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Appl. Mech., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this study, one-dimensional free-field analyses were performed before the three-dimensional silo dynamic analyses were subjected to earthquake loadings. Closed-form solutions in the frequency domain are available for one-dimensional shear wave propagation in a linearly viscous elastic system subjected to base accelerations. Numerical finite element solutions in the time domain analysis can be directly compared to such closed-form solutions in the free fields, including the lateral boundary, allowing us to assess the accuracy of numerical solutions. Five different computer programs (SHAKE91, DEEPSOIL, SRAP-1D, QUAD-4M, SMAP-3D) are utilized for the comparative studies between frequency and time domain analyses. View this paper
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21 pages, 8985 KiB  
Article
A Data-Driven Constitutive Model for 3D Lattice-Structured Material Utilising an Artificial Neural Network
by Arif Hussain, Amir Hosein Sakhaei and Mahmood Shafiee
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 212-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010014 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
A new data-driven continuum model based on an artificial neural network is developed in this study for a new three-dimensional lattice-structured material design. The model has the capability to capture and predict the nonlinear elastic behaviour of the specific lattice-structured material in the [...] Read more.
A new data-driven continuum model based on an artificial neural network is developed in this study for a new three-dimensional lattice-structured material design. The model has the capability to capture and predict the nonlinear elastic behaviour of the specific lattice-structured material in the three-dimensional continuum description after being trained through the appropriate dataset. The essential data as the input ingredients of the data-driven model are provided through a hybrid method including experimental and unit-cell level finite element simulations under comprehensive loading scenarios including uniaxial, biaxial, volumetric, and pure shear loading. Furthermore, the lattice-structured samples are also fabricated using SLA additive manufacturing technology and the experimental measurements are performed and used for validation of the model. This then illustrates that the current model/methodology is a robust and powerful numerical tool to conduct the homogenization in complex simulation cases and could be used to accelerate the analysis and optimization during the design process of new lattice-structured materials. The model could also easily be used for other engineered materials by updating the dataset and re-training the ANN model with new data. Full article
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20 pages, 7146 KiB  
Article
Parametric Numerical Study and Multi-Objective Optimization of Composite Curing through Infrared Radiation
by Petros Gkertzos, Athanasios Kotzakolios, Ioannis Katsidimas and Vassilis Kostopoulos
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 192-211; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010013 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Composite curing through infrared radiation (IR) has become a popular autoclave alternative due to lower energy costs and short curing cycles. As such, understanding and measuring the effect of all parameters involved in the process can aid in selecting the proper constituents as [...] Read more.
Composite curing through infrared radiation (IR) has become a popular autoclave alternative due to lower energy costs and short curing cycles. As such, understanding and measuring the effect of all parameters involved in the process can aid in selecting the proper constituents as well as curing cycles to produce parts with a high degree of cure and low curing time. In this work, a numerical model that takes inputs such as part geometry, material properties, curing-related properties and applied curing cycle is created. Its outputs include the degree of cure, maximum curing temperature and total curing time. A genetic algorithm and a design of experiments (DOE) sequence cover the range of each input variable and multiple designs are evaluated. Correlations are examined and factor analysis on each output is performed, indicating that the most important inputs are activation energy, specimen precuring, applied curing temperature and curing duration, while all the others can be considered constant. Finally, response surfaces are created in order to effectively map and provide estimations of the design space, resulting in a curing cycle optimizer given certain restrictions over the input parameters. Full article
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12 pages, 3238 KiB  
Communication
Time–Frequency Approach for Cutting Tool Power Signal Separation in Face Milling Operations
by Eduardo Rubio and Juan Carlos Jáuregui-Correa
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 180-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010012 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Face milling is among the processes that can produce a high-precision surface finish. Tool condition monitoring and signal processing algorithms are under extensive research to improve production quality and productivity in machining processes. In the present research, the time–frequency analysis technique was applied [...] Read more.
