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Eng, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 59 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The environmental assessment of metakaolin as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) through an integrated production process simulation and life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is addressed. Process simulation models that reproduce the basic stages of metakaolin production have been developed. The effect of various operational parameters and scenarios on the process heat demand and CO2 emissions is examined. Process simulation results are used as inputs in the LCA, along with upstream literature data (cradle-to-gate approach). LCA results highlight the influence of process temperature, kaolin moisture, exhaust gas recirculation, and various fuels’ combustion (to provide kiln heat requirements) to the life cycle GWP (global warming potential—GWP(100)). View this paper
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25 pages, 5093 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis on Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in Science Based on Web of Science Database
by Nehal Elshaboury, Eslam Mohammed Abdelkader, Abobakr Al-Sakkaf and Tarek Zayed
Eng 2023, 4(1), 984-1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010059 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3013
Abstract
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is an established technology with a wide range of applications for civil engineering, geological research, archaeological studies, and hydrological practices. In this regard, this study applies bibliometric and scientometric assessment to provide a systematic review of the literature on GPR-related [...] Read more.
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is an established technology with a wide range of applications for civil engineering, geological research, archaeological studies, and hydrological practices. In this regard, this study applies bibliometric and scientometric assessment to provide a systematic review of the literature on GPR-related research. This study reports the publication trends, sources of publications and subject categories, cooperation of countries, productivity of authors, citations of publications, and clusters of keywords in GPR-related research. The Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) and the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), which can be accessed through the Web of Science Core Collection, are used as references. The findings report that the number of publications is 6880 between 2001 and 2021. The number of annual publications has increased significantly, from 139 in 2001 to 576 in 2021. The studies are published in 894 journals, and the annual number of active journals increased from 68 in 2001 to 215 in 2021. Throughout the study, the number of subject categories involved in GPR-related research fluctuated, ranging from 38 in 2001 to 68 in 2021. The research studies originated from 118 countries on 6 continents, where the United States and the People’s Republic of China led the research articles. The top five most common keywords are ground-penetrating radar, non-destructive testing, geophysics, electrical resistivity tomography, and radar. After investigating the clusters of keywords, it is determined that civil engineering, geological research, archaeological studies, and hydrological practices are the four main research fields incorporating GPR utilization. This study offers academics and practitioners an in-depth review of the latest research in GPR research as well as a multidisciplinary reference for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2023)
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7 pages, 1451 KiB  
Communication
Measuring the Adoption of Drones: A Case Study of the United States Agricultural Aircraft Sector
by Roberto Rodriguez III
Eng 2023, 4(1), 977-983; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010058 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), commonly referred to as drones, are an emerging technology that has changed the way many industries conduct business. Precision agriculture is one industry that has consistently been predicted to be a major locus of innovation for UAS. However, this [...] Read more.
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), commonly referred to as drones, are an emerging technology that has changed the way many industries conduct business. Precision agriculture is one industry that has consistently been predicted to be a major locus of innovation for UAS. However, this has not been the case globally. The agricultural aircraft sector in the United States is used as a case study here to consider different metrics to evaluate UAS adoption, including a proposed metric, the normalized UAS adoption index. In aggregate, UAS operators only make up 5% of the number of agricultural aircraft operators. However, the annual number of new UAS operators exceeded that of manned aircraft operators in 2022. When used on a state-by-state basis, the normalized UAS adoption index shows that there are regional differences in UAS adoption with western and eastern states having higher UAS adoption rates while central states have significantly lower UAS adoption rates. This has implications for UAS operators, manufacturers, and regulators as this industry continues to develop at a rapid pace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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13 pages, 5035 KiB  
Article
A Novel MPPT Technique Based on Combination between the Incremental Conductance and Hysteresis Control Applied in a Standalone PV System
by Hind El Ouardi, Ayoub El Gadari, Mohcine Mokhlis, Youssef Ounejjar, Lahcen Bejjit and Kamal Al-Haddad
Eng 2023, 4(1), 964-976; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010057 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
A new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method, consisting in combining the Incremental Conductance (INC) algorithm with the Hysteresis control, was developed and applied to a standalone photovoltaic (PV) system to generate the maximum power of the PV array. The INC allows one [...] Read more.
A new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method, consisting in combining the Incremental Conductance (INC) algorithm with the Hysteresis control, was developed and applied to a standalone photovoltaic (PV) system to generate the maximum power of the PV array. The INC allows one to search for the Maximum Power Point (MPP). The hysteresis improves the accuracy of tracking the MPP very fast even after severe changes in weather conditions and has no oscillations around the MPP. The five-level S-Packed U Cells (SPUC5) inverter is used to transform the produced DC voltage to AC voltage; it generates five-level output voltage with a small number of switches and only DC source voltage. The capacitors of the SPUC5 are controlled by the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) in order to balance their voltages. The proposed PV system was established and trained in the MATLAB/Simulink environment under various irradiation conditions. A comparison between different MPPT methods, INC-PWM and INC-PI, was investigated in order to examine the effectiveness of the developed MPPT technique in particular, and of all the PV system components. The results of the simulation validate the effectiveness of the suggested MPPT algorithm as well as the used SPUC5 inverter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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10 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of Biodiesel from Recycled Vegetable Oil in Cuenca, Ecuador by Transesterification Catalyzed by KOH and NaOH
by Jennifer Ramírez, Lourdes Buestán, Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado and Verónica Pinos-Vélez
Eng 2023, 4(1), 954-963; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010056 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Due to the environmental impact of using fossil fuels, alternatives for the generation of biofuels are being studied. An option for this problem is to obtain biodiesel from recycled vegetable oil. Studies show that basic homogeneous catalysis has advantages such as speed over [...] Read more.
Due to the environmental impact of using fossil fuels, alternatives for the generation of biofuels are being studied. An option for this problem is to obtain biodiesel from recycled vegetable oil. Studies show that basic homogeneous catalysis has advantages such as speed over other types of catalysis. However, most of these studies are conducted with unused or little-used oils. Therefore, this study aims to obtain biodiesel from recycled vegetable oil collected from municipal oil collection centers by transesterification applying NaOH or KOH as catalysts. The used oil was filtered, washed, and dried to remove impurities. The transesterification reaction catalyzed with NaOH and KOH was carried out; each catalyst was tested at two concentrations: 0.5% and 1% w/w. All reactions were carried out at 55 °C, 350 rpm, methanol, and alcohol/oil ratio of 6/1 for 1.5 h. The best yield was found with the KOH with a concentration of 0.5%. The biodiesel obtained presented the following properties: density of 0.8807 g/mL, a viscosity of 4.694 mm2/s, an acid number of 0.355 mg KOH/g, and corrosion 1a, a calorific value of 39,726 J/g, and a FAME of 93%. Full article
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13 pages, 1366 KiB  
Article
A Review of Coastal Protection Using Artificial and Natural Countermeasures—Mangrove Vegetation and Polymers
by Deborah Amos and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2023, 4(1), 941-953; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010055 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3784
Abstract
Any stretch of coastline requires protection when the rate of erosion exceeds a certain threshold and seasonal coastal drift fluctuations fail to restore balance. Coast erosion can be caused by natural, synthetic, or a combination of the two. Severe storm occurrences, onshore interventions [...] Read more.
Any stretch of coastline requires protection when the rate of erosion exceeds a certain threshold and seasonal coastal drift fluctuations fail to restore balance. Coast erosion can be caused by natural, synthetic, or a combination of the two. Severe storm occurrences, onshore interventions liable for sedimentation, wave action on the coastlines, and rising sea levels caused by climate change are instances of natural factors. The protective methods used to counteract or prevent coastal flooding are categorized as hard and soft engineering techniques. This review paper is based on extensive reviews and analyses of scientific publications. In order to establish a foundation for the selection of appropriate adaptation measures for coastal protection, this research compiles literature on a combination of both natural and artificial models using mangrove trees and polymer-based models’ configurations and their efficiency in coastal flooding. Mangrove roots occur naturally and cannot be manipulated unlike artificial model configuration which can be structurally configured with different hydrodynamic properties. Artificial models may lack the real structural features and hydrodynamic resistance of the mangrove root it depicts, and this can reduce its real-life application and accuracy. Further research is required on the integration of hybrid configuration to fully optimize the functionality of mangrove trees for coastal protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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38 pages, 14901 KiB  
Review
Development and Applications of 3D Printing-Processed Auxetic Structures for High-Velocity Impact Protection: A Review
by Raí Felipe Pereira Junio, Pedro Henrique Poubel Mendonça da Silveira, Lucas de Mendonça Neuba, Sergio Neves Monteiro and Lucio Fabio Cassiano Nascimento
Eng 2023, 4(1), 903-940; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010054 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7030
Abstract
Auxetic structures (AXSs) are a novel class of materials with unique mechanical deformation behavior associated with negative Poisson ratio. The combination of AXS configurations with various types of materials has unveiled a wide field of applications, including military high-velocity protection against explosions and [...] Read more.
Auxetic structures (AXSs) are a novel class of materials with unique mechanical deformation behavior associated with negative Poisson ratio. The combination of AXS configurations with various types of materials has unveiled a wide field of applications, including military high-velocity protection against explosions and ballistic projectiles. However, the characteristic geometric re-entrant model of AXSs imposes limitations and difficulties when using conventional manufacturing methods to assemble the structure lattice. Additive manufacturing (AM) has recently been explored as a more efficient and cost-effective method to fabricate AXSs, regardless of the type of material. This review paper focuses on the development and applications of AM processed AXSs. The review highlights the significance and great potential for this class of materials that can be produced relatively fast and at a low cost. The advantages of AXS/AM are expected to extend to important industrial sectors, particularly for military ballistic armor, where the feasibility for products with improved properties is critical. The use of AM offers a viable solution to overcome the difficulties associated with the conventional manufacturing methods, and thus offers greater design flexibility, cost efficiency, and reduced material waste. This review paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the current state-of-the-art and future research prospects for the production and applications of AXS/AM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2023)
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19 pages, 3189 KiB  
Article
On Long-Range Characteristic Length Scales of Shell Structures
by Harri Hakula
Eng 2023, 4(1), 884-902; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010053 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Shell structures have a rich family of boundary layers including internal layers. Each layer has its own characteristic length scale, which depends on the thickness of the shell. Some of these length scales are long, something that is not commonly considered in the [...] Read more.
Shell structures have a rich family of boundary layers including internal layers. Each layer has its own characteristic length scale, which depends on the thickness of the shell. Some of these length scales are long, something that is not commonly considered in the literature. In this work, three types of long-range layers are demonstrated over an extensive set of simulations. The observed asymptotic behavior is consistent with theoretical predictions. These layers are shown to also appear on perforated structures underlying the fact these features are properties of the elasticity equations and not dependent on effective material parameters. The simulations are performed using a high-order finite element method implementation of the Naghdi-type dimensionally reduced shell model. Additionally, the effect of the perforations on the first eigenmodes is discussed. One possible model for buckling analysis is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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27 pages, 15124 KiB  
Review
On the State-of-the-Art of Solar, Wind, and Other Green Energy Resources and Their Respective Storage Systems
by Sheldon Wang, Ernuel Tonge, Isaac Sekanyo, Elijah Portmann and Salim M. Azzouz
Eng 2023, 4(1), 857-883; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010052 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5528
Abstract
In this article, we provide a brief overview of solar photovoltaic and thermal energy, wind turbines with vertical and horizontal axes, and other sustainable energy production systems as well as energy storage systems. In some remote areas away from easy access to electricity [...] Read more.
In this article, we provide a brief overview of solar photovoltaic and thermal energy, wind turbines with vertical and horizontal axes, and other sustainable energy production systems as well as energy storage systems. In some remote areas away from easy access to electricity and fresh water, a self-contained and self-sustainable off-grid energy production and storage farm is very much needed. In this so-called sustainable energy farm, solar photovoltaic and solar thermal energies along with wind energy can be harvested and stored in a secured battery warehouse with mobile wireless surveillance systems with unpredictable coherent motions. In this battery-based energy storage system, special fire protection measures must also be employed with heat sensors and early detection and alarm systems. The alarm system will be connected to both local fire stations and automated fire extinguishing systems. A subsequent paper will present the details of this wireless fireproof alarm powered by sustainable energy resources. The main purpose of this paper is to document, provide references, and inform about the state-of-the-art achievements in the field of renewable energies, particularly, solar, wind, and other green energy resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development)
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14 pages, 4977 KiB  
Review
A Review of Dielectric Resonator Antenna at Mm-Wave Band
by Meshari D. Alanazi
Eng 2023, 4(1), 843-856; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010051 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3291
Abstract
This paper is a comprehensive review of the recent literature studies on the developments and applications of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs). Different designs and techniques for linear and circular polarized DRAs are discussed thoroughly. In addition, array and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) [...] Read more.
This paper is a comprehensive review of the recent literature studies on the developments and applications of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs). Different designs and techniques for linear and circular polarized DRAs are discussed thoroughly. In addition, array and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) DRAs operating in the K, Ka, and V bands are illustrated. These applications are highly advantageous on many levels, resulting in the improved performance of the DRA in terms of obtaining a higher gain, lower losses, a higher efficiency, and a lower profile. This work reviews the fundamental research trends in antennas to meet the demands of fifth-generation (5G) communications and beyond. The reviewed studies are scholarly sources which contain measurement-based results. This paper concludes by highlighting the limitations of the studies and the implications for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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14 pages, 8513 KiB  
Article
Bending and Torsional Stress Factors in Hypotrochoidal H-Profiled Shafts Standardised According to DIN 3689-1
by Masoud Ziaei
Eng 2023, 4(1), 829-842; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010050 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Hypotrochoidal profile contours have been produced in industrial applications in recent years using two-spindle processes, and they are considered effective high-quality solutions for form-fit shaft and hub connections. This study mainly concerns analytical approaches to determine the stresses and deformations in hypotrochoidal profile [...] Read more.
Hypotrochoidal profile contours have been produced in industrial applications in recent years using two-spindle processes, and they are considered effective high-quality solutions for form-fit shaft and hub connections. This study mainly concerns analytical approaches to determine the stresses and deformations in hypotrochoidal profile shafts due to pure bending loads. The formulation was developed according to bending principles using the mathematical theory of elasticity and conformal mappings. The loading was further used to investigate the rotating bending behaviour. The stress factors for the classical calculation of maximum bending stresses were also determined for all those profiles presented and compiled in the German standard DIN3689-1 for practical applications. The results were also compared with the corresponding numerical and experimental results, and very good agreement was observed. Additionally, based on previous work, the stress factor was determined for the case of torsional loading to calculate the maximum torsional stresses in the standardised profiles, and the results are listed in a table. This study contributes to the further refinement of the current DIN3689 standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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13 pages, 3476 KiB  
Article
Comparison of One-Way and Two-Way Coupled Simulation for Thermal Investigation of Vehicular Wireless Power Transfer Modules
by Steve Zimmer, Martin Helwig, Anja Winkler and Niels Modler
Eng 2023, 4(1), 816-828; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010049 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
The thermal management of the vehicular module is key to the design of efficient wireless power transfer systems. In order to predict the thermal behavior by simulation, the mutual interaction of the electromagnetic and thermal fields must be taken into account. This multiphysical [...] Read more.
The thermal management of the vehicular module is key to the design of efficient wireless power transfer systems. In order to predict the thermal behavior by simulation, the mutual interaction of the electromagnetic and thermal fields must be taken into account. This multiphysical coupling leads to extensive computational effort. One approach to reduce the complexity by limiting the interdependencies between the domains is one-way coupling. This paper examined the applicability of one-way and two-way coupling for the prediction of the thermal management of an exemplary vehicular wireless power transfer module. The electromagnetic–thermal behavior of the proposed module was systematically studied by experiments and simulations on the component and module level. The performed studies showed that both simulation approaches accurately capture the transient thermal behavior of the coil and ferrites on the component level, whereas the one-way coupled simulation underpredicts the power losses caused by shielding by more than 20%, leading to a steady-state temperature difference of 15 K. As a result, on the module level, the two-way coupled simulation model provides a more accurate representation of the electromagnetic–thermal behavior of the proposed car pad module. Therefore, the authors recommend using a two-way coupling approach for the thermal dimensioning of wireless power transfer modules for electric vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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17 pages, 392 KiB  
Article
Formalising Autonomous Construction Sites with the Help of Abstract Mathematics
by Dmitrii Legatiuk and Daniel Luckey
Eng 2023, 4(1), 799-815; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010048 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
With the rapid development of modern technologies, autonomous or robotic construction sites are becoming a new reality in civil engineering. Despite various potential benefits of the automation of construction sites, there is still a lack of understanding of their complex nature combining physical [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of modern technologies, autonomous or robotic construction sites are becoming a new reality in civil engineering. Despite various potential benefits of the automation of construction sites, there is still a lack of understanding of their complex nature combining physical and cyber components in one system. A typical approach to describing complex system structures is to use tools of abstract mathematics, which provide a high level of abstraction, allowing a formal description of the entire system while omitting non-essential details. Therefore, in this paper, autonomous construction is formalised using categorical ontology logs enhanced by abstract definitions of individual components of an autonomous construction system. In this context, followed by a brief introduction to category theory and ologs, exemplary algebraic definitions are given as a basis for the olog-based conceptual modelling of autonomous construction systems. As a result, any automated construction system can be described without providing exhausting detailed definitions of the system components. Existing ologs can be extended, contracted or revised to fit the given system or situation. To illustrate the descriptive capacity of ologs, a lattice of representations is presented. The main advantage of using the conceptual modelling approach presented in this paper is that any given real-world or engineering problem could be modelled with a mathematically sound background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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19 pages, 2881 KiB  
Review
A Review of Techniques to Enhance an Amplifier’s Performance Using Resistive Local Common Mode Feedback
by Jaime Ramirez-Angulo, Antonio J. Lopez-Martin, Ramón G. Carvajal, Antonio Torralba and Jesus Huerta-Chua
Eng 2023, 4(1), 780-798; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010047 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2647
Abstract
A review of some of the most common applications of the resistive local common mode feedback technique to enhance amplifier’s performance is presented. It is shown that this simple technique offers essential improvement in open loop gain, gain-bandwidth product, slew rate, common mode [...] Read more.
A review of some of the most common applications of the resistive local common mode feedback technique to enhance amplifier’s performance is presented. It is shown that this simple technique offers essential improvement in open loop gain, gain-bandwidth product, slew rate, common mode rejection ratio, power supply rejection ratio, etc. This is achieved without increasing power dissipation or supply voltage requirements and with small additional silicon area and circuit complexity. It is also shown that it is especially appropriate to improve amplifiers’ performance in current fine-line submicrometer CMOS technology. Some of the applications discussed are GB enhanced, class AB and super class AB operational amplifiers, gain boosted op-amps, bulk-driven circuits, sample and hold circuits and power management circuits, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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19 pages, 3337 KiB  
Article
Production-Process Simulation and Life-Cycle Assessment of Metakaolin as Supplementary Cementitious Material
by Theodora Tasiopoulou, Dimitrios Katsourinis, Dimitrios Giannopoulos and Maria Founti
Eng 2023, 4(1), 761-779; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010046 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
An environmental assessment of metakaolin as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) through an integrated production-process-simulation and Life-Cycle-Assessment (LCA) approach is presented in this work. Initially, process simulation models were developed to reproduce the basic stages of the metakaolin production process. The effect of [...] Read more.
An environmental assessment of metakaolin as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) through an integrated production-process-simulation and Life-Cycle-Assessment (LCA) approach is presented in this work. Initially, process simulation models were developed to reproduce the basic stages of the metakaolin production process. The effect of various operational parameters and scenarios, such as calcination temperature, moisture of raw material and associated drying, exhaust gas recirculation and the use of alternative-fuel combustion to provide kiln heat requirements, was evaluated. The resulting process heat-demand and CO2-emission computations were used as inputs in the LCA along with upstream literature data using a cradle-to-gate approach. LCA results focused on the most relevant environmental impact category of cement production, the Global Warming Potential (GWP (100)). The major findings showed a strong influence of process temperature and kaolin humidity on the lifecycle GWP, since both parameters affected not only the core-process heat demand but also the upstream impact related to fossil-fuel extraction, processing, transportation and distribution. Recirculating the exhaust provided a GWP reduction potential of up to 19%. In all examined production scenarios, metakaolin depicted a lower Global Warming Potential compared to clinker due to the avoidance of emissions related to limestone calcination. As regards the impact contribution of fuels, coal was responsible for higher onsite emissions and natural gas indicated higher upstream emissions. The GWP (100) could be further reduced when alternative waste fuels such as plastic waste, MSW (municipal solid waste) and tires were used. The LCA results have been cross-checked with previous literature reports, and the corresponding deviations are accordingly explained. In any case, the LCA results of different studies are rarely directly comparable due to the numerous assumptions required, which cannot be identically replicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development)
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13 pages, 4309 KiB  
Article
Turbulent Flame Propagation in Hydrogen-Air and Methane-Air Mixtures in the Field of Synthetic Turbulence: Direct Numerical Simulation
by Valentin Y. Basevich, Andrey A. Belyaev, Fedor S. Frolov and Sergey M. Frolov
Eng 2023, 4(1), 748-760; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010045 - 1 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1754
Abstract
A technique alternative to the direct numerical simulation of turbulent combustion of gas mixtures is proposed. It is based on the solution of the three-dimensional transport equations for species concentrations and the energy conservation equation in the “synthetic” field of constant-pressure homogeneous, isotropic [...] Read more.
A technique alternative to the direct numerical simulation of turbulent combustion of gas mixtures is proposed. It is based on the solution of the three-dimensional transport equations for species concentrations and the energy conservation equation in the “synthetic” field of constant-pressure homogeneous, isotropic and statistically stationary (forced) turbulence using the detailed reaction mechanism. The synthetic turbulence with given spatial and temporal correlation functions is generated using the Monte Carlo method, assuming that the components of the vector of fluctuation velocity obey the normal Gaussian distribution. The technique is applied to the problem of turbulent combustion of fuel-lean and stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen and methane with air at a turbulence intensity up to 10 m/s. The calculated turbulent flame propagation velocities agree satisfactorily with the values measured in the fan-stirred bomb. The predicted volume fractions of active reaction centers H, O, and OH in a turbulent flame are shown to be less than in a laminar flame up to an order of magnitude, which also agrees with the experiment. In general, calculations indicate that the “wrinkled flame” model is applicable to fuel-lean and stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen and methane with air at turbulence intensities up to 10 m/s Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
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10 pages, 2635 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Characterization of Cemented Paste Backfill
by Andrew Pan and Murray Grabinsky
Eng 2023, 4(1), 738-747; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010044 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
Mechanical characterization is important to the design and analysis of cemented paste backfill (CPB) structures. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests have been widely used owing to their relative simplicity to characterize a material’s response to unconfined compressive loading. However, the UCS represents a [...] Read more.
Mechanical characterization is important to the design and analysis of cemented paste backfill (CPB) structures. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests have been widely used owing to their relative simplicity to characterize a material’s response to unconfined compressive loading. However, the UCS represents a single strength parameter and does not fully describe the material’s strength (or failure) envelope. In this study, we analyzed UCS tests with direct shear and uniaxial tensile strength tests conducted on the same CPB materials to provide mechanical characterization of CPB under a more complete range of loading conditions. The results demonstrate the Mohr–Coulomb failure envelope provides a consistent description of strengths arising from the three different test methods. Furthermore, a better estimate of the tensile strength is UCS/4, which is considerably higher than the conventional assumption that the tensile strength is equal to USC/10 or UCS/12. This has a significant impact on the assessed required strengths particularly for undercut designs using Mitchell’s sill mat analysis method and suggests that in future the conventional UCS tests should be complemented with direct tension and direct shear tests to improve underground designs using CPB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
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19 pages, 2808 KiB  
Review
The Importance of Assessing the Geological Site Effects of Ancient Earthquakes from the Archaeoseismological Point of View
by Hector R. Hinojosa
Eng 2023, 4(1), 719-737; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010043 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Earthquakes have and continue to, occur worldwide, though some places are affected more than others by earthquake-induced ground shaking and the same earthquake can cause more damage in one area than in nearby locations due to site-specific geological site conditions, also known as [...] Read more.
Earthquakes have and continue to, occur worldwide, though some places are affected more than others by earthquake-induced ground shaking and the same earthquake can cause more damage in one area than in nearby locations due to site-specific geological site conditions, also known as local site effects. Depending on the chronology of the earthquakes, various disciplines of seismology include instrumental and historical seismology, archaeoseismology, palaeoseismology and neotectonics, each focusing on using specific sources of information to evaluate recent or ancient earthquakes. Past earthquakes are investigated to expand the pre-instrumental and instrumental earthquake catalog and better evaluate a region’s seismic hazard. Archaeoseismology offers a way to achieve these goals because it links how ancient civilizations and their environment might have interacted and responded to past earthquake-induced ground motion and soil amplification. Hence, archaeoseismology explores pre-instrumental (past) earthquakes that might have affected sites of human occupation and their nearby settings, which have left their co-seismic marks in ancient manufactured constructions exhumed by archaeological excavations. However, archaeoseismological observations are often made on a limited epicentral area, poorly constrained dated earthquakes and occasionally on unclear evidence of earthquake damage. Archaeological excavations or field investigations often underestimate the critical role that an archaeological site’s ancient geological site conditions might have played in causing co-seismic structural damage to ancient anthropogenic structures. Nevertheless, the archaeological community might document and inaccurately diagnose structural damage by ancient earthquake shaking to structures and even estimate the size of past earthquakes giving little or no consideration to the role of geological site effects in addressing the causative earthquake. This mixture of factors frequently leads to imprecise estimates of the size of ancient earthquakes and unlikely earthquake environmental impacts, leaving unexplained the location and the moment magnitude of the causative earthquake. Hence, it is essential not to rely solely on earthquake intensities based on archaeologically documented co-seismic damage without assessing the nature of the observed structural damage and the contribution of the geological site effects. This paper explains the geological site effects concept to archaeologists unfamiliar with the notion. It clarifies its role in assessing ground shaking, soil amplification and earthquake intensity by past earthquakes and how and why the geological site effects can be estimated when a site is thought to have been struck by an earthquake. Hence, the geological site effects must be considered when archaeological excavations describe and interpret destruction layers. Conversely, engineers and seismologists dealing with seismic hazard risk assessment must pay close attention to archaeological investigations assessing earthquake intensities and locations based on field evidence of damage to structures attributed to past earthquakes, because the geological site effects might have been factored in inaccurately or not at all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
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16 pages, 6212 KiB  
Article
Reservoir Adaptability Evaluation and Application Technology of Carbon Quantum Dot Fluorescent Tracer
by Jinjian Chen, Jianxin Liu, Jijian Dai, Bo Lin, Chunyu Gao and Ci Wang
Eng 2023, 4(1), 703-718; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010042 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
This study investigates the application of carbon quantum dots as tracers in inter-well connectivity monitoring. A new laboratory-made water-soluble carbon quantum dot fluorescent tracer (CQD-W) was studied using 3D fluorescence characterization, structural characterization, reservoir suitability evaluation, and core flow experiments. The experimental results [...] Read more.
This study investigates the application of carbon quantum dots as tracers in inter-well connectivity monitoring. A new laboratory-made water-soluble carbon quantum dot fluorescent tracer (CQD-W) was studied using 3D fluorescence characterization, structural characterization, reservoir suitability evaluation, and core flow experiments. The experimental results showed that CQD-W has a size of about 2 nm, a minimum detection limit of 10−2 mg·L−1. It has good stability when the salinity is 200,000 mg·L−1, the concentration of Ca2+ is 1000 mg·L−1, the pH value is 1–9, and the temperature is 80 °C. Because CQD-W contains many functional groups, such as carboxyl and hydroxyl, it shows good water solubility and has a negative surface charge. In the process of formation flow, CQD-W has a small adsorption amount, high tracer resolution, and excellent injectivity and mobility, meaning it is less likely to cause reservoir damage. Through the study of this method, the application field of carbon quantum dots is broadened, and it is proved that the CQD-W fluorescent tracer has a high potential for application in the oil industry, laying the foundation for the popularization of this technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GeoEnergy Science and Engineering)
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25 pages, 4673 KiB  
Review
Macromolecules: Contemporary Futurist Thoughts on Progressive Journey
by Tomy Muringayil Joseph, Mohamed S. Hasanin, Aparna Beena Unni, Debarshi Kar Mahapatra, Jozef Haponiuk and Sabu Thomas
Eng 2023, 4(1), 678-702; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010041 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3018
Abstract
The 1920 paper by Hermann Staudinger, which introduced the groundbreaking theory of the existence of long-chain molecules made up of many covalently linked monomeric units, was remembered in 2020 for the 100th anniversary of its publication. This article and the follow-up works of [...] Read more.
The 1920 paper by Hermann Staudinger, which introduced the groundbreaking theory of the existence of long-chain molecules made up of many covalently linked monomeric units, was remembered in 2020 for the 100th anniversary of its publication. This article and the follow-up works of Staudinger on the subject serve as the basis for the study of macromolecular chemistry and polymer science. Although Staudinger saw the great potential of macromolecules, he most likely did not predict the repercussions of their widespread use. We are confronting an environmental and public health crisis with 6.3 billion metric tons of plastic garbage contaminating our land, water, and air. Synthetic polymer chemists can contribute to a more sustainable future, but are we on the right track? In this regard, this review provides insights into the trends, or perspectives, on the current, past, and future developments in macromolecular chemistry to promote an increased emphasis on “sustainable polymers”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bioengineering Approaches for Biopolymers and Composites)
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13 pages, 1367 KiB  
Article
Highly Dispersive Optical Solitons in Birefringent Fibers of Complex Ginzburg–Landau Equation of Sixth Order with Kerr Law Nonlinear Refractive Index
by Elsayed M. E. Zayed, Khaled A. Gepreel, Mahmoud El-Horbaty and Mohamed E. M. Alngar
Eng 2023, 4(1), 665-677; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010040 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
In this paper, we derived optical soliton solutions with a highly dispersive nonlinear complex Ginzburg–Landau (CGL) equation in birefringent fibers that have Kerr law nonlinearity. We applied two mathematical methods, namely the addendum Kudryashov’s method and the unified Riccati equation expansion method. Straddled [...] Read more.
In this paper, we derived optical soliton solutions with a highly dispersive nonlinear complex Ginzburg–Landau (CGL) equation in birefringent fibers that have Kerr law nonlinearity. We applied two mathematical methods, namely the addendum Kudryashov’s method and the unified Riccati equation expansion method. Straddled solitary solutions, bright soliton, dark soliton and singular soliton solutions were obtained.This model represents the propagation of a dispersive optical soliton through a birefringent fiber. This happens when pulses propagating through an optical fiber split into two pulses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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15 pages, 1328 KiB  
Article
Ensemble Machine Learning Techniques for Accurate and Efficient Detection of Botnet Attacks in Connected Computers
by Stephen Afrifa, Vijayakumar Varadarajan, Peter Appiahene, Tao Zhang and Emmanuel Adjei Domfeh
Eng 2023, 4(1), 650-664; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010039 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2739
Abstract
The transmission of information, ideas, and thoughts requires communication, which is a crucial component of human contact. The utilization of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is a result of the advent of enormous volumes of messages delivered over the internet. The IoT botnet [...] Read more.
The transmission of information, ideas, and thoughts requires communication, which is a crucial component of human contact. The utilization of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is a result of the advent of enormous volumes of messages delivered over the internet. The IoT botnet assault, which attempts to perform genuine, lucrative, and effective cybercrimes, is one of the most critical IoT dangers. To identify and prevent botnet assaults on connected computers, this study uses both quantitative and qualitative approaches. This study employs three basic machine learning (ML) techniques—random forest (RF), decision tree (DT), and generalized linear model (GLM)—and a stacking ensemble model to detect botnets in computer network traffic. The results reveled that random forest attained the best performance with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9977, followed by decision tree with an R2 of 0.9882, while GLM was the worst among the basic machine learning models with an R2 of 0.9522. Almost all ML models achieved satisfactory performance, with an R2 above 0.93. Overall, the stacking ensemble model obtained the best performance, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0084 m, a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.0641 m, and an R2 of 0.9997. Regarding the stacking ensemble model as compared with the single machine learning models, the R2 of the stacking ensemble machine learning increased by 0.2% compared to the RF, 1.15% compared to the DT, and 3.75% compared to the GLM, while RMSE decreased by approximately 0.15% compared to the GLM, DT, and RF single machine learning techniques. Furthermore, this paper suggests best practices for preventing botnet attacks. Businesses should make major investments to combat botnets. This work contributes to knowledge by presenting a novel method for detecting botnet assaults using an artificial-intelligence-powered solution with real-time behavioral analysis. This study can assist companies, organizations, and government bodies in making informed decisions for a safer network that will increase productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence and Data Science for Engineering Improvements)
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15 pages, 2684 KiB  
Article
Prediction Model for Optimal Efficiency of the Green Corrosion Inhibitor Oleoylsarcosine: Optimization by Statistical Testing of the Relevant Influencing Factors
by Saad E. Kaskah, Gitta Ehrenhaft, Jörg Gollnick and Christian B. Fischer
Eng 2023, 4(1), 635-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010038 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Optimization and statistical methods are used to minimize the number of experiments required to complete a study, especially in corrosion testing. Here, a statistical Box–Behnken design (BBD) was implemented to investigate the effects of four independent variables (inhibitor concentration [I], immersion time t [...] Read more.
Optimization and statistical methods are used to minimize the number of experiments required to complete a study, especially in corrosion testing. Here, a statistical Box–Behnken design (BBD) was implemented to investigate the effects of four independent variables (inhibitor concentration [I], immersion time t, temperature ϑ, and NaCl content [NaCl]) based on the variation of three levels (lower, middle, and upper) on the corrosion protection efficiency of the green inhibitor oleoylsarcosine for low-carbon steel type CR4 in salt water. The effects of the selected variables were optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) supported by the Minitab17 program. Depending on the BBD analytical tools, the largest effects were found for ϑ, followed by [I]. The effect of interactions between these variables was in the following order: [I] and ϑ > t and ϑ > [I] and [NaCl]. The second-order model used here for optimization showed that the upper level (+1) with 75 mmol/L for [I], 30 min for t, and 0.2 mol/L [NaCl] provided an optimal protective effect for each of these factors, while the lower level (−1) was 25 °C for ϑ. The theoretical efficiency predicted by the RSM model was 99.4%, while the efficiency during the experimental test procedure with the best-evaluated variables was 97.2%. Full article
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20 pages, 1385 KiB  
Article
SECDFAN: A Cyber Threat Intelligence System for Discussion Forums Utilization
by Georgios Sakellariou, Panagiotis Fouliras and Ioannis Mavridis
Eng 2023, 4(1), 615-634; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010037 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
Cyber Threat intelligence (CTI) systems offer new capabilities in the arsenal of information security experts, who can explore new sources of data that were partially exploited during the past decades. This paper deals with the exploitation of discussion forums as a source of [...] Read more.
Cyber Threat intelligence (CTI) systems offer new capabilities in the arsenal of information security experts, who can explore new sources of data that were partially exploited during the past decades. This paper deals with the exploitation of discussion forums as a source of raw data for a cyber threat intelligence process. Specifically, it analyzes the discussion forums’ characteristics and investigates their relationship with CTI. It proposes a semantic schema for the representation of data collected from discussion forums. Then, it applies a systematic methodology to design the reference architecture of the SECDFAN system, which handles the creation of CTI products following a comprehensive approach from the source selection to CTI product sharing and security experts’ collaboration. The final product of this work is the SECDFAN reference architecture. The contribution of this paper is the development of a CTI reference architecture of a system that, by design, handles all CTI-related issues for creating CTI products by analyzing the content of discussion forums. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence and Data Science for Engineering Improvements)
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13 pages, 1224 KiB  
Article
Use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Method in the Variety Selection Process for Sugarcane Planting
by Luiza L. P. Schiavon, Pedro A. B. Lima, Antonio F. Crepaldi and Enzo B. Mariano
Eng 2023, 4(1), 602-614; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010036 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
The sugar and alcohol sectors are dynamic as a result of climate alterations, the introduction of sugarcane varieties, and new technologies. Despite these factors, Brazil stands out as the main producer of sugarcane worldwide, being responsible for 45% of the production of fuel [...] Read more.
The sugar and alcohol sectors are dynamic as a result of climate alterations, the introduction of sugarcane varieties, and new technologies. Despite these factors, Brazil stands out as the main producer of sugarcane worldwide, being responsible for 45% of the production of fuel ethanol. Several varieties of sugarcane have been developed in the past few years to improve features of the plant. This, however, led to the challenge of which variety producers should choose to plant on their property. In order to support this process, this research aims to test the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to support producers to select which sugarcane variety to plant on their property. To achieve this goal, the research relied on a single case study performed on a rural property located inland of São Paulo state, the main producer state in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach used, specifically owing to the adaptability capacity of the AHP method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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21 pages, 8871 KiB  
Review
Hydrological Characteristics of the Bakony Region (Hungary)
by Márton Veress
Eng 2023, 4(1), 581-601; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010035 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
In this study, the karst systems (karst types) of the Bakony Region are classified and described. The karst features and the groundwater (karstwater) flow, their horst (block) types and the hydrological cycle of horst types were taken into consideration. In the mountains, regional [...] Read more.
In this study, the karst systems (karst types) of the Bakony Region are classified and described. The karst features and the groundwater (karstwater) flow, their horst (block) types and the hydrological cycle of horst types were taken into consideration. In the mountains, regional flow with a hypogene branch (hypogene karst system) and epigene karsts systems of local flow were distinguished. Among local epigene systems, epigene karst system, mixed epigene karst system, complex mixed epigene karst system, incomplete epigene karst system and semi-closed epigene karst system were distinguished. Local epigene systems are only temporarily (but not all of them) separated from the regional system that developed below and around them. During their development, separated local systems are more and more becoming the descending branches of regional systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
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12 pages, 2354 KiB  
Article
Tensor CSRMT System with Horizontal Electrical Dipole Sources and Prospects of Its Application in Arctic Permafrost Regions
by Alexander K. Saraev, Arseny A. Shlykov and Nikita Yu. Bobrov
Eng 2023, 4(1), 569-580; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010034 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
When studying horizontally-inhomogeneous media, it is necessary to apply tensor modifications of electromagnetic soundings. Use of tensor measurements is of particular relevance in near-surface electrical prospecting because the upper part of the geological section is usually more heterogeneous than the deep strata. In [...] Read more.
When studying horizontally-inhomogeneous media, it is necessary to apply tensor modifications of electromagnetic soundings. Use of tensor measurements is of particular relevance in near-surface electrical prospecting because the upper part of the geological section is usually more heterogeneous than the deep strata. In the Enviro-MT system designed for the controlled-source radiomagnetotelluric (CSRMT) sounding method, two mutually perpendicular horizontal magnetic dipoles (two vertical loops) are used for tensor measurements. We propose a variant of the CSRMT method with two horizontal electrical dipole sources (two transmitter lines). The advantage of such sources is an extended frequency range of 1–1000 kHz in comparison with 1–12 kHz of the Enviro-MT system, greater operational distance (up to 3–4 km compared to 600–800 m), and the ability to measure the signal at the fundamental frequency and its subharmonics. To implement tensor measurements with the equipment of the CSRMT method described in the paper, a technique of creating a time-varying polarization of the electromagnetic field (rotating field) has been developed based on the use of two transmitters with slightly different current frequencies and two mutually-perpendicular transmitter lines grounded at the ends. In this way, we made it possible to change the direction of the electrical and magnetic field polarization continuously. This approach allows realization of the technique of tensor measurements using the new modification of the CSRMT method. In permafrost areas, the hydrogenic taliks are widespread. These local objects are important in the context of study of environmental changes in the Arctic and can be successfully explored by the tensor CSRMT method. For the numerical modeling, a 2D model of the talik was used. Results of the interpretation of synthetic data showed the advantage of bimodal inversion using CSRMT curves of both TM and TE modes compared to separate inversion of TM and TE curves. These new data demonstrate the prospects of the tensor CSRMT method in the study of permafrost regions. The problems that can be solved using the CSRMT method in the Arctic permafrost regions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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14 pages, 3414 KiB  
Article
Similarity of Musical Timbres Using FFT-Acoustic Descriptor Analysis and Machine Learning
by Yubiry Gonzalez and Ronaldo C. Prati
Eng 2023, 4(1), 555-568; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010033 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Musical timbre is a phenomenon of auditory perception that allows the recognition of musical sounds. The recognition of musical timbre is a challenging task because the timbre of a musical instrument or sound source is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that is influenced [...] Read more.
