharma and Aditi Bisht
Bacteria 2024, 3(1), 15-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3010002 - 24 Feb 2024
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Abstract
A variety of agrochemicals, especially fertilizers, are applied indiscriminately by farmers across trapezoidal landscapes to increase productivity and satisfy the rising food demand. Around one-third of the populace in developing nations is susceptible to zinc (Zn) deficiency as a result of their direct [...] Read more.
A variety of agrochemicals, especially fertilizers, are applied indiscriminately by farmers across trapezoidal landscapes to increase productivity and satisfy the rising food demand. Around one-third of the populace in developing nations is susceptible to zinc (Zn) deficiency as a result of their direct reliance on cereals as a source of calories. Zinc, an essential micronutrient for plants, performs several critical functions throughout the life cycle of a plant. Zinc is frequently disregarded, due to its indirect contribution to the enhancement of yield. Soil Zn deficiency is one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies that reduces crop yield. A deficiency of Zn in both plants and soils results from the presence of Zn in fixed forms that are inaccessible to plants, which characterizes the majority of agricultural soils. As a result, alternative and environmentally sustainable methods are required to satisfy the demand for food. It appears that the application of zinc-solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) for sustainable agriculture is feasible. Inoculating plants with ZSB is likely a more efficacious strategy for augmenting Zn translocation in diverse edible plant components. ZSB possessing plant growth-promoting characteristics can serve as bio-elicitors to promote sustainable plant growth, through various methods that are vital to the health and productivity of plants. This review provides an analysis of the efficacy of ZSB, the functional characteristics of ZSB-mediated Zn localization, the mechanism underlying Zn solubilization, and the implementation of ZSB to increase crop yield. Full article
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14 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Variations in Morpho-Cultural Characteristics and Pathogenicity of Fusarium moniliforme of Bakanae Disease of Rice and Evaluation of In Vitro Growth Suppression Potential of Some Bioagents
by Abdullah Al Amin, Md. Hosen Ali, Md. Morshedul Islam, Shila Chakraborty, Muhammad Humayun Kabir and Md. Atiqur Rahman Khokon
Bacteria 2024, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3010001 - 29 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Bakanae is one of the important diseases of rice in Bangladesh that causes substantial yield loss every year. We collected thirty isolates of Fusarium spp. from bakanae-infected rice plants from different agroecological zones of Bangladesh and investigated the variations in cultural and morphological [...] Read more.
Bakanae is one of the important diseases of rice in Bangladesh that causes substantial yield loss every year. We collected thirty isolates of Fusarium spp. from bakanae-infected rice plants from different agroecological zones of Bangladesh and investigated the variations in cultural and morphological characteristics and pathogenicity. Diversity was found in cultural characteristics, viz., colony features, phialide, chlamydospore formation, shape, and size of macro- and microconidia. Three variants of Fusarium species such as F. moniliforme, F. fujikuroi, and F. proliferatum were identified on PDA media based on their cultural and morphological characteristics. Isolate FM10 (F. moniliforme) exhibited the highest disease aggressiveness in developing elongated plants (26.50 cm), the highest number of chlorotic leaves (5.75), and a lower germination percentage. We evaluated different bioagents against the virulent isolate of F. moniliforme to develop a rice bakanae disease management approach. Four bioagents, viz., Trichoderma spp., Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Achromobacter spp., were evaluated for growth suppression of F. moniliforme. Among the bioagents, Achromobacter spp. and B. subtilis (BS21) showed 73.54% and 71.61% growth suppression, respectively. The investigation revealed that the application of Achromobacter spp. and B. subtilis (BS21) would be a potential candidate for effective and eco-friendly management of the bakanae disease of rice. Full article
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