Face milling is among the processes that can produce a high-precision surface finish. Tool condition monitoring and signal processing algorithms are under extensive research to improve production quality and productivity in machining processes. In the present research, the time–frequency analysis technique was applied to the signal obtained from a sensor integrated into the primary AC power circuitry during the milling of steel bars to evaluate its applicability in detecting the current variations associated with the cutting force. The signal acquired from the sensor was processed in the time–frequency domain using wavelet analysis, and the results were compared with the traditional time and frequency analyses. The results showed that the signal variations produced by the cutting force were well localized in the frequency spectra with both approaches. However, the wavelet processing method yielded a poorly defined cutting force signal shape due to the limited resolution inherent in the sub-bands containing the frequencies of interest. Full article
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17 pages, 6206 KiB  
Article
The Concrete Effective Width of a Composite I Girder with Numerous Contact Points as Shear Connectors
by Alaa Hasan, Moaid Subh and George Wardeh
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 163-179; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010011 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Due to the shear strain in the plane of the slab, the parts of the slab remote from the steel beam lag behind the part of the slab located in its proximity. This shear lag effect causes a non-uniform stress distribution across the [...] Read more.
Due to the shear strain in the plane of the slab, the parts of the slab remote from the steel beam lag behind the part of the slab located in its proximity. This shear lag effect causes a non-uniform stress distribution across the width of the slab. As a result, several standards have introduced the concept of an effective flange width to simplify the analysis of stress distribution across the width of composite beams. Both the computed ultimate moment and serviceability limit states are directly impacted by the effective width. The effect of using a large number of contact points as shear connectors on the effective width of a steel beam flange has not been investigated. A three-dimensional finite element analysis is carried out in this paper. The ABAQUS software (version 6.14) is used for this purpose, where several variables are considered, including the surface area connecting the steel beam and concrete slab, the transverse space, and the number of shear connectors. It was discovered that the number of shear connectors on the steel beam flange has a major impact on the effective width. The many connectors work together to provide a shear surface that improves the effective width by lowering the value of the shear lag. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics (2nd Volume))
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1 pages, 178 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Tamadon et al. Flow-Based Anatomy of Bobbin Friction-Stirred Weld; AA6082-T6 Aluminium Plate and Analogue Plasticine Model. Appl. Mech. 2020, 1, 3–19
by Abbas Tamadon, Dirk J. Pons and Don Clucas
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010010 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
21 pages, 8893 KiB  
Article
Comparative Studies between Frequency Domain Analysis and Time Domain Analysis on Free-Field One-Dimensional Shear Wave Propagation
by Sun-Hoon Kim and Kwang-Jin Kim
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 141-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010009 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
In Korea, the underground silo structure for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facilities has been constructed and operated since 2014. Large-scale earthquakes occurred in 2016 and 2017, respectively, in Gyeongju and Pohang areas near the underground silo structures, and interest in the [...] Read more.
In Korea, the underground silo structure for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facilities has been constructed and operated since 2014. Large-scale earthquakes occurred in 2016 and 2017, respectively, in Gyeongju and Pohang areas near the underground silo structures, and interest in the stability of the underground silo increased significantly. In this paper, one-dimensional free-field analyses have been carried out before the three-dimensional silo dynamic analyses subjected to earthquake loadings. As an additional study, a new form of the finite element equilibrium equation is derived in terms of relative motions, which is essentially the same equation expressed in terms of total motions where the base shear force is applied to the earthquake load. The accuracy of conventional finite element solutions is evaluated by directly comparing them with closed-form solutions by frequency domain analysis such as SHAKE91. Full article
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20 pages, 9804 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic–Computational Fluid Dynamics Couplings in Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Processes—Development of a New Linearization Procedure for the Joule Production Term
by Thierry Tchoumi, François Peyraut and Rodolphe Bolot
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 121-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010008 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 524
Abstract
The finite volume method (FVM) was used to model a tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding process. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model of arc plasma integrating fluid–solid coupling was developed by solving electromagnetic and thermal equations in both the gas domain and the solid [...] Read more.
