Next Issue
Volume 4, September
Previous Issue
Volume 4, March
 
 

Architecture, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 12 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
12 pages, 27713 KiB  
Article
A Toolkit of Biophilic Interventions for Existing Schools to Enhance Student and Faculty Health and Performance
by Kari Leif and Vivian Loftness
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 445-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020024 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 287
Abstract
School learning environments play a crucial role in both student and faculty outcomes; however, the limited funding allocated to public school facilities can result in poor environmental conditions which can hinder occupant health and performance. Existing school facilities must then explore affordable retrofit [...] Read more.
School learning environments play a crucial role in both student and faculty outcomes; however, the limited funding allocated to public school facilities can result in poor environmental conditions which can hinder occupant health and performance. Existing school facilities must then explore affordable retrofit strategies that can effectively improve health and performance outcomes. The emerging field of biophilic design offers significant potential for improving existing school environments with benefits for both the students and faculty. Through case study research, this study proposes a toolkit of 42 biophilic retrofits for existing K-12 schools in a set of stakeholder cards that illustrate precedents, known impacts, and their relevance to high-performance schools. Additionally, a stakeholder card sorting study was conducted to establish the perceived viability and impact of each strategy. The findings reveal that biophilic retrofit design strategies are perceived by school community stakeholders to be impactful with varying levels of affordability. These findings further demonstrate that a toolkit of biophilic interventions for K-12 schools will offer invaluable insights to improve student and faculty conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biophilic School Design for Health and Wellbeing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 12636 KiB  
Article
A Controversial Make-Over of a ‘Make-Believe’ Heritage—The Transformation of Guangrenwang Temple
by Lui Tam
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 416-444; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020023 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 620
Abstract
This article discusses issues related to sustainable heritage management in China and problematises two dichotomies in heritage practices and research: the ‘Eastern/Western’ approaches and the tangible–intangible divide. It addresses these issues by examining the dramatic ‘make-over’ project of Guangrenwang Temple in Shanxi Province, [...] Read more.
This article discusses issues related to sustainable heritage management in China and problematises two dichotomies in heritage practices and research: the ‘Eastern/Western’ approaches and the tangible–intangible divide. It addresses these issues by examining the dramatic ‘make-over’ project of Guangrenwang Temple in Shanxi Province, China. The ‘make-over’ project transformed a small rural temple with a ninth-century timber structure into an architectural history museum, with a combination of private, public, and crowd-sourced funding. A real-estate corporation played a significant role in the project’s initiative and organised a large-scale national and international publicity campaign around the project. Previously unknown to most laypeople in China, the temple attracted much debate since the project’s completion, revolving around its ‘cultural legitimacy’, the design’s appropriateness, the sustainability of the revitalisation, and the implications of the project to its ‘heritage value’ and authenticity. This article traces the opinions, actions, and effects of the temple’s heritage assemblage and reveals the causal powers contributing to the emergence and transformation of associations within. It further questions the project team’s claims regarding the project’s effects on the historic setting’s authenticity and its long-term social impact on the relationship between the temple and its community. It reveals five controversies regarding the choice of its curation theme, architectural language, decision-making, and management models. The complexities manifested in the actors’ actions and effects demonstrate the ambiguous boundaries between the tangible and the intangible, and the perceived ‘Western’ and ‘Eastern’ approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Built Heritage Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
Occupant-Centric Digital Twin: A Case Study on Occupant Engagement in Thermal Comfort Decision-Making
by Sanaz Saadatifar, Azadeh Omidfar Sawyer and Daragh Byrne
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 390-415; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020022 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 510
Abstract
In open and shared workplaces, like co-working spaces or educational studios, thermal preferences vary widely among occupants. With the rise of flexible organizational workplace strategies, the challenge lies in balancing optimum, efficient temperature setpoints with maintaining occupants’ comfort. A potential solution involves a [...] Read more.
