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Appl. Syst. Innov., Volume 5, Issue 3 (June 2022) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally. Many CVD patients lack support for monitoring and managing their condition at home. Smart home technologies using smart integrated sensors connected to a server have the potential to monitor health and support CVD patients in their homes. Despite the need to monitor CVD patients’ vital parameters regularly, there are limited smart home technologies available to address these needs. This study found that the participants of all the studies were people with heart failure. This study suggests the need to develop and test smart home technology for people with CVD. It provides insights and guidelines into critical issues, including smart home technology for CVD management, user acceptance, and the regulatory agency’s role to be followed when designing, developing, and deploying smart home technology for CVD. View this paper
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25 pages, 14015 KiB  
Article
Determination of Point-to-Point 3D Routing Algorithm Using LiDAR Data for Noise Prediction
by Shruti Bharadwaj, Rakesh Dubey, Md Iltaf Zafar, Rashid Faridi, Debashish Jena and Susham Biswas
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030058 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Urban planning, noise propagation modelling, viewshed analysis, etc., require determination of routes or supply lines for propagation. A point-to-point routing algorithm is required to determine the best routes for the propagation of noise levels from source to destination. Various optimization algorithms are present [...] Read more.
Urban planning, noise propagation modelling, viewshed analysis, etc., require determination of routes or supply lines for propagation. A point-to-point routing algorithm is required to determine the best routes for the propagation of noise levels from source to destination. Various optimization algorithms are present in the literature to determine the shortest route, e.g., Dijkstra, Ant-Colony algorithms, etc. However, these algorithms primarily work over 2D maps and multiple routes. The shortest route determination in 3D from unlabeled data (e.g., precise LiDAR terrain point cloud) is very challenging. The prediction of noise data for a place necessitates extraction of all possible principal routes between every source of noise and its destination, e.g., direct route, the route over the top of the building (or obstruction), routes around the sides of the building, and the reflected routes. It is thus required to develop an algorithm that will determine all the possible routes for propagation, using LiDAR data. The algorithm uses the novel cutting plane technique customized to work with LiDAR data to extract all the principal routes between every pair of noise source and destination. Terrain parameters are determined from routes for modeling. The terrain parameters, and noise data when integrated with a sophisticated noise model give an accurate prediction of noise for a place. The novel point-to-point routing algorithm is developed using LiDAR data of the RGIPT campus. All the shortest routes were tested for their spatial accuracy and efficacy to predict the noise levels accurately. Various routes are found to be accurate within ±9 cm, while predicted noise levels are found to be accurate within ±6 dBA at an instantaneous scale. The novel accurate 3D routing algorithm can improve the other urban applications too. Full article
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38 pages, 927 KiB  
Review
Chaotic Image Encryption: State-of-the-Art, Ecosystem, and Future Roadmap
by Behrouz Zolfaghari and Takeshi Koshiba
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030057 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6554
Abstract
Recently, many researchers have been interested in the application of chaos in cryptography. Specifically, numerous research works have been focusing on chaotic image encryption. A comprehensive survey can highlight existing trends and shed light on less-studied topics in the area of chaotic image [...] Read more.
Recently, many researchers have been interested in the application of chaos in cryptography. Specifically, numerous research works have been focusing on chaotic image encryption. A comprehensive survey can highlight existing trends and shed light on less-studied topics in the area of chaotic image encryption. In addition to such a survey, this paper studies the main challenges in this field, establishes an ecosystem for chaotic image encryption, and develops a future roadmap for further research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
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16 pages, 3518 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Survey of Digital Twins and Federated Learning for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and Internet of Drones (IoD)
by Sonain Jamil, MuhibUr Rahman and Fawad
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030056 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 6257
Abstract
As a result of the advancement in the fourth industrial revolution and communication technology, the use of digital twins (DT) and federated learning (FL) in the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), and the Internet of Drones (IoD) is [...] Read more.
As a result of the advancement in the fourth industrial revolution and communication technology, the use of digital twins (DT) and federated learning (FL) in the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), and the Internet of Drones (IoD) is increasing. However, the deployment of DT and FL for IoV is challenging. In this survey, we focus on DT and FL for IIoT, IoV, and IoD. Initially, we analyzed the existing surveys. In this paper, we present the applications of DT and FL in IIoT, IoV, and IoD. We also present the open research issues and future directions. Full article
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13 pages, 2075 KiB  
Article
Improved DeepSORT Algorithm Based on Multi-Feature Fusion
by Haiying Liu, Yuncheng Pei, Qiancheng Bei and Lixia Deng
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030055 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
At present, the detection-based pedestrian multi-target tracking algorithm is widely used in artificial intelligence, unmanned driving cars, virtual reality and other fields, and has achieved good tracking results. The traditional DeepSORT algorithm mainly tracks multiple pedestrian targets continuously, and can keep the ID [...] Read more.
At present, the detection-based pedestrian multi-target tracking algorithm is widely used in artificial intelligence, unmanned driving cars, virtual reality and other fields, and has achieved good tracking results. The traditional DeepSORT algorithm mainly tracks multiple pedestrian targets continuously, and can keep the ID unchanged. The applicability and tracking accuracy of the algorithm need to be further improved during tracking. In order to improve the tracking accuracy of the DeepSORT method, we propose a novel algorithm by revising the IOU distance metric in the matching process and integrating Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) and multi-layer pedestrian appearance features. The improved algorithm is verified on the public MOT-16 dataset, and the tracking accuracy of the algorithm is improved by 4.1%. Full article
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3 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Fuzzy Decision Making and Soft Computing Applications”
by Giuseppe De Pietro and Marco Pota
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030054 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Research on fuzzy logic [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Decision Making and Soft Computing Applications)
18 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
WOJR: A Recommendation System for Providing Similar Problems to Programming Assignments
by Ryoya Yoshimura, Kazunori Sakamoto, Hironori Washizaki and Yoshiaki Fukazawa
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030053 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Programming education for beginners often employs online judges. Although this helps improve coding skills, students may not obtain sufficient educational effects if the assignment is too difficult. Instead of presenting a model answer to an assignment, this paper proposes an approach to provide [...] Read more.
Programming education for beginners often employs online judges. Although this helps improve coding skills, students may not obtain sufficient educational effects if the assignment is too difficult. Instead of presenting a model answer to an assignment, this paper proposes an approach to provide students with problems that have content and answer source code similar to the assignment. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated via an intervention experiment in a university lecture course. The improvement in the number of correct answers is statistically significant compared to the same course offered in a different year without the proposed system. Therefore, the proposed approach should aid in the understanding of an assignment and enhance the educational effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Systems on Emerging Technologies and Educational Innovations)
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14 pages, 3515 KiB  
Technical Note
An Overview of the Practical Use of the CCTV System in a Simple Assembly in a Flexible Manufacturing System
by Peter Kostal, Vanessa Prajova, Stefan Vaclav and Sergiu-Dan Stan
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030052 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
In this article, experiments are realized in the flexible manufacturing system ICIM 3000 (FESTO, Germany), and its assembly system, located at the Institute of production technologies, Faculty of Material Sciences and Technologies, Slovak University of Technology. The assembly system is the final product [...] Read more.
In this article, experiments are realized in the flexible manufacturing system ICIM 3000 (FESTO, Germany), and its assembly system, located at the Institute of production technologies, Faculty of Material Sciences and Technologies, Slovak University of Technology. The assembly system is the final product assembled, and this process consists of five components. Unwanted inaccuracies in the assembly process of the elements, such as the insertion of thermometers and hygrometers into the base plate, usually arise. Based on these inaccuracies, we realize some experiments by the camera system SBOC-Q-R3-WB. This deals with the method of image processing. The camera system parameters are set-up. At the end of this contribution, a base of evaluated results is suggested and some minor design changes are realized in the assembly station. The goal of these changes is the higher reliability of the assembly process. Full article
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18 pages, 1718 KiB  
Systematic Review
Smart Home Technology Solutions for Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review
by Jeban Chandir Moses, Sasan Adibi, Maia Angelova and Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030051 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4688
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality globally. Despite improvement in therapies, people with CVD lack support for monitoring and managing their condition at home and out of hospital settings. Smart Home Technologies have potential to monitor health status and support [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality globally. Despite improvement in therapies, people with CVD lack support for monitoring and managing their condition at home and out of hospital settings. Smart Home Technologies have potential to monitor health status and support people with CVD in their homes. We explored the Smart Home Technologies available for CVD monitoring and management in people with CVD and acceptance of the available technologies to end-users. We systematically searched four databases, namely Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and IEEE, from 1990 to 2020 (search date 18 March 2020). “Smart-Home” was defined as a system using integrated sensor technologies. We included studies using sensors, such as wearable and non-wearable devices, to capture vital signs relevant to CVD at home settings and to transfer the data using communication systems, including the gateway. We categorised the articles for parameters monitored, communication systems and data sharing, end-user applications, regulations, and user acceptance. The initial search yielded 2462 articles, and the elimination of duplicates resulted in 1760 articles. Of the 36 articles eligible for full-text screening, we selected five Smart Home Technology studies for CVD management with sensor devices connected to a gateway and having a web-based user interface. We observed that the participants of all the studies were people with heart failure. A total of three main categories—Smart Home Technology for CVD management, user acceptance, and the role of regulatory agencies—were developed and discussed. There is an imperative need to monitor CVD patients’ vital parameters regularly. However, limited Smart Home Technology is available to address CVD patients’ needs and monitor health risks. Our review suggests the need to develop and test Smart Home Technology for people with CVD. Our findings provide insights and guidelines into critical issues, including Smart Home Technology for CVD management, user acceptance, and regulatory agency’s role to be followed when designing, developing, and deploying Smart Home Technology for CVD. Full article
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24 pages, 8538 KiB  
Article
Heat and Flow Study of the Internally Finned Tubes with Different Fin Geometries
by Evangelos Bellos, Panagiotis Lykas and Christos Tzivanidis
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030050 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
Heat and flow enhancement is a critical weapon for the design of highly efficient, compact, and cost-effective devices. The objective of this analysis is the detailed examination of the implementation of different fin shapes on the internal side of a tube aiming the [...] Read more.
Heat and flow enhancement is a critical weapon for the design of highly efficient, compact, and cost-effective devices. The objective of this analysis is the detailed examination of the implementation of different fin shapes on the internal side of a tube aiming the heat and flow enhancement. The reference empty tube is examined, while the use of circular, rectangular, and triangular fins is also studied. Different simulations were conducted with a developed computational fluid dynamic model, and the results were expressed in heat and flow terms. The developed model was validated by comparing the results with the theoretical expressions for the Nusselt number, as well as for the friction factor. The obtained results were evaluated by calculating the heat convection coefficient, the pressure drop, the Nusselt number, the friction factor, the pump work, the mean wall temperature, and the Bejan number. According to the calculations, the use of rectangular fins is the best solution; the use of triangular fins is the second choice, while the less efficient improvement method is the use of circular internal fins. Regarding the heat transfer enhancement, the rectangular fins lead to 36% enhancement, circular fins to 25%, and triangular fins to 23% compared to the reference tube. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering)
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20 pages, 3713 KiB  
Article
Framing Algorithm-Driven Development of Sets of Objectives Using Elementary Interactions
by Heinrich Söbke and Andrea Lück
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030049 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is an established methodology to support the decision-making of multi-objective problems. For conducting an MCDA, in most cases, a set of objectives (SOO) is required, which consists of a hierarchical structure comprised of objectives, criteria, and indicators. The development [...] Read more.
Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is an established methodology to support the decision-making of multi-objective problems. For conducting an MCDA, in most cases, a set of objectives (SOO) is required, which consists of a hierarchical structure comprised of objectives, criteria, and indicators. The development of an SOO is usually based on moderated development processes requiring high organizational and cognitive effort from all stakeholders involved. This article proposes elementary interactions as a key paradigm of an algorithm-driven development process for an SOO that requires little moderation efforts. Elementary interactions are self-contained information requests that may be answered with little cognitive effort. The pairwise comparison of elements in the well-known analytical hierarchical process (AHP) is an example of an elementary interaction. Each elementary interaction in the development process presented contributes to the stepwise development of an SOO. Based on the hypothesis that an SOO may be developed exclusively using elementary interactions (EIs), a concept for a multi-user platform is proposed. Essential components of the platform are a Model Aggregator, an Elementary Interaction Stream Generator, a Participant Manager, and a Discussion Forum. While the latter component serves the professional exchange of the participants, the first three components are intended to be automatable by algorithms. The platform concept proposed has been evaluated partly in an explorative validation study demonstrating the general functionality of the algorithms outlined. In summary, the platform concept suggested demonstrates the potential to ease SOO development processes as the platform concept does not restrict the application domain; it is intended to work with little administration moderation efforts, and it supports the further development of an existing SOO in the event of changes in external conditions. The algorithm-driven development of SOOs proposed in this article may ease the development of MCDA applications and, thus, may have a positive effect on the spread of MCDA applications. Full article
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13 pages, 3231 KiB  
Case Report
Augmented Reality-Based Framework Supporting Visual Inspection for Automotive Industry
by Amal Chouchene, Adriana Ventura Carvalho, Fernando Charrua-Santos and Walid Barhoumi
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030048 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4133
Abstract
Visual inspection, inside an industrial environment, has attracted considerable research attention, in terms of its relation to improving productivity and its impact on building the Industry 4.0. One of the pillars of Industry 4.0 is the Augmented Reality (AR) technology, given its beneficiary [...] Read more.
Visual inspection, inside an industrial environment, has attracted considerable research attention, in terms of its relation to improving productivity and its impact on building the Industry 4.0. One of the pillars of Industry 4.0 is the Augmented Reality (AR) technology, given its beneficiary for several tasks such as maintenance, assembly, and inspection. Nevertheless, such a data presenter tool essentially relies on the data collected from other modules. A keynote technology for data collecting, storing, and exploitation is the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) platform. In this context, this paper proposes an innovative framework in a real case-study industry. The proposed solution supports visual inspection, relying on AR to present the data and IIoT to collect it from the production line. User acceptance tests and feedback reflect the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed system, especially when using Hand-Held Devices (HHD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Virtual Reality Technologies and Their Applications)
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15 pages, 1821 KiB  
Article
Components and Indicators of the Robot Programming Skill Assessment Based on Higher Order Thinking
by Chacharin Lertyosbordin, Sorakrich Maneewan and Matt Easter
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030047 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 3515
Abstract
Robot programming skill classes are becoming more popular. Higher order thinking, on the other hand, is an important issue in developing the skills of 21st-century learners. Truth be told, those two abilities are consistent subjects that are trending in academics. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Robot programming skill classes are becoming more popular. Higher order thinking, on the other hand, is an important issue in developing the skills of 21st-century learners. Truth be told, those two abilities are consistent subjects that are trending in academics. The purpose of this study is to design the components and indicators of a robot programming skill assessment based on higher order thinking. The methodology is divided into two phases: (1) qualitative research: a review of the literature on the issues for the synthesis of components and indicators of the robot programming skill assessment based on higher order thinking; and (2) quantitative research: to test the validity of the robot programming skill assessment by the content validity index test (CVI) with seven experts and the reliability with Cronbach’s alpha statistic test with the questionnaire results from 50 participants. The results show that the synthesized robot programming skill assessment consists of three components with 16 indicators, all of which are accepted for their agreed content validity index assessment (CVI = 1.00), and the internal consistency calculation results for the reliability test are found to have an acceptable reliability (α = 0.747). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Systems on Emerging Technologies and Educational Innovations)