The finite volume method (FVM) was used to model a tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding process. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model of arc plasma integrating fluid–solid coupling was developed by solving electromagnetic and thermal equations in both the gas domain and the solid cathode. In addition, two additional coupling equations were considered in the gaseous domain where the arc is generated. This model also included the actual geometry of torch components such as the gas diffuser, the nozzle, and the electrode. The model was assessed using numerous numerical examples related to the prediction of the argon plasma mass fraction, temperature distribution, velocity fields, pressure, and electric potential in the plasma. A new linearization method was developed for the source term in the energy conservation equation, allowing for the prediction of Joule effects without artificial conductibility. This new method enhances the efficiency of the classical approach used in the literature. Full article
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19 pages, 6090 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Modeling and Experimental Validation of AA 5052-H34 Machining: A Comprehensive Study on Chip Morphology and Temperature Analysis
by Abbas Farhan Jawad Al-Khafaji, Behnam Davoodi and Seyed Ali Niknam
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 102-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010007 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 518
Abstract
An understanding of the dynamic behavior of materials plays a crucial role in machining improvement. According to the literature on this issue, one of the alloys whose dynamic behavior has been investigated less is AA 5052-H34, despite its numerous industrial applications. Using finite [...] Read more.
An understanding of the dynamic behavior of materials plays a crucial role in machining improvement. According to the literature on this issue, one of the alloys whose dynamic behavior has been investigated less is AA 5052-H34, despite its numerous industrial applications. Using finite element (FE) modeling greatly reduces machining research costs. This research delved into the dynamic behavior modeling of AA 5052-H34 during dry-turning FE simulation. The dynamic behavior of AA 5052-H34 was achieved using the Johnson–Cook (J-C) constitutive equation, which was calculated using the uniaxial tensile and Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests. To confirm the accuracy of the material model, these SHPB tests were then simulated in Abaqus. The J-C constitutive equation, paired with a J-C damage criterion, was employed in a chip formation and cutting temperature simulation. It was found that the feed rate significantly influences the dynamic behavior of AA 5052-H34. The thickness and morphology of the chip were investigated. The experimental and numerical chip thicknesses showed a direct relationship with the feed rate. The simulation temperature was also analyzed, and, as expected, it showed an upward trend with increasing cutting speed and feed rate. Then, the accuracy of the proposed FE simulation was confirmed by the agreement of the experimental and simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Scientists’ (ECS) Contributions to Applied Mechanics)
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11 pages, 850 KiB  
Article
A Simplified Model for the Study of Film-Boiling Droplet Motion on Microscale Ratchets
by Sheldon Wang, Jeong Tae Ok, Sunggook Park, Mahmoud Elsharafi and Yu Guo
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 91-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010006 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 686
Abstract
In this work, we explore a simplified model based on both analytical and computational methods for the study of film-boiling droplet motion on microscale ratchets. We consider a specific ratchet design with the length periods and depth of ratchets much smaller than the [...] Read more.
In this work, we explore a simplified model based on both analytical and computational methods for the study of film-boiling droplet motion on microscale ratchets. We consider a specific ratchet design with the length periods and depth of ratchets much smaller than the size of the droplet. We conclude based on our modeling that for the ratchet configuration considered in this paper, the conduction within the vapor film is the dominant means of heat transfer in comparison with convection and radiation. Furthermore, we demonstrate a more manageable two-dimensional model in which analytical approaches coupled with computational approaches yield reasonably accurate results in comparison to the actual experiments. Full article
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18 pages, 3498 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Reverse Yielding on the Plastic Conditioning of Interference Fits in Power Transmission Engineering
by Mario Schierz and Alexander Hasse
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 73-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010005 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Interference fits are very common shaft–hub connections due to their low manufacturing costs and excellent technical properties. The Plastic Conditioning of this machine element is a new and not very well-known method. During the development of this method, it was discovered that Reverse [...] Read more.
