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Acoustics, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 14 articles

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Article
The Difference in Subjective Experience Related to Acoustic Treatments in an Ordinary Public Room: A Case Study
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 442-461; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020029 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 202
Abstract
In ordinary public rooms absorbent ceilings are normally used. However, reflective material such as diffusers can also be useful to improve the acoustic performance for this type of environment. In this study, different combinations of absorbers and diffusers have been used. The study [...] Read more.
In ordinary public rooms absorbent ceilings are normally used. However, reflective material such as diffusers can also be useful to improve the acoustic performance for this type of environment. In this study, different combinations of absorbers and diffusers have been used. The study investigates whether a test group of 29 people perceived sound in an ordinary room differently depending on the type of treatment. Comparisons of the same position in a room for different configurations as well as different positions within one configuration were made. The subjective judgements were compared to the room acoustic measures T20, C50 and G and the difference in the values of these parameters. It was found that when evaluating the different positions in a room, the configuration including diffusers was perceived to a greater extent as being similar in the different positions in the room when compared to the configuration with absorbers on the walls. It was also seen that C50 was the parameter that mainly affected the perception, with the difference needing to be 2 dB to recognize a difference. However, the room acoustic measurements could not fully explain the differences obtained in perception. In addition, the subjective sound image created by different types of treatments was also shown to have an important impact on the perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Room Acoustics)
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Article
Preliminary Determination of the Optimal Parameters When Using an Ultrasonic Probe to Measure Cavern Geometry Where a Metal Borehole Pipe Is Present
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 425-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020028 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
In order to determine the optimal parameters when using an ultrasonic probe to measure cavern geometry when a metal borehole pipe is present, an investigation was firstly carried out on influence of a vertical metal plates with a thickness from 1 mm to [...] Read more.
In order to determine the optimal parameters when using an ultrasonic probe to measure cavern geometry when a metal borehole pipe is present, an investigation was firstly carried out on influence of a vertical metal plates with a thickness from 1 mm to 15 mm immersed in water on transmitted and reflected ultrasonic waves. The results obtained will be used as an indicator for the measurement of underground geometry in which the ultrasonic probe is placed inside a metal pipe lining a borehole. These studies were performed both by experiment and computer simulation. The results show that the wavelength of the incident ultrasonic signals should be equal to half the thickness of the metal plate or an integer times smaller than this thickness. When the thickness of the barrier is unknown, an ultrasonic signal with linear frequency modulation (LFM) should be used. Due to the reverberation of the ultrasonic waves inside the pipe for caverns filled with water, the distance from the transducer to the cavern wall can be measured if it is longer than three times of the pipe diameter. Frequency analysis of both the reflected and the transmitted waves enables an optimal frequency of the incident ultrasonic wave to be selected, which can be used in the measurement of cavern geometry in conditions in which the ultrasonic probe is inside a metal pipe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elastic Wave Scattering in Heterogeneous Media)
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Article
The Magnitude of the Frequency Jitter of Acoustic Waves Generated by Wind Instruments Is of Relevance for the Live Performance of Music
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 411-424; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020027 - 12 Jun 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
It is shown that a gold-plated device mounted on a tenor saxophone, forming a small bridge between the mouthpiece and the S-bow, can change two characteristics of the radiated sound: (1) the radiated acoustic energy of the harmonics with emission maxima around 1500–3000 [...] Read more.
