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Eng. Proc., 2023, INTERACT 2023

The 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

Karachi, Pakistan | 15–16 March 2023

Volume Editors:
Muhammad Faizan Shirazi, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Pakistan
Saba Javed, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Pakistan
Sundus Ali, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Pakistan
Muhammad Imran Aslam, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Pakistan

Number of Papers: 27
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering (INTERACT-2023) was jointly organized by the Departments of Electronics and Telecommunications [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Muhammad Faizan Shirazi, Saba Javed, Sundus Ali and Muhammad Imran Aslam
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032027 - 5 Jun 2023
Viewed by 504
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review, which has been administered by the volume editors [...] Full article

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8 pages, 1251 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Efficient Opto Electronic Filter Design of Reflective CMY Colors for Optical Communications
by Shahram Hamza Manzoor, Shahinza Manzoor and Mary Antonette Perez Diez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032001 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
The discussed study presents a new type of opto-electronic color filter designed for optical communication that could revolutionize both the signal processing field and the fiber optic communication industry. The study proposes a precise structure design for three reflective color filters based on [...] Read more.
The discussed study presents a new type of opto-electronic color filter designed for optical communication that could revolutionize both the signal processing field and the fiber optic communication industry. The study proposes a precise structure design for three reflective color filters based on a tri-layer configuration. This design includes a titanium dioxide layer on top, a semi-conductor silicon layer in the middle, and a silicon dioxide layer at the bottom, creating a DSD structure. This design presents three different filters for pure hues, namely magenta, yellow, and cyan. One of the significant advantages of this tri-layer design is the thickness of each material layer, which plays a vital role in producing better intensity values and purity of CMY colors. This study presents the design of the new filters that could potentially have a significant impact on the display industry, and life-saving medical equipment where fiber optics with multi-layer opto-electronic color filters are used. The novelty of this study lies in its precise structure design and the potential to generate superior results compared to existing color filters. This innovative design can potentially be implemented in various fields, such as display technology and medical equipment, to enhance their performance and accuracy. Overall, this study’s contribution highlights the potential advantages and usages of the proposed filters in various fields. Full article
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7 pages, 2033 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Amplitude Response on the Capacity of an Intelligent-Reflecting-Surface-Enabled Narrowband SISO System
by Aisha Danish and Naureen Farhan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032002 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Future wireless networks are characterized as having a combination of various technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, combined communication, sensing and others. In this context, intelligent reflecting surfaces have been identified as a powerful candidate for 6G enabling technologies. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Future wireless networks are characterized as having a combination of various technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, combined communication, sensing and others. In this context, intelligent reflecting surfaces have been identified as a powerful candidate for 6G enabling technologies. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted narrowband single-input single-output (SISO) system. We evaluate the capacity and received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a SISO wireless system by considering the effect of amplitude response of the channel and changes in transmit SNR. The simulation results show that the capacity of the system can be significantly improved in the presence of passive, as well as active, reflecting elements even when the strength of the direct link between the transmitter and receiver is very low. Similarly, transmit SNR has a significant impact on the overall performance improvement of the system. Full article
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8 pages, 217 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Data Defense: Examining Fintech’s Security and Privacy Strategies
by Fasih Ur Rehman, Hafiz Muhammad Attaullah, Faisal Ahmed and Sundus Ali
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032003 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2988
Abstract
This article aims to investigate the problem of security and privacy in the fintech business, since the use of digital technologies has increased in last few years. In this context, we conducted a survey of fintech companies to understand how they are addressing [...] Read more.
This article aims to investigate the problem of security and privacy in the fintech business, since the use of digital technologies has increased in last few years. In this context, we conducted a survey of fintech companies to understand how they are addressing the security and privacy issue and what are the potential risks and benefits for consumers. According to the results, fintech companies are exploiting a range of technical, regulatory, and compliance measures to ensure the security and privacy of financial data, such as encryption, access controls, and data governance policies. However, we attempted to pinpoint open issues as well as prospective research directions. In such settings, there is a need to better understand the efficiency of different privacy and security measures, as well as the potential risks and advantages for customers while they are using fintech services. This article recommends that future research broaden its scope and delve further into the security and privacy issues of specific types of fintech services. Full article
6 pages, 951 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Genetic-Algorithm-Based Proportional Integral Controller (GAPI) for ROV Steering Control
by Ahsan Tanveer and Sarvat Mushtaq Ahmad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032004 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
This article presents the design and real-time implementation of an optimal controller for precise steering control of a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A PI controller is investigated to achieve the desired steering performance. The gain parameters of the controller are tuned using [...] Read more.