Interference fits are very common shaft–hub connections due to their low manufacturing costs and excellent technical properties. The Plastic Conditioning of this machine element is a new and not very well-known method. During the development of this method, it was discovered that Reverse Yielding occurs in certain applications and has a negative impact on the result. This paper examines the effects of Reverse Yielding on the technology of Plastic Conditioning of interference fits in Power Transmission Engineering. Based on the Shear Stress Hypothesis (SH), the Plane Stress State (PSS), and the ideal plastic behavior of materials, established stress–mechanical relationships are used to find the influencing parameters of Reverse Yielding on the technology of Plastic Conditioning and their limits. As a result, a new computational concept is developed that allows the user to maximize Plastic Conditioning while avoiding Reverse Yielding. Analytical calculation suggestions and diagrams for practical application are provided. Furthermore, the deviations in the obtained results, taking into account other material models such as the Von Mises Yield Criterion (VMYC) and material hardening, as well as the Bauschinger effect, are examined in comparison with our own numerical results from the development of Plastic Conditioning, and the resulting need for further research is defined. In addition, the method of Plastic Conditioning of interference fits is introduced and its basic principles are briefly explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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15 pages, 5230 KiB  
Article
Continuous Feed Grinding Milling Process of Soda-Lime Glass Using Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics
by Joshua Alamo, Jameson Pitcheralle, Craig G. Merrett, Michael C. F. Bazzocchi and Marcias Martinez
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 58-72; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010004 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 926
Abstract
A smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) modeling technique was applied in conjunction with the Johnson–Holmquist (JH-2) ceramic material constitutive model to replicate the fracture of soda-lime glass in a milling manufacturing process. Four-point bending tests were conducted to validate the soda-lime glass bulk material properties [...] Read more.
A smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) modeling technique was applied in conjunction with the Johnson–Holmquist (JH-2) ceramic material constitutive model to replicate the fracture of soda-lime glass in a milling manufacturing process. Four-point bending tests were conducted to validate the soda-lime glass bulk material properties prior to its implementation in ABAQUS CAE™ Explicit (Version 2017). The JH-2 material constitutive model replicated the fracture load and time to fracture for the four-point bending load cases as per ASTM C158. This study showed how SPH in combination with a validated JH-2 material model in a milling process simulation was able to replicate the output size distribution at 5000 and 6500 revolutions per minute (RPM). For operations at 3000 RPM or lower, it was shown that it is necessary to include additional effects in the model, such as fluid–structure interactions, to improve the correlation with the experimental data. The SPH model was validated through an experimental campaign using high-speed cameras and a particle Camsizer. The experimental results clearly indicate a direct relation between the mill’s RPM and the output particle size distribution. Full article
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22 pages, 13665 KiB  
Article
A Structural Health Monitoring System for Bond Line Flaws Detection on a Full-Scale Wingbox Section Demonstrator
by Lorenzo Pellone, Monica Ciminello, Umberto Mercurio, Gianvito Apuleo and Antonio Concilio
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 36-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010003 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 575
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies as systems for monitoring the integrity of aircraft’s structures. The use of compact and embeddable sensor networks, like the ones based on fibre optics (FO), [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies as systems for monitoring the integrity of aircraft’s structures. The use of compact and embeddable sensor networks, like the ones based on fibre optics (FO), is particularly attractive from the perspective of releasing an integrated structural system with intrinsic sensing capacity. Usually, an SHM system architecture is completed by a dedicated algorithm that processes the data gathered from the sensors to elaborate on the level of damage currently suffered by the structure, with the further possibility of providing information to the relevant specialists involved with its supervision. One of the main SHM applications that is attracting major interest is related to the inspection and detection of anomalies in bonded joints, which is extremely relevant in many composite realizations. Aeronautical regulations allow the use of bonded joints on an aircraft’s primary structure but require the implementation of a means to ensure their absolute safety, such as the introduction of further mechanical links aimed at stopping the propagation of a possible flaw or the availability of Non-Destructive Inspection (NDI) systems to prove the absence of relevant damaged areas. Generally, the main typical defects occurring during the manufacturing of bonded joints include adhesive curing, kissing bonds, poor porosity, and poor surface preparation. The current NDI systems more widely used and available to detect defects are still inaccurate due to the lack of standard procedures for the creation of representative defects in a controlled manner, which would