It is shown that a gold-plated device mounted on a tenor saxophone, forming a small bridge between the mouthpiece and the S-bow, can change two characteristics of the radiated sound: (1) the radiated acoustic energy of the harmonics with emission maxima around 1500–3000 Hz, which is slightly reduced for tones played in the lower register of the saxophone; (2) the frequency jitter of all tones in the regular and upper register of the saxophone show a two-fold increase. Through simulated phase-shifted superimpositions of the recorded waves, it is shown that the cancellation of acoustic energy due to antiphase superimposition is significantly reduced in recordings with the bridge. Simulations with artificially generated acoustic waves confirm that acoustic waves with a certain systematic jitter show less cancelling of the acoustic energy under a phase-shifted superimposition, compared to acoustic waves with no frequency jitter; thus, being beneficial for live performances in small halls with minimal acoustic optimization. The data further indicate that the occasionally hearable “rumble” of a wind instrument orchestra with instruments showing slight differences in the frequency of the harmonics might be reduced (or avoided), if the radiated acoustic waves have a systematic jitter of a certain magnitude. Full article
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Article
Effects of Environmental Clutter on Synthesized Chiropteran Echolocation Signals in an Anechoic Chamber
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 391-410; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020026 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Ultrasonic bat detectors are useful for research and monitoring purposes to assess occupancy and relative activity of bat communities. Environmental “clutter” such as tree boles and foliage can affect the recording quality and identification of bat echolocation calls collected using ultrasonic detectors. It [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic bat detectors are useful for research and monitoring purposes to assess occupancy and relative activity of bat communities. Environmental “clutter” such as tree boles and foliage can affect the recording quality and identification of bat echolocation calls collected using ultrasonic detectors. It can also affect the transmission of calls and recognition by bats when using acoustic lure devices to attract bats to mist-nets. Bat detectors are often placed in forests, yet automatic identification programs are trained on call libraries using echolocation passes recorded largely from open spaces. Research indicates that using clutter-recorded calls can increase classification accuracy for some bat species and decrease accuracy for others, but a detailed understanding of how clutter impacts the recording and identification of echolocation calls remains elusive. To clarify this, we experimentally investigated how two measures of clutter (i.e., total basal area and number of stems of simulated woody growth, as well as recording angle) affected the recording and classification of a synthesized echolocation signal under controlled conditions in an anechoic chamber. Recording angle (i.e., receiver position relative to emitter) significantly influenced the probability of correct classification and differed significantly for many of the call parameters measured. The probability of recording echo pulses was also a function of clutter but only for the detector angle at 0° from the emitter that could receive deflected pulses. Overall, the two clutter metrics were overshadowed by proximity and angle of the receiver to the sound source but some deviations from the synthesized call in terms of maximum, minimum, and mean frequency parameters were observed. Results from our work may aid efforts to better understand underlying environmental conditions that produce false-positive and -negative identifications for bat species of interest and how this could be used to adjust survey accuracy estimates. Our results also help pave the way for future research into the development of acoustic lure technology by exploring the effects of environmental clutter on ultrasound transmission. Full article
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Article
Wind Farm Noise—Modulation of the Amplitude
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 364-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020025 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The operation of a wind turbine results in a series of pulses where there is a significant instantaneous increase in the amplitude of the pressure signal, dependent upon the wind speed at the turbine blades. The variations in the amplitude of the sound [...] Read more.
The operation of a wind turbine results in a series of pulses where there is a significant instantaneous increase in the amplitude of the pressure signal, dependent upon the wind speed at the turbine blades. The variations in the amplitude of the sound being emitted can be significant at receiver locations both as an audible and inaudible sound. The modulation of the A-weighted amplitude of the acoustic signature for wind turbines is often referred to as “amplitude modulation”. Criteria have been proposed in the UK to define “excessive amplitude modulation”. In a technical sense, the general descriptor for wind turbine amplitude modulation is incorrect. The correct term for the variation of the A-weighted level is modulation of the amplitude. The rate of the modulation of the dB(A) level occurs at the blade pass frequency, which is in the infrasound region. Turbines can exhibit amplitude modulation in the low frequency region. The differences between amplitude modulation and modulation of the amplitude occurring at an infrasound rate are discussed in the context for an environmental assessment of a wind farm with respect to permit conditions and a simplified method of assessment with respect to the Modulation Index. Full article
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Article
Active Noise Control System Based on the Improved Equation Error Model
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 354-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020024 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
This paper presents an algorithm structure for an active noise control (ANC) system based on an improved equation error (EE) model that employs the offline secondary path modeling method. The noise of a compressor in a gas station is taken as an example [...] Read more.