Musical timbre is a phenomenon of auditory perception that allows the recognition of musical sounds. The recognition of musical timbre is a challenging task because the timbre of a musical instrument or sound source is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that is influenced by a variety of factors, including the physical properties of the instrument or sound source, the way it is played or produced, and the recording and processing techniques used. In this paper, we explore an abstract space with 7 dimensions formed by the fundamental frequency and FFT-Acoustic Descriptors in 240 monophonic sounds from the Tinysol and Good-Sounds databases, corresponding to the fourth octave of the transverse flute and clarinet. This approach allows us to unequivocally define a collection of points and, therefore, a timbral space (Category Theory) that allows different sounds of any type of musical instrument with its respective dynamics to be represented as a single characteristic vector. The geometric distance would allow studying the timbral similarity between audios of different sounds and instruments or between different musical dynamics and datasets. Additionally, a Machine-Learning algorithm that evaluates timbral similarities through Euclidean distances in the abstract space of 7 dimensions was proposed. We conclude that the study of timbral similarity through geometric distances allowed us to distinguish between audio categories of different sounds and musical instruments, between the same type of sound and an instrument with different relative dynamics, and between different datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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12 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Covering Arrays ML HPO for Static Malware Detection
by Fahad T. ALGorain and John A. Clark
Eng 2023, 4(1), 543-554; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010032 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Malware classification is a well-known problem in computer security. Hyper-parameter optimisation (HPO) using covering arrays (CAs) is a novel approach that can enhance machine learning classifier accuracy. The tuning of machine learning (ML) classifiers to increase classification accuracy is needed nowadays, especially with [...] Read more.
Malware classification is a well-known problem in computer security. Hyper-parameter optimisation (HPO) using covering arrays (CAs) is a novel approach that can enhance machine learning classifier accuracy. The tuning of machine learning (ML) classifiers to increase classification accuracy is needed nowadays, especially with newly evolving malware. Four machine learning techniques were tuned using cAgen, a tool for generating covering arrays. The results show that cAgen is an efficient approach to achieve the optimal parameter choices for ML techniques. Moreover, the covering array shows a significant promise, especially cAgen with regard to the ML hyper-parameter optimisation community, malware detectors community and overall security testing. This research will aid in adding better classifiers for static PE malware detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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17 pages, 5715 KiB  
Article
Kinetic Modelling for Hydrothermal Conversion of Food Wastes
by Geert Haarlemmer, Anne Roubaud and Morgane Briand
Eng 2023, 4(1), 526-542; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010031 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
A kinetic model was developed for the prediction of HTL product yields based on a chemical mechanism. The model was developed after experimental studies on food wastes and food processing wastes. The model parameters were determined by training the model on experimental data [...] Read more.
A kinetic model was developed for the prediction of HTL product yields based on a chemical mechanism. The model was developed after experimental studies on food wastes and food processing wastes. The model parameters were determined by training the model on experimental data on HTL of food wastes. Two other models from the literature were also tested. The calculated yields were compared with a large range of experimental data from the literature. Yields of bio-oil and char can be predicted from the process conditions, temperature, holding time, dry matter content, and the biochemical composition of the resource. Differences in the experimental recovery procedure and polarity of the extraction solvent are taken into account. This study shows that a kinetic model based on compositions allows a more detailed representation of the hydrothermal reactions than models purely based on resources and products. The precision of any model remains, however, largely dependent on the quality of the input data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development)
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19 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
High-Performance Computation of the Number of Nested RNA Structures with 3D Parallel Tiled Code
by Piotr Błaszyński and Włodzimierz Bielecki
Eng 2023, 4(1), 507-525; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010030 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Many current bioinformatics algorithms have been implemented in parallel programming code. Some of them have already reached the limits imposed by Amdahl’s law, but many can still be improved. In our paper, we present an approach allowing us to generate a high-performance code [...] Read more.
Many current bioinformatics algorithms have been implemented in parallel programming code. Some of them have already reached the limits imposed by Amdahl’s law, but many can still be improved. In our paper, we present an approach allowing us to generate a high-performance code for calculating the number of RNA pairs. The approach allows us to generate parallel tiled code of the maximal dimension of tiles, which for the discussed algorithm is 3D. Experiments carried out by us on two modern multi-core computers, an Intel(R) Xeon(R) Gold 6326 (2.90 GHz, 2 physical units, 32 cores, 64 threads, 24 MB Cache) and Intel(R) i7(11700KF (3.6 GHz, 8 cores, 16 threads, 16 MB Cache), demonstrate a significant increase in performance and scalability of the generated parallel tiled code. For the Intel(R) Xeon(R) Gold 6326 and Intel(R) i7, target code speedup increases linearly with an increase in the number of threads. An approach presented in the paper to generate target code can be used by programmers to generate target parallel tiled code for other bioinformatics codes whose dependence patterns are similar to those of the code implementing the counting algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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