In open and shared workplaces, like co-working spaces or educational studios, thermal preferences vary widely among occupants. With the rise of flexible organizational workplace strategies, the challenge lies in balancing optimum, efficient temperature setpoints with maintaining occupants’ comfort. A potential solution involves a deeper understanding of variations in indoor climate and building occupants’ decision-making and preferences. This paper explores how an Occupant-Centric Digital Twin (OCDT) might address this by mapping indoor microclimates through a grid of IoT temperature sensors in real time. A large-screen display is utilized to present and visualize these data in an open workplace. The goal is to enhance awareness and provide agency for occupants to identify zones that align with their individual thermal preferences. A mixed-method occupant study (N = 27) was conducted to validate the approach. Exposure to the OCDT display resulted in higher thermal satisfaction among participants (p-value = 1.269 × 10−5, 0.05 significance level). The novelty of OCDT lies in extending the use of digital twin technology from facility managers to occupants, by granting them the agency to address comfort issues even in buildings where they lack direct control over the thermostat. This approach paves the way for a future where occupants in open workspaces can make informed decisions about where to work and how to achieve thermal comfort in those choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environments and Human Wellbeing)
23 pages, 1235 KiB  
Article
Teacher and Parent Perception of Biophilic Conditions in Primary-School Environments and Their Impact on Children’s Wellbeing
by Bethania Lanzaro and Marcella Ucci
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 367-389; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020021 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 235
Abstract
The term “biophilia” refers to the intrinsic affinity that humans have towards nature, natural elements and natural processes. Biophilic design theories suggest that the introduction or representation of natural characteristics or elements into the built environment can help enhance people’s health and wellbeing. [...] Read more.
The term “biophilia” refers to the intrinsic affinity that humans have towards nature, natural elements and natural processes. Biophilic design theories suggest that the introduction or representation of natural characteristics or elements into the built environment can help enhance people’s health and wellbeing. Primary school buildings are important environments where children spend considerable time. However, there is limited evidence on the impact of their biophilic features on the children themselves and on perceptions of important facilitators of children’s wellbeing, such as teachers and parents. This research aims to investigate whether teachers and parents perceive children to have a preference or desire for specific biophilic characteristics in their school’s physical environment; and whether teachers perceive some biophilic characteristics as having an effect on children’s performance and behaviour. A framework for evaluating biophilic characteristics in primary schools was developed. Two case study primary schools in London and Bath (England, UK) were audited against this framework, and teachers and parents were surveyed. The results suggest that children do have a preference towards the specific biophilic features studied, which is stronger and more demanding when the exposure is higher. For some aspects, teachers’ perception of benefits is also susceptible to the quality of the environment itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biophilic School Design for Health and Wellbeing)
25 pages, 9123 KiB  
Article
A Conservation Strategy for the Sanatorio Carlos Duran Cartín in Costa Rica
by Andrea Elena Sibaja Matamoros and Andrea Garzulino
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 342-366; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020020 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 152
Abstract
The Sanatorio Carlos Duran Cartín in Costa Rica is a noteworthy example of tuberculosis sanatorium architecture. Positioned within the broader context of Latin American architectural heritage conservation, the research pays specific attention to tuberculosis sanatoriums as a prevalent architectural typology from the early [...] Read more.
The Sanatorio Carlos Duran Cartín in Costa Rica is a noteworthy example of tuberculosis sanatorium architecture. Positioned within the broader context of Latin American architectural heritage conservation, the research pays specific attention to tuberculosis sanatoriums as a prevalent architectural typology from the early 1900s to the 1940s. Its historical and cultural significance is explored through contextualizing its architectural value and identifying current challenges and conservation needs. Using archival documents and photographic evidence, the study aimed to delineate tangible and intangible values associated with the complex, thus justifying the need for its preservation and safeguarding. Furthermore, the study aimed to establish guidelines and a conceptual framework for a conservation strategy designed for the Sanatorio Duran. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 10705 KiB  
Article
The Brutalist Figure—Grid: Exploring New York Brutalism
by Jonathan Letzter
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 316-341; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020019 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 635
Abstract
The grid plays a prominent role in architecture, aiding in space organization and influencing all aspects of planning, ranging from urban design to intricate building details. This paper posits that the grid receives heightened emphasis in Brutalism, particularly in constructivist Brutalism, where materials [...] Read more.
The grid plays a prominent role in architecture, aiding in space organization and influencing all aspects of planning, ranging from urban design to intricate building details. This paper posits that the grid receives heightened emphasis in Brutalism, particularly in constructivist Brutalism, where materials and construction are intentionally exposed. A question arises regarding the grid’s characteristics—despite its subtle appearance, the grid can sometimes be deceptive, ambiguous, and manipulative. The paper analyzes the merits and drawbacks of employing the grid in architecture, shedding light on its contributions to both structural and perceptual comprehensibility, as well as its role in increasing usefulness. To illustrate the application and perception of the grid, the paper examines two primary planning levels: urban planning and building design. The case studies focus on examples from New York City housing developments, specifically those constructed between the 1950s and the 1970s, and projects by architect I. M. Pei, which offer valuable insights into practical implementation. The paper concludes that while the grid can establish order, it may also engender an “uncanny” feeling. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4920 KiB  
Article
The Smithsons’ Unbuilt Projects: Considerations on the Retirement House Approach
by João Miguel Fidalgo and Helder Casal Ribeiro
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 303-315; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020018 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
The Retirement House (1959) was a project developed by Peter Smithson that did not have the opportunity to be materialized beyond the drawing; therefore, we will use this proposal as a case study to investigate deeper into his design themes. Two texts will [...] Read more.