This paper presents an algorithm structure for an active noise control (ANC) system based on an improved equation error (EE) model that employs the offline secondary path modeling method. The noise of a compressor in a gas station is taken as an example to verify the performance of the proposed ANC system. The results show that the proposed ANC system improves the noise reduction performance and convergence speed compared with other typical ANC systems. In particular, it achieves 28 dBA noise attenuation at a frequency of about 250 Hz and a mean square error (MSE) of about −20 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Room Acoustics)
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Article
Akbari–Ganji Method for Solving Equations of Euler–Bernoulli Beam with Quintic Nonlinearity
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 337-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020023 - 09 May 2021
Viewed by 581
Abstract
In many real word applications, beam has nonlinear transversely vibrations. Solving nonlinear beam systems is complicated because of the high dependency of the system variables and boundary conditions. It is important to have an accurate parametric analysis for understanding the nonlinear vibration characteristics. [...] Read more.
In many real word applications, beam has nonlinear transversely vibrations. Solving nonlinear beam systems is complicated because of the high dependency of the system variables and boundary conditions. It is important to have an accurate parametric analysis for understanding the nonlinear vibration characteristics. This paper presents an approximate solution of a nonlinear transversely vibrating beam with odd and even nonlinear terms using the Akbari–Ganji Method (AGM). This method is an effective approach to solve nonlinear differential equations. AGM is already used in the heat transfer science for solving differential equations, and in this research for the first time, it is applied to find the approximate solution of a nonlinear transversely vibrating beam. The advantage of creating new boundary conditions in this method in additional to predefined boundary conditions is checked for the proposed nonlinear case. To illustrate the applicability and accuracy of the AGM, the governing equation of transversely vibrating nonlinear beams is treated with different initial conditions. Since simply supported and clamped-clamped structures can be encountered in many engineering applications, these two boundary conditions are considered. The periodic response curves and the natural frequency are obtained by AGM and contrasted with the energy balance method (EBM) and the numerical solution. The results show that the present method has excellent agreements in contrast with numerical and EBM calculations. In most cases, AGM is applied straightforwardly to obtain the nonlinear frequency– amplitude relationship for dynamic behaviour of vibrating beams. The natural frequencies tested for various values of amplitude are clearly stated the AGM is an applicable method for the proposed nonlinear system. It is demonstrated that this technique saves computational time without compromising the accuracy of the solution. This approach can be easily extended to other nonlinear systems and is therefore widely applicable in engineering and other sciences. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Acoustic Features after Refurbishment Works Inside Two Historical Opera Theatres Located in Italy
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 316-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020022 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The acoustical characteristics of a room where the artistic performance is presented to the audience have a critical impact on the experience of both artists and spectators. It is important to know how the original aspects and the refurbishment works throughout the centuries [...] Read more.