This article presents the design and real-time implementation of an optimal controller for precise steering control of a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A PI controller is investigated to achieve the desired steering performance. The gain parameters of the controller are tuned using the genetic algorithm (GA). The experimental response corresponding to the step waveform for the GA is obtained. A root-locus-tuned PI controller alongside a simulated-annealing-based PI controller (SAPI) is used to benchmark the response characteristics such as overshoot, peak time, and settling time. The experimental findings indicate that GAPI provides considerably better performance than SAPI and the root-locus-tuned controller. Full article
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6 pages, 1411 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of AgRED Performance in LR-WPAN Dense Ad-Hoc Networks
by Syed Talib Abbas Jafri, Irfan Ahmed, Sundus Ali and Faizan Qamar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032005 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
IEEE defines the standard 802.15.4 for Low Data Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) to be used with Internet of Things (IoT) sensor devices. IoT devices utilizing this standard suffer from traffic congestion on a node level in dense network scenarios in real [...] Read more.
IEEE defines the standard 802.15.4 for Low Data Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) to be used with Internet of Things (IoT) sensor devices. IoT devices utilizing this standard suffer from traffic congestion on a node level in dense network scenarios in real time applications. Active queue management (AQM) schemes can optimize the queues of the nodes in order to relive nodes from congestion and improve performance. This paper investigates the impact of Aggressive Random Early Detection (AgRED) AQM in dense network configuration with larger payload and higher service rate for LR-WPAN. The findings indicate better delay, throughput and packet delivery ratio when using AgRED as compared to RED. Full article
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7 pages, 1862 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Feature-Based Semi-Supervised Learning Approach to Android Malware Detection
by Mariam Memon, Adil Ahmed Unar, Syed Saad Ahmed, Ghulam Hussain Daudpoto and Rabeea Jaffari
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032006 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
The development of signature-based methods or Machine Learning (ML) techniques on static data has dominated automated malware detection on android platforms. However, these techniques may not detect dangerous activities that only manifest during runtime. Furthermore, there is already a significant volume of unlabeled [...] Read more.
The development of signature-based methods or Machine Learning (ML) techniques on static data has dominated automated malware detection on android platforms. However, these techniques may not detect dangerous activities that only manifest during runtime. Furthermore, there is already a significant volume of unlabeled malware data available, making the production of datasets through supervised ML approach of manual labelling expensive. For anti-virus researchers, the process of malware development poses a significant engineering challenge because they lack an effective method for capturing potentially new harmful files while removing clean and well-known files. In this research, we propose a semi-supervised ML technique to detect android malware from android permissions and Application Programmer Interface (API) call logs. The ML technique is incorporated into an android application to scan the installed applications and detect the corresponding levels of maliciousness with success. The results depict the feasibility of our proposed method and application. Full article
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6 pages, 1810 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of a Smart Medical Box for Automatic Pill Dispensing and Health Monitoring
by Zara Nasir, Amina Asif, Muhammad Nawaz and Muhammad Ali
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032007 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 10906
Abstract
Medication non-adherence or mismanagement in medicines schedules such as missing doses, taking the wrong amounts, or having medicines at incorrect times is a serious problem, especially in elderly patients or patients with serious illnesses, and may lead to deadly consequences. This paper proposed [...] Read more.
Medication non-adherence or mismanagement in medicines schedules such as missing doses, taking the wrong amounts, or having medicines at incorrect times is a serious problem, especially in elderly patients or patients with serious illnesses, and may lead to deadly consequences. This paper proposed a smart medical box that dispenses not only medicines at prescribed schedules but also has a basic health monitoring system for the patient’s temperature, oxygen level, and heart rate detection, thus relieving the patient from visiting a doctor. This device is Raspberry Pi-controlled, having an added security feature of biometric recognition so that the medicine is dispensed to the correct patient. Moreover, the user is notified once their medicine has been dispensed via SMS. The main aim of this project was to keep the device cost-effective, user-friendly, simple, and beneficial for the elderly population. Full article
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5 pages, 878 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance of Dense Millimeter Wave Network with Uniform Cylindrical Array
by Hira Mariam and Irfan Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032008 - 23 Apr 2023
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Future networks would be dense, reducing the link length between users and the base stations (BSs). Moreover, a higher frequency spectrum, such as millimeter wave (mmWave) will be employed for providing high data rates and capacity but at the cost of increased path [...] Read more.