The Retirement House (1959) was a project developed by Peter Smithson that did not have the opportunity to be materialized beyond the drawing; therefore, we will use this proposal as a case study to investigate deeper into his design themes. Two texts will be considered, “The nature of home: it’s equipment and furniture” and “Container and Contained”, presented, respectively, in the publications “Ordinariness and Light” and “Alison and Peter Smithson—from the House of Future to a house of today”, as a “guide” for an interpretation of the project. The Retirement House, recognised as being set within their Appliance Houses research, is charged through the different influences and cultural references that inhabit the Smithsons’ oeuvre in the 50s. As a main objective, we intend to show in more detail the inception and design themes of the case study through the analysis of installations, texts and other projects that serve as an experimental legacy. We intend to demonstrate the functional character and interconnection of spaces present in the work of Alison and Peter Smithson that form an operative design tool, set within the capacity of a topological variation that can imprint a flexibility value, with pronounced interest in contemporary architecture and the current housing crises. The present article is part of ongoing PhD research on Alison and Peter Smithson’s work. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2504 KiB  
Article
Status of Livability in Indonesian Affordable Housing
by Laksana Gema Perdamaian and Zhiqiang (John) Zhai
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 281-302; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020017 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 742
Abstract
Indonesia is experiencing population growth, as well as urbanization, thus increasing the needs of housing. As a result, land prices are soaring, and the housing supply cannot meet the demand. The most recent measure to overcome housing problems is the One Million House [...] Read more.
Indonesia is experiencing population growth, as well as urbanization, thus increasing the needs of housing. As a result, land prices are soaring, and the housing supply cannot meet the demand. The most recent measure to overcome housing problems is the One Million House Program, which aims to provide more than a million homes annually, with the majority of them being simple housing. The main characteristics of simple housing are limited space, limited facilities, and the use of basic materials. Regulation stated that any housing must satisfy the requirement of livable housing, which means the fulfilment of safety, health, and living-area requirements. This paper looks at affordability, livability, and sustainability criteria based on government regulation. It is found that the performance of housing cannot satisfy some of the requirements. The problems come from either inherently limited housing design, occupant requirements, or local climates. The existing research only focuses on one of three factors. Intertwined relationships between the three factors make an integrated approach necessary. A solution based on integrated performance modeling of the criteria is proposed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1309 KiB  
Article
Architects’ Perception of Quality of Life—Impact, Practice, and Barriers
by Stine Lea Jacobi and Thomas Bjørner
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 267-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020016 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 903
Abstract
This study intended to identify the perception of quality of life (QoL) among architects, how architecture can impact QoL, and which barriers architects perceive to impact QoL. Numerous studies have emphasized the significance of the built environment in determining QoL, especially in institutional [...] Read more.
This study intended to identify the perception of quality of life (QoL) among architects, how architecture can impact QoL, and which barriers architects perceive to impact QoL. Numerous studies have emphasized the significance of the built environment in determining QoL, especially in institutional buildings. However, there has been less focus on how architects perceive QoL and how the concept is applied in their planning and design for residential buildings. The contribution of this study is to provide an increasingly important awareness of how to improve the architects’ considerations to build for QoL. The study is based on qualitative data from in-depth interviews with ten architects and one workshop with seven architects. The participants were selected by quota sampling and were all partners or owners of Danish architectural firms that provide housing services and are representative of the Danish architectural industry. The results reveal that the perceptions of QoL among architects are linked to three primary dimensions: health, a sense of harmony, and the experience of enchantment. The participants perceived that architectural design could impact QoL in three primary dimensions: the environment, the experience of enchantment, and health. The most frequent perceived barriers are linked to the economy and resources, building codes and regulations, and knowledge and communication. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 9606 KiB  
Article
Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology in the Protection of Goods of Cultural Interest (GCIs): The Case of the Castle of Cala (Huelva, Spain)
by Gina M. Núñez-Camarena, Rafael Herrera-Limones and Álvaro López-Escamilla
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 247-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020015 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Currently, the use of modern technologies, such as UAVs, allows for a detailed analysis of the protection of Sites of Cultural Interest (BICs) in Spain. Cala Castle in Huelva is selected for this study, which is one of the most important medieval fortifications [...] Read more.