The acoustical characteristics of a room where the artistic performance is presented to the audience have a critical impact on the experience of both artists and spectators. It is important to know how the original aspects and the refurbishment works throughout the centuries are brought to the characterization of the sound field in such theatres, with positive and negative consequences. This paper presents the acoustical assessment of the Teatro Nuovo of Spoleto and the Teatro Alighieri of Ravenna, very important landmark centers for their historical and cultural activities. The acoustical characteristics have been gathered by placing the sound source on both the stage and orchestra pit, and the receivers in the stalls and balconies areas at different levels. It is of great interest to show the acoustical parameters of such Opera houses and some acoustical limits derived from intermediate interventions due to the need of the committees to allocate as many spectators as possible for income reasons. After an acoustic analysis of the existing conditions, the authors compare the acoustic behaviour inside the Teatro Nuovo of Spoleto using the image-source method (ISM) to investigate a change of ceiling configurations that occurred with the refurbishing works of the 20th century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Historical Acoustics)
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Article
Spherical One-Way Wave Equation
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 309-315; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020021 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
The coordinate-free one-way wave equation is transferred in spherical coordinates. Therefore it is necessary to achieve consistency between gradient, divergence and Laplace operators and to establish, beside the conventional radial Nabla operator Φ/r, a new variant rΦ/rr. The two Nabla operator variants differ in the near field term Φ/r whereas in the far field r0 there is asymptotic approximation. Surprisingly, the more complicated gradient rΦ/rr results in unexpected simplifications for – and only for – spherical waves with the 1/r amplitude decrease. Thus the calculation always remains elementary without the wattless imaginary near fields, and the spherical Bessel functions are obsolete. Full article
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Article
The Binaural Illusion of Wallach (1940) Apparent in Synthetic Aperture Images of the Field of Audition Generated as the Head Turns
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 297-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020020 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Wallach (J. Exp. Psychol. 1940, 27, 339–368) predicted that a human subject rotating about a vertical axis through the auditory centre, having an acoustic source rotating around the same axis at twice the rotation rate of the human subject, would perceive the [...] Read more.
Wallach (J. Exp. Psychol. 1940, 27, 339–368) predicted that a human subject rotating about a vertical axis through the auditory centre, having an acoustic source rotating around the same axis at twice the rotation rate of the human subject, would perceive the acoustic source to be stationary. His prediction, which he confirmed by experiment, was made to test the hypothesis that humans integrate head movement information that is derived from the vestibular system and visual cues, with measurements of arrival time differences between the acoustic signals received at the ears, to determine directions to acoustic sources. The simulation experiments described here demonstrate that a synthetic aperture calculation performed as the head turns, to determine the direction to an acoustic source (Tamsett, Robotics 2017, 6, 10), is also subject to the Wallach illusion. This constitutes evidence that human audition deploys a synthetic aperture process in which a virtual image of the field of audition is populated as the head turns, and from which directions to acoustic sources are inferred. The process is akin to those in synthetic aperture sonar/radar technologies and to migration in seismic profiler image processing. It could be implemented in a binaural robot localizing acoustic sources from arrival time differences in emulation of an aspect of human audition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binaural Audition)
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Article
Earthquake Source Properties of a Lower Crust Sequence and Associated Seismicity Perturbation in the SE Carpathians, Romania, Collisional Setting
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 270-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020019 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Romanian seismicity is mainly confined to the Eastern Carpathians Arc bend (ECAB), where strong subcrustal earthquakes (magnitude up to 7.9) are generated in a narrow lithospheric body descending into the mantle. The seismic activity in the overlying crust is spread over a larger [...] Read more.
Romanian seismicity is mainly confined to the Eastern Carpathians Arc bend (ECAB), where strong subcrustal earthquakes (magnitude up to 7.9) are generated in a narrow lithospheric body descending into the mantle. The seismic activity in the overlying crust is spread over a larger area, located mostly toward the outer side of the ECAB. It is significantly smaller than subcrustal seismicity, raising controversies about possible upper mantle-crust coupling. A significant earthquake sequence took place in the foreland of the ECAB triggered on 22 November 2014 by a mainshock of magnitude 5.7 (the greatest instrumentally recorded earthquake in this region) located in the lower crust. The mainshock triggered a significant increase in the number of small-magnitude events spread over an unusually large area in the ECAB. The paper’s goal is to compute the source parameters of the earthquakes that occurred during the aforementioned sequence, by empirical application of Green’s function and spectral ratio techniques. Fault plane solutions are determined using multiple methods and seismicity evolution at regional scale is investigated. Our results highlight a still active deformation regime at the edge of the EE Craton, while the source parameters reveal a complex fracture of the mainshock and a very high-stress drop. Full article
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Article
An Archaeoacoustics Analysis of Cistercian Architecture: The Case of the Beaulieu Abbey
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 252-269; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020018 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
The Cistercian order is of acoustic interest because previous research has hypothesized that Cistercian architectural structures were designed for longer reverberation times in order to reinforce Gregorian chants. The presented study focused on an archaeoacacoustics analysis of the Cistercian Beaulieu Abbey (Hampshire, England, [...] Read more.
The Cistercian order is of acoustic interest because previous research has hypothesized that Cistercian architectural structures were designed for longer reverberation times in order to reinforce Gregorian chants. The presented study focused on an archaeoacacoustics analysis of the Cistercian Beaulieu Abbey (Hampshire, England, UK), using Geometrical Acoustics (GA) to recreate and investigate the acoustical properties of the original structure. To construct an acoustic model of the Abbey, the building’s dimensions and layout were retrieved from published archaeology research and comparison with equivalent structures. Absorption and scattering coefficients were assigned to emulate the original room surface materials’ acoustics properties. CATT-Acoustics was then used to perform the acoustics analysis of the simplified building structure. Shorter reverberation time (RTs) was generally observed at higher frequencies for all the simulated scenarios. Low speech intelligibility index (STI) and speech clarity (C50) values were observed across Abbey’s nave section. Despite limitations given by the impossibility to calibrate the model according to in situ measurements conducted in the original structure, the simulated acoustics performance suggested how the Abbey could have been designed to promote sacral music and chants, rather than preserve high speech intelligibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Historical Acoustics)
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Article
Pre-Sabine Room Acoustic Guidelines on Audience Rake, Stage Acoustics, and Dimension Ratios
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 235-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020017 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Prior to Sabine’s work on the Fogg Art Museum and Boston Symphony Hall, several numerical guidelines had been developed and applied to the design of rooms with specific acoustic demands such as theatres, concert halls, and opera houses. Previous papers have discussed guidelines [...] Read more.
Prior to Sabine’s work on the Fogg Art Museum and Boston Symphony Hall, several numerical guidelines had been developed and applied to the design of rooms with specific acoustic demands such as theatres, concert halls, and opera houses. Previous papers have discussed guidelines based on the following principles: voice directivity, which was employed in the design of at least 11 rooms; “echo theory”, which quantifies the perception threshold between direct sound and first order reflections in order to prevent echoes from occurring, aiding in the design of at least 7 rooms and leading to the first known use of an acoustic scale model; and notions of reverberation, which influenced the design of at least 14 rooms. This paper discusses three additional pre-Sabine numerical guidelines that were used in room acoustic design: (1) audience rake, (2) stage acoustics and proscenium design, and (3) length, width, and height ratios. The origin of these theories, as well as examples of rooms in which they were applied, are discussed and compared to current practices in room acoustic design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Room Acoustics)
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Article
A Case Study on Soundscape Analysis for the Historical and Ethnic Village of Dong Nationality in Zhaoxing County
Acoustics 2021, 3(2), 221-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020016 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
A soundscape is a sound environment of the awareness of auditory perception and social or cultural understandings. Based on a soundscape investigation in 2019 in the historical and ethnic village of Dong Nationality in Zhaoxing County, Guizhou Province of China, a case study [...] Read more.
A soundscape is a sound environment of the awareness of auditory perception and social or cultural understandings. Based on a soundscape investigation in 2019 in the historical and ethnic village of Dong Nationality in Zhaoxing County, Guizhou Province of China, a case study on the soundscape analysis with the acoustical sound pressure level and an impressive sound event or soundmark is introduced in this paper. Furthermore, in order to determine the subjective soundscape experience and its influence by the length of background music listening, the independent variable “Length of Listening” and six adjective pairs, such as “Monotonous” to “Rich”, “Clamorous” to “Quiet”, “Stressing” to “Relaxing”, “Boring” to “Vivid”, “Noisy” to “Musical” and “Disliked” to “Preferable” are chosen to obtain a curve-fit, which shows that the length of the music listening background has a higher correlation to the subjective experience, and no sufficient attention has been paid to the context of the traditional soundscape preservation, ethnic music and quiet and soft ambient sounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Historical Acoustics)
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