Future networks would be dense, reducing the link length between users and the base stations (BSs). Moreover, a higher frequency spectrum, such as millimeter wave (mmWave) will be employed for providing high data rates and capacity but at the cost of increased path loss and blockage. The challenges in a dense network are two-fold: firstly, small link lengths require taking into account the BS height for optimum coverage performance; secondly, to mitigate signal loss at high frequencies, the BS and users must be equipped with antenna arrays. In this work, we derive mathematical expressions for signal-to-interference-plus-noise (SINR) coverage probability for a three-dimensional mmWave network by considering the height of BS and the buildings’ blockage. Uniform cylindrical antenna arrays are employed at BS and user equipment. Results show that there exists a certain BS height for a particular BS density and cell radius at which the coverage probability could be maximized. Full article
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5 pages, 2741 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preliminary Results of the Optimized Network Interface for Long Distance Haptic Teleoperation
by Humayun Khan and Riaz Uddin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032009 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
Bilateral haptic teleoperation (BHT) has been the center of interest for researchers for over half a century. It is a type of cutting-edge technology that enables the operator to transmit touch sensations over the internet to any part of the globe. The BHT [...] Read more.
Bilateral haptic teleoperation (BHT) has been the center of interest for researchers for over half a century. It is a type of cutting-edge technology that enables the operator to transmit touch sensations over the internet to any part of the globe. The BHT suffers from issues such as stability and transparency due the presence of network latency, jitters, and device impedance. In this paper, we designed an optimized network solution for bilateral haptic teleoperation. In this regard, successful long-distance haptic teleoperation experiments were performed with a pair of haptic devices, i.e., a Phantom Desktop (TouchX) and a Novint Falcon device, to test the robustness and versatility of the framework. Full article
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7 pages, 631 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Wireless Communications beyond Antennas: The Role of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
by Moazzam Shah Bukhari Syed, Hafiz Muhammad Attaullah, Sundus Ali and Muhammad Imran Aslam
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032010 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3494
Abstract
Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are a new and emerging technology that has the potential to revolutionize the way that wireless communication systems are designed and implemented. These surfaces are made up of a large number of small, individually controllable elements, each of which [...] Read more.
Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are a new and emerging technology that has the potential to revolutionize the way that wireless communication systems are designed and implemented. These surfaces are made up of a large number of small, individually controllable elements, each of which can be used to manipulate the phase and amplitude of the electromagnetic waves that pass through it. This allows them to perform a wide range of functions, including wireless power transfer, beamforming, and cloaking. In this work, we provide an overview of the principles and applications of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces, and we discuss the advantages and challenges of these surfaces in wireless communications. We also provide an overview of the current state of research in this area. Moreover, we outline the future directions for the development of these surfaces. Full article
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5 pages, 1169 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
GA-Based Motor Drive Control of Planetary Gears of a Variable Valve System of an Internal Combustion Engine
by Aziz ur Rehman and Ahsan Tanveer
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032011 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
For an internal combustion engine to attain greater fuel economy and performance per amount of emissions, variable valve-timing is often used. In this study, a PD controller for an electric driven planetary gear Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system is designed. The model under [...] Read more.
For an internal combustion engine to attain greater fuel economy and performance per amount of emissions, variable valve-timing is often used. In this study, a PD controller for an electric driven planetary gear Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system is designed. The model under study consists of an electric motor integrated with a planetary gear system. The phase angle of the camshaft is controlled by VVT for the required torque and engine speed. A classical PD controller is designed using the root locus method, which is then benchmarked against a GA-optimized PD controller. Finally, a simulation study is carried out which demonstrates that GA-optimized controller has better performance and capability to maintain an optimum phase angle for maximum brake power and regulation of the fuel and air mixture. Full article
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5 pages, 2515 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Novel IoT-Based Plant Monitoring System
by Muhammad Haashir Absar, Ghulam Fiza Mirza, Warisha Zakai, Youail John and Noman Mansoor
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032012 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 10440
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) plays a vital role in improving cultivation methods for greenhouses and providing farmers/landowners with the relevant information to make decisions for optimal yields. This paper presents an intelligent system, based on the IoT concept that remotely provides users [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) plays a vital role in improving cultivation methods for greenhouses and providing farmers/landowners with the relevant information to make decisions for optimal yields. This paper presents an intelligent system, based on the IoT concept that remotely provides users with information related to the temperature, humidity, and soil moisture intensity for the monitoring of plant conditions. The Android application is designed for the users to monitor plant health parameters and manage the timing and frequency of water sprinkling. The sensors collect the readings and transfer them to the Blynk app using the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module. Based on the critical condition of the plant, the user can control the solenoid valve via an Android application to maintain the healthy state of the plant. Full article
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6 pages, 2424 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Co-Sensitized DSSC with Natural Dyes Extracted from Beetroot, Pomegranate and Cranberry
by Wakeel Shah, Sadia Muniza Faraz, Sana Arshad, Syed Shabhi Haider and Muhammad Hassan Sayyad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032013 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
The aim of this study is to boost the power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by using the co-sensitization strategy with appropriate natural dyes extracted from pomegranate, beetroot and cranberry. The fabricated DSSCs were evaluated using current–voltage characteristics and UV-Vis [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to boost the power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by using the co-sensitization strategy with appropriate natural dyes extracted from pomegranate, beetroot and cranberry. The fabricated DSSCs were evaluated using current–voltage characteristics and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The co-sensitized DSSC with beetroot and cranberry showed higher short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency than their individual dye-based DSSCs. This improvement in the performance is due to the lower aggregation of the dyes, broader absorption in the visible region and lower value of impedance. However, co-sensitized DSSCs of pomegranate with beetroot and cranberry did not show any improvement in performance. Full article
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10 pages, 1083 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Simulation of Low-Frequency Sonophoretic Piezoelectric Transducer Applied over Human Skin
by Sehreen Moorat, Ahsan Ahmed Ursani, Aftab Memon, Nashrul Fazli Mohd Nasir and Bhawani S. Chowdhry
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032014 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Sonophoresis is the process that involves the passage of drug molecules through the skin under ultrasonic stimulation. Drugs with a molecular weight greater than 500 daltons require some kind of stimulus to catalyze their penetration into the skin. Low-frequency sonophoresis, i.e., applying low-frequency [...] Read more.
Sonophoresis is the process that involves the passage of drug molecules through the skin under ultrasonic stimulation. Drugs with a molecular weight greater than 500 daltons require some kind of stimulus to catalyze their penetration into the skin. Low-frequency sonophoresis, i.e., applying low-frequency (20–100 kHz) ultrasonic waves, is one of the active methods of stimulation used in transdermal drug delivery. The aim of this research is to explore the possibility of achieving high enough acoustic pressures inside human skin using a single-element piezoelectric transducer required to realize the transdermal delivery of drugs with a high molecular weight. Therefore, this paper presents a design and simulation of a single-element transducer to find voltage versus sound pressure levels (SPLs), as well as frequency response curves for low-frequency sonophoresis on human skin. A piezoelectric transducer composed of PZT-5H placed over human skin was simulated by combining the pressure acoustic module, solid mechanics, and electrostatic modules of the simulation tool. The presented simulation applies sinusoidal excitation to a PZT-5H-based transducer. The peak voltage and the frequency of the input are varied to study the resulting variations in acoustic pressure and SPL inside the human skin. Measurements of acoustic pressure are taken 0.1 mm deep into the human skin. The peak acoustic pressure increases linearly from 0.072 Pa to 0.72 Pa as the peak applied voltage increases from 1 mV to 10 mV. The peak acoustic pressure increases exponentially from 0.2 mPa to 5 mPa as the frequency varies from 20 kHz to 100 kHz for a constant peak voltage of 1 mV. The SPL achieved at 880 kHz is 186 dB, which is suitable for drug delivery in some areas of medicine, such as ophthalmology. Full article
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5 pages, 3328 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Implementation of Smart Contract in Supply Chain Management Using Blockchain and Internet of Things
by Fatima Haider Naqvi, Sundus Ali, Binish Haseeb, Namra Khan, Soomal Qureshi, Taha Sajid and Muhammad Imran Aslam
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032015 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
In this paper, we have presented the design and implementation of a blockchain-based approach for ensuring reliable supply chain management for commodities transported through smart containers. To administer interactions between the sender and receiver, our developed system makes use of the Ethereum blockchain’s [...] Read more.
