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J. Compos. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 45 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Graphene has been recognized as an important corrosion-resistant nanomaterial. Progressive research on corrosion resilient graphene and polymer/graphene nanocomposites (conducting/non-conducting polymer matrices) has pointed to significant applications in the biomedical fields, covering high-performance biocompatible/biodegradable materials, bio-implants, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. The biomedical efficiency of graphene nanomaterials depends on graphene dispersion and interaction/compatibility with polymers and living systems. Further focused explorations on novel designs/features of anti-corrosion graphene nanocomposites may result in important future advancements in the biomedical field. View this paper
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Article
Investigation on Performance and Kerf Characteristics during Cryogenic-Assisted Suspension-Type Abrasive Water Jet Machining of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120397 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
The need for soft polymer (such as acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (ABR)) components in mating applications is increasing in several sectors, viz. automobile, mining, and marine, due to their viscoelastic nature with improved surface quality and tighter geometric tolerances. Therefore, this paper aims to [...] Read more.
The need for soft polymer (such as acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (ABR)) components in mating applications is increasing in several sectors, viz. automobile, mining, and marine, due to their viscoelastic nature with improved surface quality and tighter geometric tolerances. Therefore, this paper aims to compare the effect of cryogenic conditions on the performance parameters of the suspension-type abrasive water jet (S-AWJ) machining and investigate the kerf characteristics of the top and bottom surface by comparing the waviness of the cut profiles and abrasive contamination of the top surface near the vicinity of the slot under conventional (room temperature) and cryogenic (liquid nitrogen (LN2)) conditions. The study found that the use of LN2 positively affected the performance parameters (Kerf taper ratio (KTR) and material removal rate (MRR)) due to a sudden increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in elasticity of the machining zone. The cryogenic-assisted S-AWJ at the highest water jet pressure (WJP) (250 bar) produced better kerf characteristics through uniform and waviness-free top and bottom kerf profiles than the other experimental sequences. The use of LN2 resulted in the embrittlement of ABR, due to which less garnet abrasive particle contamination was observed during cryogenic-assisted S-AWJ machining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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Article
Development of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Fine-Grained Cementitious Composites for Textile Reinforcements
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120396 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Cementitious composites have been the prevalent field of research in recent eras due to their excellent bending and high strains. However, textile reinforcement requires materials with fine grain size to make proper binding between the yarns in the textile reinforcement and improve the [...] Read more.
Cementitious composites have been the prevalent field of research in recent eras due to their excellent bending and high strains. However, textile reinforcement requires materials with fine grain size to make proper binding between the yarns in the textile reinforcement and improve the strength characteristics. This concern has led to the development of fine-grained cementitious composites by dispersing chopped basalt fiber to improve strain-hardening capabilities with reduced voids. The basalt fiber content is varied by 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 1% to the volume of the cementitious matrix. Various testing methods have evaluated the mechanical and microstructural properties of fine-grained cementitious composites with basalt fiber. Adding basalt fiber up to 0.4% to the volume of the matrix improves the compressive, split tensile, flexural strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity compared to the controlled cementitious matrix. Also, higher fiber content escalated the impact resistance and degree of carbonation. From the results, obtained basalt fiber reinforced fine-grained cementitious composites have higher mechanical characteristics, and the particles are densely packed compared to cementitious composites. Thus it provides good bonding between the textile reinforcement and helps to construct thin structural elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fiber Composites)
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Article
Optimization of Electrical Intensity for Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation to Modify the Surface of Carbon Fibers and Preparation of Carbon Nanotubes/Carbon Fiber Multi-Scale Reinforcements
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120395 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Carbon fiber (CF) reinforced composites are widely used due to their excellent properties. However, the smooth surface and few functional groups of CFs can lead to fiber fractures and pullout, which reduce the service life of the composites. The overall performance of composites [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber (CF) reinforced composites are widely used due to their excellent properties. However, the smooth surface and few functional groups of CFs can lead to fiber fractures and pullout, which reduce the service life of the composites. The overall performance of composites can be improved by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the CF surface. Before this, CF surface should be modified to enhance the loading amount of catalyst particles and thus make the CNTs more uniform. In this paper, CNTs were grown on a CF surface by one-step chemical vapor deposition to prepare multi-scale CNTs/CF reinforcements, and the effects of different methods on the CF surface modification were explored. After setting four intensities of electrochemical anodic oxidation, i.e., 50 C/g, 100 C/g, 150 C/g and 200 C/g, it was found that the distribution and quantity of CNTs were improved under both the 100 C/g and 150 C/g conditions. Considering the influence of electrical intensity on the (002) interplanar spacing of CFs, which affects the mechanical properties of the samples, 100 C/g was finally selected as the optimal electrochemical treatment intensity. This finding provides a reference for continuous and large-scale modification of CF surfaces to prepare CNTs/CF multi-scale reinforcements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fiber Composites, Volume II)
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Review
Potential of Polymer/Fullerene Nanocomposites for Anticorrosion Applications in the Biomedical Field
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120394 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Initially, this review presents the fundamentals of corrosion-resistant polymer/fullerene nanocomposites. Then, the potential of polymer/fullerene nanocomposites for corrosion resistance in biomedical applications is presented. In particular, anticorrosion biomedical applications of fullerene-based nanomaterials are proposed for antimicrobial applications, drug delivery, bioimaging, etc. According to [...] Read more.