allow for the development of reliable methodologies and tools able to ensure the safety of a bonded joint, as required by safety regulations. This paper shows the results relative to the implementation of an SHM system developed by the Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA) aimed at monitoring the bonding lines between spar caps and panels of a typical composite wingbox section and detecting faults in location and length. The work was performed during typical ground static tests by using a fibre optical sensing network embedded within relevant adhesive paste layers during the manufacturing process of the structure. In the reported investigation, the SHM system assumed the function of an NDI system tool. The results show that the developed SHM system has good reliability for the detection of both the position and size of damage areas that were artificially inserted within the test article during the bonding phase, showing its potential as a candidate to be used as a tool to verify the conditions of a bonded joint, as required by aviation authorities’ regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring in Composites Structures)
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16 pages, 4505 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Influence of Structural Characteristics on the Tensile Properties of Fused Filament Fabricated ABS Polymer Using Central Composite Design
by Anastasios Tzotzis, Athanasios Manavis, Nikolaos Efkolidis, César García-Hernández and Panagiotis Kyratsis
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 20-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010002 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 948
Abstract
This study presents an investigation of the effects of structural characteristics, such as the layer height, infill density, top/bottom layer line directions and infill pattern, on the structural efficiency of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)-based specimens. The Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique was utilized [...] Read more.
This study presents an investigation of the effects of structural characteristics, such as the layer height, infill density, top/bottom layer line directions and infill pattern, on the structural efficiency of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)-based specimens. The Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique was utilized for the specimen fabrication, and the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Strength-to-Mass (S/M) ratio were examined. The tests were planned according to the Central Composite Design (CCD), and an empirical model for each response was developed, with respect to the applied factors and their interactions. The analysis revealed that the characteristics with the strongest influence on the UTS and the S/M ratio were the infill and the layer height, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that the honeycomb structure contributed to the highest UTS compared to the other patterns. Finally, an optimization analysis based on the desirability function was performed, highlighting the combination of a 0.3 mm layer, 21.81% and 76.36% infill, 0° direction and the honeycomb pattern as the optimal for maximizing both UTS and S/M ratio under different desirability. Full article
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19 pages, 1305 KiB  
Review
Methods and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Hybrid Composites and Hybrid Polymer Composites: Influence of Ionic Liquid Addition
by Ahmad Adlie Shamsuri, Siti Nurul Ain Md. Jamil, Mohd Zuhri Mohamed Yusoff and Khalina Abdan
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 1-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010001 - 20 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Polymer hybrid composites and hybrid polymer composites are distinct but interconnected composite classes, each with unique compositions and design philosophies. The mechanical properties of these composites are vital in advanced materials due to their impacts on performance, durability, and suitability for various applications. [...] Read more.
Polymer hybrid composites and hybrid polymer composites are distinct but interconnected composite classes, each with unique compositions and design philosophies. The mechanical properties of these composites are vital in advanced materials due to their impacts on performance, durability, and suitability for various applications. The addition of ionic liquids into these composites is a promising innovation in advanced materials. In this short review, various polymer matrices (e.g., thermosets, thermoplastics, and biopolymers), fillers (e.g., inorganic, carbon, organic, and metal), and ionic liquids (e.g., imidazolium- and phosphonium-based) used to fabricate polymer hybrid composites and hybrid polymer composites with added ionic liquids are identified. Furthermore, the addition of ionic liquids into these composites through different methods (e.g., magnetic stirring, mechanical stirring, solid grinding, etc.) is discussed. The influence of ionic liquid addition on the mechanical properties, specifically the tensile properties of these composites, is also shortly reviewed. The changes in the tensile properties, such as the tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, of these composites are explained as well. The information presented in this review enhances the understanding of the methods applied to add ionic liquids into polymer hybrid composites and hybrid polymer composites, along with their tensile properties. In short, some ionic liquids have the capacity to enhance the tensile properties of hybrid polymer composites, and several ionic liquids can reduce the tensile properties of polymer hybrid composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Material Mechanics)
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