Currently, the use of modern technologies, such as UAVs, allows for a detailed analysis of the protection of Sites of Cultural Interest (BICs) in Spain. Cala Castle in Huelva is selected for this study, which is one of the most important medieval fortifications in the mountainous region and was rehabilitated between 2003 and 2011. After a decade of its architectural rehabilitation, the use of this new UAV technology will allow the creation of a database of the property and its surroundings, made up of a series of 3D models and photogrammetric studies of the territory. This analysis allows us two complementary readings to the original study: on the one hand, to characterize the natural and landscape context of Cala Castle, and on the other, to identify the pre-existence of a series of historic buildings, which have historically articulated this region. The 3D models obtained provide relevant graphic information. The current state of the BIC allows this space to be considered for reactivation as a social space at the regional level. The visuals of the regional environment allow us to identify that the most recent growth has been articulated longitudinally along the N-630 highway, this infrastructure being the backbone of the nucleus. As a pilot test, the beginning of this graphic and visual database (3D) at a regional level will provide a valuable tool for the conservation and registration of built heritage, given that it seeks to incorporate other fortifications that make up Banda Gallega with the aim of defining a sustainable development strategy at county level. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 5801 KiB  
Article
Impact of Solar Shading on Façades’ Surface Temperatures under Summer and Winter Conditions by IR Thermography
by María del Mar Barbero-Barrera, Ricardo Tendero-Caballero and María García de Viedma-Santoro
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 221-246; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020014 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 854
Abstract
In warm climates with high levels of solar irradiation, solar shading plays a determinant role on buildings’ envelope performance, both during summer and winter conditions. In this research, an evaluation of the solar shading effect on sunny façades through IR thermography non-destructive testing [...] Read more.
In warm climates with high levels of solar irradiation, solar shading plays a determinant role on buildings’ envelope performance, both during summer and winter conditions. In this research, an evaluation of the solar shading effect on sunny façades through IR thermography non-destructive testing was performed. Sunny and shaded areas revealed temperature differences of 7.4 °C in summer conditions and up to 1.2 °C in wintertime. Moreover, solar shading was shown to be beneficial not only for decreasing surface temperature in summertime but also for reducing convective air flow in wintertime. In addition, it was found that the prevalence of dense shadows, especially with non-reflective materials in louvres, is favorable. External Thermal Insulation Constructive Systems (ETICS) must be shadowed and the use of clear colors is recommended to reinforce homogeneity in the surface in wintertime and reduce solar absorptance in summertime. Under steady-state calculations, thermal losses can be reduced up to 30% at night in wintertime and up to 50–60% at daytime in summertime because of the shadowing. However, another important finding lied in the confirmation of the performance gap that arises between using air temperature, sol-air temperature and the actual surface temperature data, in such a way that the two former implied high levels of inaccuracy and overestimated the performance of the buildings compared to the actual behavior. Some of the main conclusions can be extrapolated to other circumstances. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 25803 KiB  
Article
Towards Transdisciplinary Heritage Assessment: An Analysis of the Use of Landscape Study Methods as a Holistic Toolbox for Cultural Site Characterisation in the Spanish Context
by Celia López-Bravo
Architecture 2024, 4(2), 197-220; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture4020013 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 726
Abstract
This research work arises from the need to design specific techniques for the characterisation of cultural sites. Assuming the increasing complexity of the protection typologies, the expansion of working scales gives thanks to technology and the pursuit of social sustainability objectives. Thus, its [...] Read more.
This research work arises from the need to design specific techniques for the characterisation of cultural sites. Assuming the increasing complexity of the protection typologies, the expansion of working scales gives thanks to technology and the pursuit of social sustainability objectives. Thus, its main objective is to search for innovative tools that other disciplines can contribute to the work of architects specialising in heritage studies. To this end, the research explores the main methodologies, maps, guides, and registers of landscape and historic landscape characterisation developed in Europe, particularly in Spain, over the last 40 years. Considering this intense and profound evolution of landscape analysis, useful strategies for the assessment of cultural sites from their conception in the 21st century arise. Nevertheless, landscape characterisation methods have been mainly developed and applied by geographers and are absent in many urban and territorial heritage studies. In response, this article proposes a new methodological approach focusing on contextual values to be used in the assessment of architectural heritage at the territorial scale. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop