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Dairy, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Production of beef-cross-dairy calves from the dairy herd increases the value of non-replacement calves. Use of beef-breed sires may alter birth weight, gestation length and pre-weaning growth rate of calves, which in turn will influence the profitability of the dairy farm. This case study compared the progeny of beef-breed sires which were typical of those used over New Zealand dairy herds. Results were within suitable ranges, with progeny average birth weight ranging 33.3 to 41.4 kg, and gestation length ranging 276.1 to 288.6 days. Therefore, bulls with similar genetic merit would be suitable for mating mixed-aged dairy cows in New Zealand. View this paper
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Article
Farm Silage Facilities and Their Management for the Prevention of Anaerobic Bacteria Spore Contamination in Raw Milk
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 500-514; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030040 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1868
Abstract
At feed-out, aerobic spoilage of silage enables an increase in anaerobic spore-forming bacteria (ANSB) that may enter the total mixed ration (TMR). The aim of our study was to understand whether in hot summers the silage structures and management may affect the level [...] Read more.
At feed-out, aerobic spoilage of silage enables an increase in anaerobic spore-forming bacteria (ANSB) that may enter the total mixed ration (TMR). The aim of our study was to understand whether in hot summers the silage structures and management may affect the level of ANSB in milk for long-ripening cheese production. A survey of silage facilities, management, and their relationships with silage, TMR, feces, and milk ANSB most probable number (MPN) content was conducted in the Po Valley during summer months. Silo type did not affect the mean ANSB, but only the wideness of their value distributions, with a narrow range for bags and a wider range for bunkers. The unloading equipment affected the ANSB count; the front-end loader with cutter was associated with a lower ANSB count—probably as a result of the reduced surface left after daily silage removal. Silo length and daily removed face width were the main factors affecting contamination of silage by spore-forming bacteria during summer, with longer silos and wider surface removal reducing ANSB contamination—probably as a consequence of reduced aerobic spoilage at the silage surface. The silage contamination by spore-forming bacteria within a log10 2 MPN g−1 allowed a low concentration of spore-forming bacteria at the farm bulk milk tank level. Fecal ANSB levels did not factor into the regression that explains the ANSB in farm milk. It has been found that silage facilities’ features and their management are an important first step to reduce the extent of ANSB contamination at the farm level. Full article
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Article
Perception and Correlation of Dairy Cattle Farmers Concerning Electronic Media as a Source of Information in Punjab, Pakistan
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 489-499; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030039 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Pakistan is ranked fourth among all the milk-producing countries across the globe. Despite this, livestock farm families are often located far from potential locations for dairy production. This gap exists due to a lack of information regarding recommended dairy production practices. In this [...] Read more.
Pakistan is ranked fourth among all the milk-producing countries across the globe. Despite this, livestock farm families are often located far from potential locations for dairy production. This gap exists due to a lack of information regarding recommended dairy production practices. In this modern era, the provision of information necessary for enhanced dairy production could be achieved through the effective use of electronic media. The present study was confined to the district of Faisalabad due to our limited time and economic resources. We aimed to identify farmers’ perceptions of the use of electronic media as a source of reliable information. A total of 165 dairy farmers participated in this research survey after being selected using a simple random sampling technique. The findings of the present research study indicate that a lack of education followed by male–female influences the adoption of electronic media as a potential information tool. The use of mobile phones for obtaining necessary information, on the other hand, was ranked the highest among dairy farmers. It is recommended that dairy farmers’ training includes the effective use of electronic media so that they may equip themselves with advanced dairy production information. Full article
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Review
Compositional Characteristics of Mediterranean Buffalo Milk and Whey
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 469-488; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030038 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2817
Abstract
The main objective of this review is to summarize the compositional characteristics and the health and functional properties of Mediterranean buffalo milk and whey derived from mozzarella cheese production. Several studies have investigated the composition of buffalo milk and in particular its fat, [...] Read more.
The main objective of this review is to summarize the compositional characteristics and the health and functional properties of Mediterranean buffalo milk and whey derived from mozzarella cheese production. Several studies have investigated the composition of buffalo milk and in particular its fat, protein, and carbohydrates contents. These characteristics may change depending on the breed, feeding regime, and rearing system of the animals involved in the study, and also with the seasons. In particular, buffalo milk showed a higher nutritional value and higher levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals when compared to milks produced by other animal species. Additionally, buffalo milk contains beneficial compounds such as gangliosides that can provide antioxidant protection and neuronal protection, and can improve bone, heart, and gastrointestinal health in humans. Full article
Article
Body Condition Score, Rumination, Intake, Milk Production and Milk Composition of Grazing Dairy Cows Supplemented with Rumen-Protected Lysine and Methionine
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 462-468; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030037 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1970
Abstract
The study utilised a pasture grazing based, voluntary traffic automatic milking system to investigate milk production of cows fed a pasture-based diet and supplemented with a pellet formulated with vs. without rumen-protected lysine and methionine (RPLM). The study adopted a switch-over design (over [...] Read more.
The study utilised a pasture grazing based, voluntary traffic automatic milking system to investigate milk production of cows fed a pasture-based diet and supplemented with a pellet formulated with vs. without rumen-protected lysine and methionine (RPLM). The study adopted a switch-over design (over two periods of 5 and 10 weeks, respectively) and used 36 cows and equally allocated them into two experimental groups. The RPLM (Trial) pellet had 2% lower crude protein, but similar metabolizable energy content compared to the Control pellet. Pellet intake was 10.0 and 9.4 kg/day/cow. Milk yield was 36.2 and 34.4 kg/day/cow (p = 0.23), and energy corrected milk was 35.1 and 33.8 kg/day/cow (p = 0.076), and milk solids was 2.55 and 2.46 kg/cow/day (p = 0.073) in the Control and Trial groups, respectively. Milk fat%, milk protein%, milk fat: protein ratio, milking frequency and rumination time were not different between the two groups (p > 0.05). In period 1, plasma glucose was 3.1 mmol/L for both groups and milk urea were 150 and 127 mg/L in the Control and Trial groups, respectively. Both plasma glucose (as a proxy for energy supply) and milk urea (as a proxy for nitrogen use efficiency; NUE) were not different between groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that under a grazing pasture system, feeding lactating dairy cows a low protein pellet with RPLM supplementation, maintained milk production performance and NUE, compared with cows fed a high protein Control pellet diet with no RPLM. Further research should assess the long-term (seasonal) effects of feeding a diet formulated with RPLM on cow intake, health and reproductive performance. Full article
Article
Production of the Antihypertensive Peptide Tyr-Pro from Milk Using the White-Rot Fungus Peniophora sp. in Submerged Fermentation and a Jar Fermentor
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 452-461; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030036 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
In order to evaluate the blood pressure-lowering peptide Tyr-Pro (YP) derived from casein, we wanted to develop an efficient fermentation method. Therefore, we chose to use a jar fermentor for this purpose. Strains with an excellent antihypertensive peptide-releasing ability from casein were selected [...] Read more.
In order to evaluate the blood pressure-lowering peptide Tyr-Pro (YP) derived from casein, we wanted to develop an efficient fermentation method. Therefore, we chose to use a jar fermentor for this purpose. Strains with an excellent antihypertensive peptide-releasing ability from casein were selected from basidiomycete fungi that grow well in milk under shaking conditions accompanied by physical stimulation. Among them, the white-rot fungus Peniophora sp., which is suited for growth only in cow’s milk or low-fat milk under vigorous shaking conditions, was found to release peptides and amino acids from milk. When comparing the growth in cow’s milk and low-fat milk, there was no particular difference in the growth of mycelia between the two, but this fungus tended to preferentially consume lactose under low-fat conditions. The fermented milk exhibited good production of the target peptide YP. The expression of many genes encoding proteolytic enzymes, such as aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, was observed during the milk fermentation. Furthermore, this fungus showed good growth in a jar fermentor culture using only cow’s milk or low-fat milk, which enabled the efficient production of YP and ACE-inhibitory activity. At this time, it was more effective to use cow’s milk than low-fat milk. These results suggest that Peniophora sp. could be potentially useful in the production of the functional YP peptide from milk. Full article
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Article
Estimation of Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Ryegrass-Fed Dairy Cows: Model Development Using Diet- and Animal-Based Proxy Measures
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 435-451; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030035 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2313
Abstract
This study aimed to identify suitable predictors of nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE; milk N/N intake) for cows that differed in breeds and were fed with ryegrass pasture, using existing data from the scientific literature. Data from 16 studies were used to develop [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify suitable predictors of nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE; milk N/N intake) for cows that differed in breeds and were fed with ryegrass pasture, using existing data from the scientific literature. Data from 16 studies were used to develop models based on the relationships between NUE and dietary and animal-based factors. Data from a further 10 studies were used for model validation. Milk urea N (MUN) and dietary water-soluble carbohydrate-to-crudeprotein ratio (WSC/CP) were the best and most practical animal- and diet-based proxies to predict NUE. The results indicate that it might be necessary to adopt separate models for different breeds when using WSC/CP to predict NUE but not when using MUN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Nutrition and Welfare)
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Communication
Seroepidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) in Cattle across Three Livestock Pastoral Regions in Kenya
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 425-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030034 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease, endemic in Africa, with a high case fatality rate. There is no efficient treatment or licensed vaccine. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CCHFV in cattle in extensive grazing systems (both pastoralism [...] Read more.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease, endemic in Africa, with a high case fatality rate. There is no efficient treatment or licensed vaccine. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CCHFV in cattle in extensive grazing systems (both pastoralism and ranching) within the Maasai Mara ecosystem, Nanyuki, and the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. We conducted a seroepidemiological study of the sera of 148 cattle from 18 households from the three ecosystems in 2014, 2016, and 2019. Sera from 23 sheep and 17 goats were also obtained from the same households during the same period. Sera were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to CCHFV using the commercially available double-antigen ELISA kit. Overall, 31.5% CCHFV seropositivity was observed. The prevalence of CCHF was analyzed using a multiple logistic mixed model with main predictors. Risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV were age (p = 0.000) and season (p = 0.007). Our findings suggest exposure to CCHFV and point to cattle as likely reservoirs of CCHFV in Kenya. The findings might play a role in providing better insights into disease risk and dynamics where analysis of tick populations in these regions should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals)
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Editorial
Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 422-424; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030033 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Small ruminants, such as sheep and goats, are mostly raised in smallholder farming systems widely distributed throughout the world [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
Article
Changes in Native Whey Protein Content, Gel Formation, and Endogenous Enzyme Activities Induced by Flow-Through Heat Treatments of Goat and Sheep Milk
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 410-421; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030032 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different flow-through heat treatments—68, 73, 78, 85, 100 °C for 16 s—applied to in-line homogenized goat and sheep milk. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in raw goat milk was 324.5 ± 47.3 [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different flow-through heat treatments—68, 73, 78, 85, 100 °C for 16 s—applied to in-line homogenized goat and sheep milk. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in raw goat milk was 324.5 ± 47.3 μg phenol/mL, and that of lactoperoxidase (LPO) was 199.3 ± 6.7 U/L. The respective activities in raw sheep milk were 7615 ± 141 μg phenol/mL and 319 ± 38.6 U/L. LPO activity was not detected in both milk kinds treated at 85 °C for 16 s. Residual enzyme activities at 73 °C for 16 s with respect to the initial levels in raw milk were higher in goat than in sheep milk. The whey protein fraction of sheep milk was more heat sensitive compared to goat counterpart. Sheep milk rennet clotting time (RCT) was not affected by the treatments, while curd firmness decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at 100 °C for 16 s. Treatments more intense than 73 °C for 16 s increased the RCT of goat milk significantly but inconsistently and decreased curd firmness significantly, while yoghurt-type gels made from 73 °C or 78 °C for 16 s treated goat milk exhibited the highest water-holding capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Small Ruminants)
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Article
Identification of Red Pigments Produced by Cheese-Ripening Bacterial Strains of Glutamicibacter arilaitensis Using HPLC
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 396-409; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030031 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Glutamicibacter arilaitensis is one of the predominant bacterial species involved in the coloration of cheese rinds, especially smear-ripened cheeses. Besides well-known yellow-pigmented carotenoids, this species exhibits an ability to produce red pigments, as the occurrence of pink/red formation was previously found when co-cultured [...] Read more.
Glutamicibacter arilaitensis is one of the predominant bacterial species involved in the coloration of cheese rinds, especially smear-ripened cheeses. Besides well-known yellow-pigmented carotenoids, this species exhibits an ability to produce red pigments, as the occurrence of pink/red formation was previously found when co-cultured with a fungal strain. In this work, the red pigments synthesized by G. arilaitensis strains grown on cheese-based (curd) solid medium deacidified using Debaryomyces hansenii were identified. The analyses using HPLC equipped with both fluorescence and diode array detectors were performed to characterize the pigments extracted from a dry matter of the medium inoculated with either G. arilaitensis Re117, Po102, or Stp101. Based on the UV–vis absorption spectra, the elution order, and fluorescent property, compared to those of the porphyrin standards, eight metal-free porphyrins, including UPI, UPIII, 7PI, 6PI, 5PI, CPI, CPIII, and MPIX, were indicated as components of the red pigments produced by these G. arilaitensis strains. However, following the chromatographic profiles, the degree of porphyrins formed by each strain was apparently different. Regardless of precise quantitative measurement, the type strains Re117 and Po102 manifested a potential to produce a high amount of CPIII, whereas MPIX was formed by the strains Po102 and Stp101, but exceptionally high by the strain Stp101. The variation in both yield and form of the red pigments synthesized by the cheese-related bacterial G. arilaitensis has not previously been reported; therefore, our results provide the first information on these aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Milk Processing)
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Article
Sire Effects on Birth Weight, Gestation Length, and Pre-Weaning Growth of Beef-Cross-Dairy Calves: A Case Study in New Zealand
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 385-395; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030030 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Production of beef-cross-dairy calves from dairy cows increases the value of non-replacement calves born to the dairy herd. The use of beef-breed sires may impact on calf birth weight, gestation length and pre-weaning growth rate of calves, which in turn influences the profitability [...] Read more.
Production of beef-cross-dairy calves from dairy cows increases the value of non-replacement calves born to the dairy herd. The use of beef-breed sires may impact on calf birth weight, gestation length and pre-weaning growth rate of calves, which in turn influences the profitability of the dairy farm. The aim of this case study was to compare the birth weight, gestation length, and pre-weaning growth of progeny born to mixed-aged dairy cows on a single farm which were artificially bred to a selection of Angus and Hereford bulls, typical of those used over dairy herds in New Zealand. The birth weight, gestation length and pre-weaning growth of 980 calves sired by 65 sires were compared. Mean progeny birth weight (range 33.3–41.4 kg), gestation length (range 276.1–288.6 days), age at weaning (range 70.3–88.3 days) and pre-weaning ADG (range 0.63–0.76 kg/d) differed among sires (p < 0.001). There was a negative genetic correlation (−0.31) and positive phenotypic correlation (0.36) between gestation length and birth weight. Age at weaning was negatively correlated with birth weight (genetic: −0.56, phenotypic: −0.57). Bulls used in this study, and other bulls with similar genetic merit for birth weight and gestation length would be suitable for mating mixed-aged dairy cows in New Zealand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Nutrition and Welfare)
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Article
Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Process to Produce Micellar Casein and Milk Protein Concentrates with 80% Crude Protein Content: Partitioning of Various Protein Fractions and Constituents
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 367-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030029 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
The objective of the study reported in this research paper was to produce micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and milk protein concentrate (MPC) with 80% crude protein relative to total solids (TS) using MF and UF processes respectively. Additionally, capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was [...] Read more.
The objective of the study reported in this research paper was to produce micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and milk protein concentrate (MPC) with 80% crude protein relative to total solids (TS) using MF and UF processes respectively. Additionally, capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was used to study the protein fractions in retentate and permeate. For MCC production, 227 L of pasteurized SM was subjected to MF using 0.5-micron spiral wound polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. During the process, diafiltration (DF) water was added at six intervals, totaling 100% of the feed volume. For MPC production, 227 L of pasteurized SM from the same lot was subjected to UF using 10 kDa Polyethersulfone membranes. During the process, DF water was added at four different intervals, with a final total addition of 40% of the feed volume. Both processes used a volume reduction of five. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences in all of the compositional parameters, except fat and casein for the MF retentate (MFR) and UF retentate (UFR). UFR had a higher crude protein (CP), TS, lactose, ash and calcium content as compared to MFR and this affected the CP/TS ratio found in both the retentates. The differences in membrane pore sizes, operating pressures and level of DF used all contributed to the differences in final CP/TS ratio obtained. The CGE analysis of individual protein fractions present in the UFR and MFR showed that UFR has a β-lactaglobulin to α-lactalbumin (α-LA) ratio similar to SM, whereas the MFR has a higher ratio, indicating preferential transmission for α-LA by the MF membrane. The results from this study show that MF and UF processes could be used for production of MCC and MPC with similar CP/TS ratio with careful selection of operating parameters, and that CGE can be used for detailed analysis of various protein fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Milk Processing)
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Article
Monitoring the Transition Period in Dairy Cows through 1H NMR-Based Untargeted Metabolomics
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 356-366; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030028 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
The metabolic alterations associated with the increase in milk production make the transition period critical to the health of dairy cows, usually leading to a higher incidence of disease in periparturient animals. In this manuscript, we describe the use of NMR-based untargeted metabolomics [...] Read more.
The metabolic alterations associated with the increase in milk production make the transition period critical to the health of dairy cows, usually leading to a higher incidence of disease in periparturient animals. In this manuscript, we describe the use of NMR-based untargeted metabolomics to follow how these changes impact the serum metabolome in a group of 28 transition dairy cows with no initial clinical diseases. Principal component analysis (PCA) of serum 1H NMR data from four weeks before calving to 8 weeks after parturition allowed us to clearly identify four stages during the transition period. Pairwise comparisons using orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and univariate data analysis led to the identification of 18 metabolites that varied significantly through these stages. Species such as acetate, betaine, and creatine are observed early after calving, while other markers of metabolic stress, including acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and choline, accumulate significantly at the height of milk production. Furthermore, marked variations in the levels of lactate, allantoin, alanine, and other amino acids reveal the activation of different gluconeogenic pathways following parturition. Concomitant with a return to homeostasis, a gradual normalization of the serum metabolome occurs 8 weeks after calving. Correlations of metabolite levels with dietary and metabolic adaptations based on animal parity could also be identified. Overall, these results show that NMR-based chemometric methods are ideally suited to monitor manifestations of metabolic diseases throughout the transition period and to assess the impact of nutritional management schemes on the metabolism of dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolomics and Foodomics)
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Article
Variation in Dairy Milk Composition and Properties Has Little Impact on Cheese Ripening: Insights from a Traditional Swedish Long-Ripening Cheese
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 336-355; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030027 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
The monthly variation in raw dairy silo milk was investigated and related to the ripening time of the resulting cheese during an industrial cheese-making trial. Milk composition varied with month, fat and protein content being lowest in August (4.19 and 3.44 g/100 g, [...] Read more.
The monthly variation in raw dairy silo milk was investigated and related to the ripening time of the resulting cheese during an industrial cheese-making trial. Milk composition varied with month, fat and protein content being lowest in August (4.19 and 3.44 g/100 g, respectively). Casein micelle size was largest (192–200 nm) in December–February and smallest (80 nm) in August. In addition, SCC, total bacteria count, proteolytic activities, gel strength, and milk fatty acid composition were significantly varied with month. Overall sensory and texture scores of resulting cheese were mainly influenced by plasmin and plasminogen activity, indicating the importance of native proteolytic systems. Recently, concepts based on the differentiated use of milk in dairy products have been suggested. For the investigated cheese type, there might be little to gain from such an approach. The variation in the investigated quality characteristics of the dairy milk used for cheese making had little effect on cheese ripening in our study. In contrast to our hypothesis, we conclude that as long as the quality of the milk meets certain minimum criteria, there are only weak associations between cheese milk characteristics and the time required for the development of aroma and texture in the cheese. To find answers behind the observed variation in cheese ripening time, studies on the effects of process parameters are needed. Full article
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Communication
GC-MS Metabolomics and Antifungal Characteristics of Autochthonous Lactobacillus Strains
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 326-335; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030026 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Lactobacillus strains with the potential of protecting fresh dairy products from spoilage were studied. Metabolism and antifungal activity of different L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sakei strains, isolated from Sardinian dairy and meat products, were assessed. The metabolite fingerprint of [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus strains with the potential of protecting fresh dairy products from spoilage were studied. Metabolism and antifungal activity of different L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sakei strains, isolated from Sardinian dairy and meat products, were assessed. The metabolite fingerprint of each strain was obtained by GC-MS and data submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The discriminant analysis correctly classified samples to the Lactobacillus species and indicated that, with respect to the other species, L. plantarum had higher levels of organic acids, while L. brevis and L. sakei showed higher levels of sugars than L. plantarum. Partial Least Square (PLS) regression correlated the GC-MS metabolites to the antifungal activity (p < 0.05) of Lactobacillus strains and indicated that organic acids and oleamide are positively related with this ability. Some of the metabolites identified in this study have been reported to possess health promoting proprieties. These overall results suggest that the GC-MS-based metabolomic approach is a useful tool for the characterization of Lactobacillus strains as biopreservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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