Initially, this review presents the fundamentals of corrosion-resistant polymer/fullerene nanocomposites. Then, the potential of polymer/fullerene nanocomposites for corrosion resistance in biomedical applications is presented. In particular, anticorrosion biomedical applications of fullerene-based nanomaterials are proposed for antimicrobial applications, drug delivery, bioimaging, etc. According to the literature, due to the low conductivity/anticorrosion features of pristine thermoplastic polymers, conjugated polymers (polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene, etc.) with high corrosion resistance performance were used. Subsequently, thermoplastic/thermosetting polymers were filled with nanoparticles to enhance their anticorrosion properties relative to those of neat polymers. Accordingly, fullerene-derived nanocomposites were found to be effective for corrosion protection. Polymer/fullerene nanocomposites with a fine dispersion and interactions revealed superior anticorrosion performance. The formation of a percolation network in the polymers/fullerenes facilitated their electron conductivity and, thus, corrosion resistance behavior. Consequently, the anticorrosion polymer/fullerene nanocomposites were applied in the biomedical field. However, this field needs to be further explored to see the full biomedical potential of anticorrosion polymer/fullerene nanocomposites. Full article
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Review
Polymer/Fullerene Nanocomposite for Optoelectronics—Moving toward Green Technology
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120393 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Optoelectronic devices have been developed using the polymer/fullerene nanocomposite, as focused in this review. The polymer/fullerene nanocomposite shows significant structural, electronics, optical, and useful physical properties in optoelectronics. Non-conducting and conducting polymeric nanocomposites have been applied in optoelectronics, such as light-emitting diodes, solar [...] Read more.
Optoelectronic devices have been developed using the polymer/fullerene nanocomposite, as focused in this review. The polymer/fullerene nanocomposite shows significant structural, electronics, optical, and useful physical properties in optoelectronics. Non-conducting and conducting polymeric nanocomposites have been applied in optoelectronics, such as light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and sensors. Inclusion of fullerene has further broadened the methodological application of the polymer/fullerene nanocomposite. The polymeric matrices and fullerene may have covalent or physical interactions for charge or electron transportation and superior optical features. Green systems have also been explored in optoelectronic devices; however, due to limited efforts, further design innovations are desirable in green optoelectronics. Nevertheless, the advantages and challenges of the green polymer/fullerene nanocomposite in optoelectronic devices yet need to be explored. Full article
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Article
New Method for the Solidification of High-Concentration Radioactive Borate Solution by Cement-Based Materials
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120392 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Cement is widely used for the solidification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste materials. Radioactive borate solution with a high concentration of boron is one of the main radioactive wastes produced in nuclear stations. It is difficult to solidify this solution by using [...] Read more.
Cement is widely used for the solidification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste materials. Radioactive borate solution with a high concentration of boron is one of the main radioactive wastes produced in nuclear stations. It is difficult to solidify this solution by using cement because borate has a great inhibitory effect on the cement hydration process. In this study, the hydration kinetics, strength, durability, phase assemblage, and transportation and transformation of the silicon of the paste that blended Portland cement with 5 M borate solution were investigated. After the addition of sodium hydroxide and sodium metasilicate to the paste, the cement hydration process was restarted, and the 28-days strength of samples met the requirements of the Chinese standard. The mechanism of overcoming the retardation of cement hydration by the borate solution was attributed to the formation of calcium metaborate, ettringite, portlandite, and calcium silicate hydrate with the restarting of cement hydration, without the formation of ulexite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Manufacturing and Processing)
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Article
Influence of Deposition Temperature and Compaction Force on the Infusion Properties of DFP Preforms
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120391 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
The deposition of dry fiber materials in the dry fiber placement (DFP) process with subsequent impregnation is becoming increasingly widespread. The wing covers of the Irkut MS 21 are already being manufactured using the DFP process, and research projects at major aircraft manufacturers [...] Read more.
The deposition of dry fiber materials in the dry fiber placement (DFP) process with subsequent impregnation is becoming increasingly widespread. The wing covers of the Irkut MS 21 are already being manufactured using the DFP process, and research projects at major aircraft manufacturers are increasingly incorporating the technology. In this process, the deposition speed depends on the temperature and the compaction force. However, it is not only the laying speed that counts during production, but also the impregnation afterwards. Thus, the effects of the depositing parameters on the infusion properties must be known. In this study, a two-step approach is used. Planar preforms (Hexcel HiTape) that have been deposited with different parameters are divided into four quadrants, and first samples are analyzed for isotropic properties in a two-dimensional infusion test. Then, one-dimensional infusion tests are performed so that infusion times can be compared. The tests show that the lowest infusion time can be obtained at low deposition temperature and high compression force. Additionally, using a comparable material (Solvay TX 1100), it is shown that increasing the gaps between the tows increases the permeability and homogeneity of the preform. Full article
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Article
Microstructural Evaluation and Fracture Behavior of AZ31/Nb2O5 Metal Matrix Composite
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120390 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 671
Abstract
There have been remarkable improvements in the research field of magnesium over the last few decades, especially in the magnesium metal matrix composite in which micro and nanoparticles are used as reinforcement. The dispersion phase of nanoparticles shows a better microstructural morphology than [...] Read more.
There have been remarkable improvements in the research field of magnesium over the last few decades, especially in the magnesium metal matrix composite in which micro and nanoparticles are used as reinforcement. The dispersion phase of nanoparticles shows a better microstructural morphology than pure magnesium. The magnesium metal matrix nanocomposite shows improved strength with a balance of plasticity as compared to the traditional magnesium metal matrix composite. In this research, Nb2O5 (0 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 6 wt.%) nanoparticles were used to reinforce AZ31 with the stir casting method, followed by heat treatment, and finally, an investigation was conducted using microstructural analysis. Factors such as the degree of crystallinity, crystallite size, and dislocation density are affected by the concentration of Nb2O5 and heat treatment. With the compositional increase in Nb2O5 weight percentage, the grain size decreases up to 3% Nb2O5 and then increases gradually. The SEM image analysis showed a grain size reduction of up to 3% Nb2O5 and fracture morphology changed from basal slip to a mixture of basal slip and adiabatic shear band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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Article
Effect of Annealing and Diameter on Tensile Property of Spinnable Carbon Nanotube and Unidirectional Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Epoxy Composite
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120389 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are thought to have higher elastic modulus and strength than carbon fibers. The recent development of spinnable multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) enables us to produce unidirectional MWNT reinforced polymer-based composites with a higher volume fraction of CNTs. The results of [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are thought to have higher elastic modulus and strength than carbon fibers. The recent development of spinnable multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) enables us to produce unidirectional MWNT reinforced polymer-based composites with a higher volume fraction of CNTs. The results of tensile tests of spinnable MWNTs in scanning electron microscopes show, however, that Young’s modulus and tensile strength of MWNTs are not as high as expected. Annealing and developing thinner spinnable MWNTs will be the solution to improving the tensile property. In this study, as-produced and annealed untwisted yarns composed of MWNTs with three different diameters were prepared, and the tensile properties of spinnable MWNTs were estimated from the tensile properties of the untwisted yarns to investigate the effect of annealing and diameter on the overall tensile property of MWNTs. Furthermore, tensile tests of unidirectional MWNT reinforced epoxy composites were conducted and the contribution of the tensile property of MWNTs to the bulk tensile property of the composite was discussed. As a result, it was found that MWNTs with thinner diameters had higher Young’s modulus and tensile strength and annealing improved Young’s modulus of MWNTs, in addition to that the bulk tensile property of unidirectional MWNT reinforced epoxy composites was primarily determined by the tensile property of MWNTs. The results support previous findings from a limited number of tensile tests in SEM/TEM, and also reveal the validity of estimating the tensile properties of individual CNTs by tensile testing of untwisted yarns. In addition, the discussion on composite materials suggests that the tensile property of composite materials can be enhanced by improving the tensile property of MWNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites)
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Review
Processing and Mechanical Characterisation of Titanium Metal Matrix Composites: A Literature Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120388 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Today, Discontinuously Reinforced Particulate Titanium Matrix Composites (DRPTMCs) have been the most popular and challenging in consideration with development and heat treatment due to their significant weight-saving capacity, high specific strength, stiffness and oxidising nature compared with other metals and alloys. Owing to [...] Read more.
Today, Discontinuously Reinforced Particulate Titanium Matrix Composites (DRPTMCs) have been the most popular and challenging in consideration with development and heat treatment due to their significant weight-saving capacity, high specific strength, stiffness and oxidising nature compared with other metals and alloys. Owing to their excellent capabilities, DRPTMCs are widely used in aerospace, automobiles, biomedical and other industries. However, regardless of the reinforcements, such as continuous fibres or discontinuous particulates, the unique properties of DRPTMCs have dealt with these composites for widespread research and progress around the domain. Even though DRPTMCs are one of the most studied materials, expedient information about their properties, processing, characterisation and heat treatment is still scattered in the literature. Hence, this paper focuses on a literature review that covers important research work that has led to advances in DRPTMCs material systems. Further, this paper also deals with broad details about the particulates, manufacturing processes and heat treatment processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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Communication
Mechanical Properties of Polylactide Filled with Micronized Chalcedonite
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120387 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 655
Abstract
One of the methods of changing the mechanical properties of polymeric materials is by the creation of composites with various substances whose task is to strengthen and fill them. Thanks to the use of fillers, we can obtain new materials with interesting mechanical [...] Read more.
One of the methods of changing the mechanical properties of polymeric materials is by the creation of composites with various substances whose task is to strengthen and fill them. Thanks to the use of fillers, we can obtain new materials with interesting mechanical and chemical properties. Among the materials obtained, some of the features are often improved, while the others deteriorate. In this study, an attempt was made to obtain a polymer composite based on a PLA filled with macaroni chalcedonite in the amount of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% by weight. The properties of the mechanically obtained mixtures were assessed. The tests show that the number of substances in the composite had a significant effect on changing the properties of the obtained material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Modelling and Characterization)
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Article
Influence of Copper-Based Fillers on Structural and Mechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120386 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 538
Abstract
The importance of promising composites in modern materials science is constantly increasing. The use of various fillers or additives is associated with their influence not only on the defining properties of the composite, but also on physical and mechanical characteristics of the material. [...] Read more.
The importance of promising composites in modern materials science is constantly increasing. The use of various fillers or additives is associated with their influence not only on the defining properties of the composite, but also on physical and mechanical characteristics of the material. In this case, the distribution of the additive and its wetting with a polymer play an important role. The problem highlighted in this article is the influence of different copper-containing fillers (copper (II) sulphate powder, micro-sized copper (II) oxide powder, and nano-structured copper (II) oxide-based hollow microspheres) on the technological and physical–mechanical properties of the composites based on polylactic acid (PLA). The hollow microspheres of copper (II) oxide have been obtained by ultrasonic spray atomization via pyrolysis of copper (II) nitrate. The structure of the copper-based additives has been studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and static light scattering. For the PLA-composites, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, stress-strain properties testing, and density analysis have been performed. The plasticizing effect of polycaprolactone and polyethylene glycol has been studied for the highly filled PLA/CuSO4 composite. The samples of PLA with over 2 wt.% of CuO microspheres have a full volume-filling and percolation structure of the additive’s particles. Due to the regular spherical shape of the particles and a lower specific volume, CuO hollow microspheres are uniformly distributed in the PLA matrix acting as a structuring and reinforcing modifier. Differential scanning analysis showed heterogeneous crystallization on CuO particles with an increase in the degree of crystallinity and the melting point of the polymer. It has been shown that the pre-masterbatching technology and adding plasticizers to obtain PLA composites contribute minimizing defects and enhance mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Biocomposites)
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Article
Efficient Adsorption of Methyl Orange on Nanoporous Carbon from Agricultural Wastes: Characterization, Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Regeneration and Adsorption Mechanism
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120385 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Nanoporous carbon derived from Moringa oleifera seed waste was synthesized by an original process of flash pyrolysis followed by zinc chloride impregnation. The N2-adsorption–desorption results of the optimized sample revealed a BET surface area of 699.6 m2/g and a [...] Read more.
Nanoporous carbon derived from Moringa oleifera seed waste was synthesized by an original process of flash pyrolysis followed by zinc chloride impregnation. The N2-adsorption–desorption results of the optimized sample revealed a BET surface area of 699.6 m2/g and a pore size of 2 nm. It was evaluated for the adsorption of a mono azo dye, methyl orange (MeO), from aqueous solution. Four isothermal models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevic and Temkin) were applied to fit the experimental data. The results revealed that Langmuir is the most appropriate isothermal adsorption model to describe the adsorption process (X2 = 1.16); with an adsorption capacity 367.83 mg/g at 298 K, the interaction of MeO dye with the nanoporous carbon surface is a localized monolayer adsorption. The adsorption kinetics was consistent with the pseudo-second-order model and found to correlate well with the experimental data (X2 = 9.06). The thermodynamic study revealed a spontaneous and endothermic adsorption process, and the substances are adsorbed in a random manner. The desorption of MeO dye from MOC-ZnCl2 by sodium hydroxide solution was achieved to a level of about 84%, and the nanoporous carbon was recycled and reused at the fifth cycle. This work demonstrates that MOC-ZnCl2 could be employed as an alternative to commercially available activated carbon in the removal of dyes from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightweight Composites Materials: Sustainability and Applications)
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Article
Preparation of Ag/C Nanocomposites Based on Silver Maleate and Their Use for the Analysis of Iodine Ions
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120384 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
In recent decades, metal-containing nanocomposites have attracted considerable attention from researchers. In the present study, a detailed analysis of the preparation of Ag/C nanocomposites through the thermolysis of silver maleate was carried out. Thermolysis products are nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) uniformly distributed [...] Read more.
In recent decades, metal-containing nanocomposites have attracted considerable attention from researchers. In the present study, a detailed analysis of the preparation of Ag/C nanocomposites through the thermolysis of silver maleate was carried out. Thermolysis products are nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) uniformly distributed in a stabilizing carbon matrix. The composition, structure, and properties of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). This article reports on the possibility of using Ag/C nanocomposites to create new indicator papers that are sensitive to iodide ions in the concentration range of 0.03–1.6 mg/L (0.24–12.6 μM). The developed papers are used in a technique based on the oxidation of iodides with the formation of molecular iodine, which is extracted in an air stream and transferred to a sensitive paper layer containing silver NPs. The interaction of silver NPs with iodine leads to optical changes that can be tracked using a conventional scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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Article
First-Principles Calculations of Crystallographic and Electronic Structural Properties of Au-Cu Alloys
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120383 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
In this research, we have explored the effect of Au:Cu ratio on the crystallographic and electronic structural properties, formation energies, and radial distribution function (RDF) of Au-Cu alloy materials via density functional calculations. The results show that Au-Cu alloy can be formed in [...] Read more.
In this research, we have explored the effect of Au:Cu ratio on the crystallographic and electronic structural properties, formation energies, and radial distribution function (RDF) of Au-Cu alloy materials via density functional calculations. The results show that Au-Cu alloy can be formed in any Au:Cu ratio from 3:1 to 1:3 with a similar possibility. The results also reveal that the lattice constants of both Au and Cu are affected by the LDA-PWC pseudo-field, which is in full agreement with the experimental findings. An increase in the concentration of Cu impurity in Au results in a decrement not only in the lattice constants of the crystal system but also in the total energy of the system (Etot). However, an enhancement in the electron density is determined by increasing Cu impurity concentration in Au. The RDF results confirm the contraction of lattice constants and a structural change in Au-Cu from cubic to tetrahedral is found when the Au:Cu ratio is equal to 1:1. These findings revealed in this work are expected to contribute to future studies on electronic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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Article
Specific Application Features of Ti-TiN-(Ti,Cr,Al)N, Zr-ZrN-(Zr,Mo,Al)N, and ZrHf-(Zr,Hf)N-(Zr,Hf,Cr,Mo,Al)N Multilayered Nanocomposite Coatings in End Milling of the Inconel 718 Nickel-Chromium Alloy
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120382 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
This article discusses the specific application features of end mills with Ti-TiN-(Ti,Cr,Al)N, Zr-ZrN-(Zr,Mo,Al)N, and ZrHf-(Zr,Hf)N-(Zr,Hf,Cr,Mo,Al)N multilayer nanocomposite coatings during the machining of the Inconel 718 nickel–chromium alloy. The hardness, fracture resistance during scratch testing, structure, and phase composition of the coatings were studied. [...] Read more.
This article discusses the specific application features of end mills with Ti-TiN-(Ti,Cr,Al)N, Zr-ZrN-(Zr,Mo,Al)N, and ZrHf-(Zr,Hf)N-(Zr,Hf,Cr,Mo,Al)N multilayer nanocomposite coatings during the machining of the Inconel 718 nickel–chromium alloy. The hardness, fracture resistance during scratch testing, structure, and phase composition of the coatings were studied. The tribological properties of the samples were compared at temperatures of 400–900 °C. Tests were conducted to study the wear resistance of the coated end mills during the milling of the Inconel 718 alloy. The wear mechanism of the end mills was studied. It was found that in comparison with the other coatings, the Zr-ZrN-(Zr,Mo,Al)N coating had the highest hardness and the lowest value of the adhesion component of the coefficient of friction at high temperatures. However, the Zr-ZrN-(Zr,Mo,Al)N coating exhibited good resistance to cracking and oxidation during the milling of the Inconel 718 alloy. Based on the above, the Zr-ZrN-(Zr,Mo,Al)N coating can be considered a good choice as a wear-resistant coating for the end milling of the Inconel 718 alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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Article
Effect of Alumina and Silicon Carbide Nanoparticle-Infused Polymer Matrix on Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120381 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer nanocomposites were developed by adding alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles using ultrasonication and magnetic stirring. The uniform nanoparticle dispersions were examined with a field-emission scanning electron microscope. The nano-phase matrix was then utilized [...] Read more.
Unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer nanocomposites were developed by adding alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles using ultrasonication and magnetic stirring. The uniform nanoparticle dispersions were examined with a field-emission scanning electron microscope. The nano-phase matrix was then utilized to fabricate the hybrid carbon fiber-reinforced polymer nanocomposites by hand lay-up and compression molding. The weight fractions selected for Al2O3 and SiC nanoparticles were determined based on improvements in mechanical properties. Accordingly, the hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated at weight fractions of 1, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 wt.% for Al2O3. Likewise, the weight fractions selected for SiC were 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 2 wt.%. At 1.75 wt.% Al2O3 nanoparticle loading, the flexural strength modulus improved by 31.76% and 37.08%, respectively. Additionally, the interlaminar shear and impact strength enhanced by 40.95% and 47.51%, respectively. For SiC nanocomposites, improvements in flexural strength (12.79%) and flexural modulus (9.59%) were accomplished at 1.25 wt.% nanoparticle loading. Interlaminar shear strength was enhanced by 34.27%, and maximum impact strength was improved by 30.45%. Effective particle interactions with polymeric chains of epoxy, crack deflection, and crack arresting were the micromechanics accountable for enhancing the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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Article
Thermomechanical and Pre-Ignition Properties of Multicomponent Poly(Vnylidene Fluoride)/Aluminum Oxide/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Nanocomposites
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120380 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF is a piezoelectric semi-crystalline fluoroplastic that is widely used in the electronics and semiconductor industry for packaging, sensors, and actuators. PVDF nanocomposites containing single-walled carbon nanotubes, SWCNTs and fumed alumina, Al2O3 were prepared in dimethylformamide, and their [...] Read more.
Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF is a piezoelectric semi-crystalline fluoroplastic that is widely used in the electronics and semiconductor industry for packaging, sensors, and actuators. PVDF nanocomposites containing single-walled carbon nanotubes, SWCNTs and fumed alumina, Al2O3 were prepared in dimethylformamide, and their thermal and dynamic mechanical properties were determined by using thermogravimetric analysis, TGA, differential scanning calorimetry, DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA. It was observed from differential scanning calorimetry that the matrix’s degree of crystallinity and enthalpy of melting was reduced in the presence of the nanofillers to about 7.1%, compared to the neat PVDF whose degree of crystallinity was determined to be about 51.3%. The melting temperature, Tm obtained by DSC measurements was also reduced from 171.6 °C to 162.7 °C at high SWCNT loadings. The onset degradation temperature was also lowered in the presence of the nanofillers, especially alumina particulates. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the composites showed a significant improvement in the storage modulus of about 18 GPa in the presence of SWCNT. The glass transition temperature, Tg was significantly increased from −42.6 °C to −33.2 °C due to reinforcement with SWCNT. The reinforcement of PVDF with SWCNT and alumina resulted in greater char retention at 600 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2022)
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Review
Carbonaceous Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications as High-Drug Loading Nanocarriers for Sustained Delivery: A Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120379 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Low drug loading and high initial burst release are common drawbacks for most polymeric nanocarriers in their biomedical applications. This review emphasizes the use of unconventional carbonaceous nanocomposites as functional carriers to improve the drug loading capacity and their capability of protecting drugs [...] Read more.
Low drug loading and high initial burst release are common drawbacks for most polymeric nanocarriers in their biomedical applications. This review emphasizes the use of unconventional carbonaceous nanocomposites as functional carriers to improve the drug loading capacity and their capability of protecting drugs from the surrounding environment. The unique properties of typical carbonaceous nanocarriers, including nanotube, graphene/graphite, fullerene, and nanodiamonds/diamond-like carbon, are presented. Advanced methods for the surface functionalization of carbonaceous nanocarriers are described, followed by a summary of the most appealing demonstrations for their efficient drug loading and sustained release in vitro or in vivo. The fundamental drug delivery concepts based on controlling mechanisms, such as targeting and stimulation with pH, chemical interactions, and photothermal induction, are discussed. Additionally, the challenges involved in the full utilization of carbonaceous nanocomposites are described, along with the future perspectives of their use for enhanced drug delivery. Finally, despite its recent emergence as a drug carrier, carbon-based nanocellulose has been viewed as another promising candidate. Its structural geometry and unique application in the biomedical field are particularly discussed. This paper, for the first time, taxonomizes nanocellulose as a carbon-based carrier and compares its drug delivery capacities with other nanocarbons. The outcome of this review is expected to open up new horizons of carbonaceous nanocomposites to inspire broader interests across multiple disciplines. Full article
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Article
Hole Quality Observation in Single-Shot Drilling of CFRP/Al7075-T6 Composite Metal Stacks Using Customized Twist Drill Design
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120378 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 423
Abstract
In the modern aircraft manufacturing industry, the use of fiber metal stack-up material plays an important role. During assembly, these stack-up materials need to be drilled, and single-shot drilling is the best option to avoid misalignments. This paper discusses hole quality in terms [...] Read more.
In the modern aircraft manufacturing industry, the use of fiber metal stack-up material plays an important role. During assembly, these stack-up materials need to be drilled, and single-shot drilling is the best option to avoid misalignments. This paper discusses hole quality in terms of hole edge defects and hole integrity with respect to tool geometry. In this study, tungsten carbide (WC) twist-type drills with various geometric features were fabricated, tested, and evaluated. Twenty custom twist drill bits with primary clearance angles ranging from 6° to 8°, chisel edge angles from 30° to 45°, and point angles from 130° to 140° were fabricated. The CFRP and Al 7075-T6 were stacked up, and a feed rate of 0.05 mm/rev and spindle speed of 2600 rev/min were used for all drilling experiments. The experimental array was constructed using response surface methodology (RSM) to design the experiments. The impact of factors and their importance on hole quality were investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study demonstrates that the primary clearance angle, followed by the chisel edge angle, is the most important factor determining hole quality. As a function of tool geometry, correlation models between exit delamination and burr height were developed. The findings suggested that, within the range of parameters examined, the proposed correlation models might be utilized to predict performance measures. For drilling CFRP/AL7075-T6 stack material in a single shot, the ideal twist drill geometry was determined to be a 45° chisel edge angle, 8° primary clearance angle, and 130° point angle. For optimum drill geometry, the discrepancy between the expected and actual experiment values was 0.11% for exit delamination and 9.72% for burr height. The findings of this research elucidate the relationship between tool geometry and hole quality in single-shot drilling of composite-metal stacks, and more specifically, they may serve as a useful, practical guide for single-shot drilling of CFRP/Al7075-T6 stack for the manufacture of aircraft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing of Fibrous Composites for Engineering Applications)
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Article
Numerical Model for a Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Beams with Composite Cross-Sections
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120377 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
This paper presents a beam model for a geometrically nonlinear stability analysis of the composite beam-type structures. Each wall of the cross-section can be modeled with a different material. The nonlinear incremental procedure is based on an updated Lagrangian formulation where in each [...] Read more.
This paper presents a beam model for a geometrically nonlinear stability analysis of the composite beam-type structures. Each wall of the cross-section can be modeled with a different material. The nonlinear incremental procedure is based on an updated Lagrangian formulation where in each increment, the equilibrium equations are derived from the virtual work principle. The beam model accounts for the restrained warping and large rotation effects by including the nonlinear displacement field of the composite cross-section. First-order shear deformation theories for torsion and bending are included in the model through Timoshenko’s bending theory and a modified Vlasov’s torsion theory. The shear deformation coupling effects are included in the model using the six shear correction factors. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed numerical model are verified through a comparison of the shear-rigid and shear-deformable beam models in buckling problems. The obtained results indicated the importance of including the shear deformation effects at shorter beams and columns in which the difference that occurs is more than 10 percent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2022)
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Review
Cutting-Edge Green Polymer/Nanocarbon Nanocomposite for Supercapacitor—State-of-the-Art
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120376 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Supercapacitors have attained a special stance among energy storage devices such as capacitors, batteries, fuel cell, and so forth. In this state-of-the-art overview on green synthesis approaches and green materials for supercapacitors, the cutting-edge green polymer/nanocarbon nanocomposite systems were explored by focusing on [...] Read more.
Supercapacitors have attained a special stance among energy storage devices such as capacitors, batteries, fuel cell, and so forth. In this state-of-the-art overview on green synthesis approaches and green materials for supercapacitors, the cutting-edge green polymer/nanocarbon nanocomposite systems were explored by focusing on the design and related essential features. In this regard, various polymers were reconnoitered including conjugated polymers, thermosetting matrices, and green-cellulose-based matrices. Nanocarbon nanomaterials have also expanded research thoughtfulness for green-technology-based energy storage devices. Consequently, green polymer/nanocarbon nanocomposites have publicized fine electron conduction pathways to promote the charge storage, specific capacitance, energy density, and other essential features of supercapacitors. Future research directions must focus on the design of novel high performance green nanocomposites for energy storage applications. Full article
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Article
Physico-Chemical, Rheological, and Viscoelastic Properties of Starch Bio-Based Materials
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120375 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
This study describes the elaboration and characterization of plasticized starch composites based on lignocellulosic fibers. The transformation of native to plasticized starch (TPS) and the preparation of TPS blends were performed with a new lab-scale mixer based on an original concept. Firstly, the [...] Read more.
This study describes the elaboration and characterization of plasticized starch composites based on lignocellulosic fibers. The transformation of native to plasticized starch (TPS) and the preparation of TPS blends were performed with a new lab-scale mixer based on an original concept. Firstly, the morphology and chemical composition of flax shives were analyzed to better understand the intrinsic properties of these natural fillers. Then, the impact of the processing parameters (temperature, speed screw) on the quality and the structural properties of plasticized starch were examined by SEM and DRX. After that, we focused on the elaboration of various formulations based on plasticized starch matrix by varying TPS formulation and filler content (from 10 to 30%). The viscoelastic and rheological properties of TPS/flax blends have been analyzed by TGA, SEM, and DMTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Biocomposites)
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Article
Influence of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber Mesh on Plastic Hinge Length of RCC Beams under Monotonic Loading
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120374 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The most susceptible area of a structural member, where the most inelastic rotation would take place, is the plastic hinge. At this stage, flexural elements in particular achieve their maximal bending flexibility. This study uses finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental inquiry to [...] Read more.
The most susceptible area of a structural member, where the most inelastic rotation would take place, is the plastic hinge. At this stage, flexural elements in particular achieve their maximal bending flexibility. This study uses finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental inquiry to analyze and test the effects of carbon fiber mesh jacketing and steel fiber reinforcement at the concrete beam’s plastic hinge length subjected to a vertical monotonic load. The compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength tests are used to evaluate the mechanical qualities, such as compressive strength and tensile strength, of M25 grade concrete that is used to cast specimens. While conducting this analysis, seven different parameters are taken into account. After the conventional concrete beam has been cast, the steel-fiber reinforced beam is cast. Several empirical formulas drawn from Baker, Sawyer, Corley, Mattock, Paulay, Priestley, and Park’s methods were used to calculate the length of the beam’s plastic hinge. Finally, the steel fiber was inserted independently at 150 mm into the concrete beam’s plastic hinge length mechanism using the techniques described by Paulay and Priestley. The analytical and experimental results are compared. The results obtained from the investigations by applying monotonic loads to the beam show that fibers used at specific plastic hinge lengths show a 41 kN ultimate load with 11.63 mm displacement, which is similar to that of conventional beam displacement, and performance. Meanwhile, the carbon fiber mesh wrapped throughout the beam behaves better than other members, showing an ultimate load of 64 kN with a 15.95 mm deflection. The fibers provided at the plastic hinge length of the beam perform similarly to those of a conventional beam; eventually, they become economical without sacrificing strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction Composite Materials)
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Review
Mechanical, Thermal, and Acoustic Properties of Hemp and Biocomposite Materials: A Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120373 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Bio-based products are paving a promising path towards a greener future and helping win the fight against climate change and global warming mainly caused by fossil fuel consumption. This paper aims at highlighting the acoustic, thermal, and mechanical properties of hemp-based biocomposite materials. [...] Read more.
Bio-based products are paving a promising path towards a greener future and helping win the fight against climate change and global warming mainly caused by fossil fuel consumption. This paper aims at highlighting the acoustic, thermal, and mechanical properties of hemp-based biocomposite materials. Change in sound absorption as a result of hemp fibers and hemp particle reinforcement are discussed in this paper. The thermal properties characterized by the thermal conductivity of the composites are also presented, followed by the mechanical properties and the current issues in biocomposite materials mainly containing hemp as a constituent element. Lastly, the effects of biofillers and biofibers on the various properties of the hemp-composite materials are discussed. This paper highlights the development of and issues in the field of hemp-based composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2022)
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Article
Three-Dimensional Thermo-Mechanical Elastic Analysis of Functionally Graded Five Layers Composite Sandwich Plate on Winkler Foundations
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120372 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
In this work, the first shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used for the thermo-mechanical analysis of a simply supported five-layer functionally Graded (FG) sandwich plate resting on a Winkler elastic foundation. The sandwich plate consists of five layers (two functionally graded face sheets [...] Read more.
In this work, the first shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used for the thermo-mechanical analysis of a simply supported five-layer functionally Graded (FG) sandwich plate resting on a Winkler elastic foundation. The sandwich plate consists of five layers (two functionally graded face sheets (ALAL2O3), with aluminum (Al) as the metal and Alumina (AL2O3) as ceramic phases. Two vinyl ester adhesive layers bond the face sheets to an Elastollan core. The governing equations are obtained using the principle of virtual displacements. A uniform distributed load q with constant magnitude is applied on the top face sheet while all layers experience a steady temperature equal to T. We adapted layerwise theory (LT) to solve each layer’s stress distribution. Navier solution is employed to produce the semi-analytical solution results, which are compared with those of three-dimensional finite element analysis obtained by ABAQUS software. A parametric study is presented to observe the effect of the material gradation, variation in plate dimensions, variation in the thermo-mechanical load, and elastic foundation on the deflections and stresses in the functionally graded sandwich plate. For a composite sandwich plate with mechanical load, in the absence of thermal load, results of the first-order shear layer theory obtained by using the Navire method are relatively good in comparison to the normal stresses obtained for investigated points, which are obtained by finite element. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composites, Volume II)
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Article
Comparison of Coronal Discoloration Induced by White MTA and CEM Cement
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120371 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Coronal discoloration of endodontically treated teeth is a challenge in clinical dentistry. This study aimed to compare coronal discoloration induced by White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-enriched mixture cement. Fifty single-rooted, unrestored premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were selected. After access cavity [...] Read more.