In this paper, we have presented the design and implementation of a blockchain-based approach for ensuring reliable supply chain management for commodities transported through smart containers. To administer interactions between the sender and receiver, our developed system makes use of the Ethereum blockchain’s smart contract features. Smart containers equipped with Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled sensors are used to monitor shipping conditions to check predefined shipping requirements. Smart contracts on Ethereum are used to automate payments, validate receivers, and give refunds in the case of violation of predefined requirements. We have also implemented our designed front-end decentralized WebApp and wallet that allows the sender and receiver to communicate with Ethereum smart contracts. Full article
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6 pages, 3680 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Comparative Study of Multiple 2D Laser Scanners for Outdoor Measurements
by Sheraz Shamim and Syed Riaz un Nabi Jafri
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032016 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
This research work examines the performance of several compact and lightweight 2D laser scanners, including the Hokuyo URG-04LX, RP Lidar and Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW, for their potential use in scanning and mapping applications. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the performance of each [...] Read more.
This research work examines the performance of several compact and lightweight 2D laser scanners, including the Hokuyo URG-04LX, RP Lidar and Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW, for their potential use in scanning and mapping applications. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the performance of each scanner specifically for outdoor mapping operations. Multiple experiments were performed to characterize each scanner through statistical analysis. The paper discusses the results of testing for the drift effect, the impact of direct sun exposure to different materials and the effect of range measurement in outdoor environments on range and measurement accuracy. Full article
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9 pages, 1009 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Case Study on the Potential Applications of V2V Communication for Improving Road Safety in Pakistan
by Ashar Ahmed and Bushra Aijaz
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032017 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
The connected vehicles are the future of transportation. Road can be much safer when vehicles are able to communicate about the traffic and road conditions to its surrounding vehicles or if they can “talk” to each other. A smooth communication among vehicles can [...] Read more.
The connected vehicles are the future of transportation. Road can be much safer when vehicles are able to communicate about the traffic and road conditions to its surrounding vehicles or if they can “talk” to each other. A smooth communication among vehicles can be helpful in terms of road safety in case of sudden speed breaks, bumps, slow moving traffic, poor visibility conditions such as fog and, importantly, wrong way traffic. Our work suggests potential applications of Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication for improving road safety in Pakistan. We have considered one such unsignalized intersection point at main University Road, Karachi and presented an approach to make this road safer for vehicles and pedestrians using V2V technology. Full article
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5 pages, 1098 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modifying the Optical Properties of ZnS for Optoelectronic Applications
by Ali Raza, Hadia Noor, Saira Riaz and Shahzad Naseem
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032018 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Iron (Fe) doped zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles were prepared by thermolysis with varying concentrations of iron. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the zinc blende cubic structure of ZnS. The effect of iron on lattice parameters such as crystallite size, micro strains, and dislocation [...] Read more.
Iron (Fe) doped zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles were prepared by thermolysis with varying concentrations of iron. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the zinc blende cubic structure of ZnS. The effect of iron on lattice parameters such as crystallite size, micro strains, and dislocation density was examined. The defect chemistry inside the samples was analyzed by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The variation in PL intensity introduced by doping can be used in optical applications. The optical parameters of nanostructures were investigated with different doping and the incorporation of Fe substitute for Zn ions using UV-Visible (UV-Vis). Full article
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5 pages, 675 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Novel Yagi–Uda Antenna-Based Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) System Using Passive Reflectors
by Raza Jafri and Ghous Narejo
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032019 - 5 May 2023
Viewed by 745
Abstract
This work examines how reflections from various reflective surfaces affect the reception of RF electromagnetic waves and how the latter impacts wireless power transmission. The frequency range used was 469.5 MHz to 773.5 MHz, and three reflective materials of almost 20% variation in [...] Read more.
This work examines how reflections from various reflective surfaces affect the reception of RF electromagnetic waves and how the latter impacts wireless power transmission. The frequency range used was 469.5 MHz to 773.5 MHz, and three reflective materials of almost 20% variation in the reflection coefficient were tested with a Yagi–Uda antenna at the receiving end. Additionally, the orientation of the antenna was changed in terms of elevation and azimuthal angles. The results were then assessed, and a conclusion was drawn. Full article
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6 pages, 1516 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Simultaneous Upstream and Inter Optical Network Unit Communication for Next Generation PON
by Saba Ahmed, Rizwan Aslam Butt and Muhammad Imran Aslam
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032020 - 5 May 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
In traditional passive optical network (PON) neighboring, optical network units (ONUs) cannot communicate directly but through optical line terminals, resulting in propagation delays, security hazards and unnecessary use of upstream and downstream bandwidth. Inter optical network unit communication (IOC) can be a promising [...] Read more.
In traditional passive optical network (PON) neighboring, optical network units (ONUs) cannot communicate directly but through optical line terminals, resulting in propagation delays, security hazards and unnecessary use of upstream and downstream bandwidth. Inter optical network unit communication (IOC) can be a promising solution for these problems. IOC is mostly demonstrated with the help of dedicated or tunable transceivers increasing the cost of the system and making it complex. Transceiver sharing is also demonstrated in the literature but this will be a bandwidth-inefficient technique. In our paper, the simultaneous transmission of IOC signal and upstream signal is demonstrated in a time-division-multiplexed PON using single transmitter and self-phase modulation-based wavelength convertor at each ONU that converts the upstream wavelength of 1310 nm to 1310.6 nm when IOC signal is being transmitted by that ONU; at the same time another ONU can transmit the upstream data at 1310 nm which results in efficient bandwidth utilization with less delays compared to the traditional PON. In our proposed design the IOC signal is reflected back by a Uniform Fiber Bragg Grating and the upstream signal is transmitted through it. This design supports a data rate of 25 Giga bits/sec. Full article
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6 pages, 220 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Semantic Segmentation for Various Applications: Research Contribution and Comprehensive Review
by Madiha Mazhar, Saba Fakhar and Yawar Rehman
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032021 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Semantic image segmentation is used to analyse visual content and carry out real-time decision-making. This narrative literature analysis evaluates the multiple innovations and advancements in the semantic algorithm-based architecture by presenting an overview of the algorithms used in medical image analysis, lane detection, [...] Read more.
Semantic image segmentation is used to analyse visual content and carry out real-time decision-making. This narrative literature analysis evaluates the multiple innovations and advancements in the semantic algorithm-based architecture by presenting an overview of the algorithms used in medical image analysis, lane detection, and face recognition. Numerous groundbreaking works are examined from a variety of angles (e.g., network structures, algorithms, and the problems addressed). A review of the recent development in semantic segmentation networks, such as U-Net, ResNet, SegNet, LCSegnet, FLSNet, and GNet, is presented with evaluation metrics across a range of applications to facilitate new research in this field. Full article
5 pages, 942 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mobile Cloud Computing: A Survey on Current Security Trends and Future Directions
by Bisma Sheikh, Ayesha Butt and Javeria Hanif
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032022 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3023
Abstract
Mobile cloud computing (MCC) is an emerging concept that is gaining popularity in the IT sector. It is a significant topic of debate because it is being discussed as one of the most important trends for the future. After the COVID-19 pandemic, we [...] Read more.
Mobile cloud computing (MCC) is an emerging concept that is gaining popularity in the IT sector. It is a significant topic of debate because it is being discussed as one of the most important trends for the future. After the COVID-19 pandemic, we saw the rapid emergence of mobile computing, which also created massive hype over mobile application usage. This survey paper’s introduction is a literature review of the latest advanced prominent publications, highlighting its definition, infrastructure, advantages/limitations, and challenges, and is followed up with a discussion and results section, concluding with discussions on the future of MCC work that will be undertaken in the coming years. Full article
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7 pages, 3017 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Adaptive Gaussian and Double Thresholding for Contour Detection and Character Recognition of Two-Dimensional Area Using Computer Vision
by Nehal Abdul Rehman and Farah Haroon
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032023 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Contour detection with good accuracy is challenging in various computer-aided measurement applications. This paper evaluates the performance and comparison of thresholding and edge detection techniques for contour measurement along with character detection and recognition between images of high and low quality. Thresholding is [...] Read more.
Contour detection with good accuracy is challenging in various computer-aided measurement applications. This paper evaluates the performance and comparison of thresholding and edge detection techniques for contour measurement along with character detection and recognition between images of high and low quality. Thresholding is one of the key techniques for pre-processing in computer vision. Adaptive Gaussian Thresholding (AGT) is applied to distinguish the foreground and background of an image, and Canny edge detection (CED) is used for spotting a wide range of edges. Adaptive Gaussian Thresholding works on a small set of neighboring pixels, while Canny Edge Detection takes high- and low-intensity pixels in the form of thresholds that are tested to find accurate contour measurements while retaining the maximum data contained within them. The results show that Adaptive Gaussian Thresholding outperforms Canny edge detection for both brightened sharp and blurry dull images. Full article
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9 pages, 5283 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Extra-Super-Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
by Mian Muhammad Amir Ayaz, Ajmal Farooq and Ihteshamul Haq
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032024 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 776
Abstract
The main aim of this study is the development of a fast and secure charging system for electric vehicles. Recently, many different charging methods have been introduced. The main charging methods are the induction charging method and the conduction charging method. In this [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is the development of a fast and secure charging system for electric vehicles. Recently, many different charging methods have been introduced. The main charging methods are the induction charging method and the conduction charging method. In this paper, the conduction charging method is employed. With regard to the conduction method, there are three levels of charging. At level 1, there is single-phase charging, while both single-phase and three-phase charging occur at level 2. Lastly, at level 3, a three-phase AC charging method, DC conduction charging method, and AC/DC conduction charging method is focused. The level 3 charging method is the main focus of this paper. Toward this end, a 12-diode rectifier or 12-pulse rectifier with a firing angle of zero degrees having two bridges is used for AC to DC conversion, while a SEPIC converter is used for DC-to-DC conversion. The design presented in this paper was simulated and verified using MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the input current was reduced, and that overall efficiency was improved. Full article
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7 pages, 1909 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Adaptive Algorithms on Ultrasound Imaging
by Maryam Idrees, Hafiza Faheela and Faizan Ahsan Wali
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032025 - 23 May 2023
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Ultrasound, also known as ultrasonography, plays a major role in the medical imaging field. Ultrasound images are inevitably prone to different kinds of noise and speckle during their acquisition. Adaptive filters show the best performance in removing noise and speckles from images. In [...] Read more.
Ultrasound, also known as ultrasonography, plays a major role in the medical imaging field. Ultrasound images are inevitably prone to different kinds of noise and speckle during their acquisition. Adaptive filters show the best performance in removing noise and speckles from images. In this paper, we compared the least mean square algorithm, the quaternion least mean square algorithm, and the normalized least mean square algorithm for ultrasound image processing. It was demonstrated that NLMS displayed the best performance of these algorithms. The results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of algorithms. Full article
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7 pages, 2865 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Watermark Embedding Scheme with Variance of Chromatic Components
by Dur-e-Jabeen, Faiza Waqqas, Habib Shaukat, Maria Fatima, Rumaisa Iftikhar and Tehmina Khan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 32(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023032026 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 800
Abstract
This paper contains the idea of inserting a watermark with the variance of color components of the image. The color image is converted into CIE color space. Chromatic components are transformed into a sequency domain by applying the complex Hadamard transform. The variance [...] Read more.
This paper contains the idea of inserting a watermark with the variance of color components of the image. The color image is converted into CIE color space. Chromatic components are transformed into a sequency domain by applying the complex Hadamard transform. The variance of the spatio-chromatic coefficients is calculated and the watermark is selected from the transformed image based on the variance by setting the threshold value. The watermark is only inserted in image blocks that have a smaller value of variance than the threshold value. Simulation results are presented and discussed using the two variants of complex Hadamard transform and discrete cosine transform. Full article
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