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15 pages, 2075 KiB  
Article
Photovoltaic Roundabouts for Enhancement of Self-Sufficiency and Resiliency
by Salvatore Leonardi, Giuseppe Marco Tina and Natalia Distefano
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030046 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
Roundabouts have become a common type of intersection design in many countries. The area of the center island can be used to install a photovoltaic system to power local loads such as lighting systems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Roundabouts have become a common type of intersection design in many countries. The area of the center island can be used to install a photovoltaic system to power local loads such as lighting systems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of self-sufficiency that a roundabout can achieve depending on the availability of the area for the installation of a photovoltaic system and the energy demand for lighting. The methodology is divided into five steps aimed at calculating the parameters required to characterize the roundabouts from the point of view of the electricity that can be generated by the photovoltaic systems installed, and then to evaluate the energy consumption required to operate the different system solutions for lighting. The mini roundabouts are not considered as a location for the photovoltaic system; in fact, the minimum diameter must be between 29 and 34 m. Considering the available irradiance in Italy, systems with monocrystalline silicon modules are sufficient to ensure energy self-sufficiency at diameters of 24 m or more. Systems with polycrystalline silicon modules are suitable to ensure energy self-sufficiency at diameters of 25/26 m or more. Photovoltaic (PV) technology continues to make progress in increasing efficiency, such as bifacial PV modules. This means that even smaller roundabouts could be eligible for a PV system sized to meet local electricity needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Paper Collection on Civil Engineering and Architecture)
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20 pages, 4800 KiB  
Article
A New Hybrid Dynamic FMECA with Decision-Making Methodology: A Case Study in an Agri-Food Company
by Mario Di Nardo, Teresa Murino, Gianluca Osteria and Liberatina Carmela Santillo
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030045 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3014
Abstract
The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is often used to improve a system’s reliability. This paper proposes a new approach that aims to overcome the most critical defects of the traditional FMEA. This new methodology combines the Entropy and Best Worst Method [...] Read more.
The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is often used to improve a system’s reliability. This paper proposes a new approach that aims to overcome the most critical defects of the traditional FMEA. This new methodology combines the Entropy and Best Worst Method (BWM) methodology with the EDAS and System Dynamics, FMECA: The EN-B-ED Dynamic FMECA. The main innovation point of the proposed work is the presence of an unknown factor (Cost) that allows to obtain an objective weighted factor, a risk index when a machine failure occurs. The criticality analysis has been carried out using software (Vensim PLE x64) to simulate System Dynamics models to identify corrective actions and evaluate the possible implementation of these actions. The methodology proposed is applied to a case study in a relevant Italian company in the agri-food sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 5.0: The Prelude to the New Industrial Revolution)
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18 pages, 1669 KiB  
Article
The Use of Mixed, Augmented and Virtual Reality in History of Art Teaching: A Case Study
by Julio Cabero-Almenara, Carmen Llorente-Cejudo and Rosabel Martinez-Roig
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5030044 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5489
Abstract
The incorporation of mixed, virtual, and augmented reality into the educational context takes place in this study through the development of a 3D object shaped by the artistic expressions of the Church of the Annunciation in Seville. In a study of an experimental [...] Read more.
The incorporation of mixed, virtual, and augmented reality into the educational context takes place in this study through the development of a 3D object shaped by the artistic expressions of the Church of the Annunciation in Seville. In a study of an experimental and exploratory nature with a single group, we worked with a total of 20 students enrolled in a Master’s degree, taught at Seville University, under the title of “Arte: idea y producción” (Art: idea and production). A questionnaire based on the “Technology Acceptance Model” (TAM) was used to ascertain the degree of acceptance that the utilized technology had created among students after their participation in the experience. Likewise, the questionnaire permitted understanding of the assessment made by students concerning the presented objects. Among the results obtained, it is noticeable that the participating students show a high level of acceptance of augmented and virtual reality technologies, alongside favorable attitudes towards their utilization and the intention to use them. It is worth highlighting as a significant conclusion that the exploratory study was performed within a real classroom situation, suggesting that both technologies can be applied in formal training environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Virtual Reality Technologies and Their Applications)
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