Coronal discoloration of endodontically treated teeth is a challenge in clinical dentistry. This study aimed to compare coronal discoloration induced by White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-enriched mixture cement. Fifty single-rooted, unrestored premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were selected. After access cavity preparation, all the root canals were instrumented with MTWO rotary files up to #40.6%. The specimens were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-enriched mixture cement groups (n = 20), and two control groups (n = 5). In the White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-enriched mixture cement groups, the material was condensed via the access cavity 3 mm below the cementoenamel junction to a thickness of 3 mm. Tooth color was assessed using computer analysis of digital images. Tooth color measurements were recorded at eight time intervals: before material placement (but after tooth preparation), at 24 h, 48 h, one week, two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks, and sixteen weeks after material placement. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, repeated measure ANOVA, and Tukey HSD tests. The significance level was set at 5% for all the tests. Cervical discoloration of teeth in both experimental groups significantly increased over time (p < 0.05). However, samples in the White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate group showed more discoloration in cervical regions than Calcium-enriched mixture cement specimens after two, four, eight, and sixteen weeks (p < 0.05). Applying both White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-enriched mixture cement induced coronal discoloration; however, White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate samples exhibited greater cervical discoloration than Calcium-enriched mixture cement specimens after two, four, eight, and sixteen weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2022)
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Article
ANN-Based Estimation of the Defect Severity in the Drilling of GFRP/Ti Multilayered Composite Structure
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120370 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 501
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to develop a model for predicting the quality of holes drilled in the root part of the spar of helicopter main rotor blades made of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP)-Ti multilayer polymer composite. As the main quality [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to develop a model for predicting the quality of holes drilled in the root part of the spar of helicopter main rotor blades made of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP)-Ti multilayer polymer composite. As the main quality criterion, delaminations at the entry and exit of the drill from the hole were taken. In the experimental study, a conventional drill and two modified geometry drills, a double-point angle drill and a dagger drill, were used. Preliminary experiments showed the best hole quality when using modified drills, which allowed further detailed study only with both modified drills at different drilling speeds and feed rates. Its results in the form of training sets were used to build artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict delamination at the entry and exit of the drilled holes. An analysis of the fitted response functions presented as 3D surface plots and contour plots led to the selection of the best tool, a double-point angle drill, which demonstrated the lowest achievable delamination both at the entry and at the exit of the holes approximately 1.5 times less (0.45/0.48 mm) compared to dagger drills (0.68/0.7 mm) and determined the ~5 times larger optimal area for the drilling speed and feed rate. The results obtained confirm the possibility of effective prediction of the quality and productivity of mechanically processed composites of complex reinforcement using ANN to quantify the quality criteria and search for the optimal modes of such technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in Mechanical Drilling of Composite Laminates)
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Article
Natural Rubber Composites Reinforced with Green Silica from Rice Husk: Effect of Filler Loading on Mechanical Properties
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120369 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Natural rubber (NR) composites filled with silica are typically used for tire tread applications owing to their low energy consumption and low rolling resistance. Tire tread properties vary broadly depending on the compound formulation and curing conditions. Silica loading is recognized as a [...] Read more.
Natural rubber (NR) composites filled with silica are typically used for tire tread applications owing to their low energy consumption and low rolling resistance. Tire tread properties vary broadly depending on the compound formulation and curing conditions. Silica loading is recognized as a critical factor influencing the mechanical properties of the composites. In this work, we aim to investigate the effect of silica loading (10–50 phr) on the mechanical properties of NR composites. Silica was prepared from rice husk waste via chemical treatment and subsequent calcination at 600 °C. Prior to the compound mixing process, silica was modified by a silane coupling agent to improve compatibility with the NR matrix. The NR compounds reinforced with silane-modified silica from rice husk were prepared using a two-roll mill machine. The scorch and cure times increased as the silica loading increased. The mechanical properties of the NR composites, including tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus, hardness, and abrasion loss, were examined as a function of silica loading. Tensile strength increased and reached the maximum value at 20 phr but decreased at high loading owing to the agglomeration of silica in the NR matrix. With increasing silica loading, hardness and modulus increased, whereas elongation at break and abrasion resistance decreased slightly. These results indicate that NR composites filled with silica are stiffer and harder at a higher silica loading due to the strong interaction between silica and the NR matrix, inhibiting the segmental mobility of rubber chains. We anticipate that the compound formulation presented in this work could potentially be adapted to tire tread applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Rubber Blends and Composites Technology)
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Article
Dielectric Spectroscopy of Melt-Mixed Polypropylene and Pyrolytically Stripped Carbon Nanofiber Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(12), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6120368 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 406
Abstract
In this work, pyrolytically stripped carbon nanofiber (CNF) polypropylene (PP) composites were synthesized following a scalable melt-mixing method, and the effects of CNF weight concentrations on the electrical conductivity, dielectric permittivity, electrical modulus and electrical impedance of PP/CNF composites were studied. Quite unexpectedly, [...] Read more.
In this work, pyrolytically stripped carbon nanofiber (CNF) polypropylene (PP) composites were synthesized following a scalable melt-mixing method, and the effects of CNF weight concentrations on the electrical conductivity, dielectric permittivity, electrical modulus and electrical impedance of PP/CNF composites were studied. Quite unexpectedly, the electrical conductivity of PP/CNF composites improved only slightly as the incorporation of CNFs was raised, yielding a maximum of ~10−10 S m−1 for PP/CNF 5 wt. % composites. The increase corresponded to a gradual improvement of the dielectric constant up to a maximum of ~9 for PP/CNF 5 wt. % composites at 1 MHz, which was attributed to the raise of interface polarization effect. Moreover, the Cole–Cole model was used to analyze the effects of CNF concentrations on the dielectric relaxation of PP/CNF composites, from which was deduced that the incorporation of CNFs increases their dielectric strength and relaxation times. The analysis gathered here aims to provide a better insight into the enhanced dielectric properties observed in low-conducting polymer composites filled with CNFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
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