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Proceedings, 2023, ICC 2023

International Coffee Convention 2023

Mannheim, Germany | 30 September–3 October 2023

Volume Editors:
Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Agency Karlsruhe
Steffen Schwarz, Coffee Consulate Mannheim
Philipp Weller, Mannheim University of Applied Sciences
Adriana Farah, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Number of Papers: 33
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The International Coffee Convention 2023 was held in Mannheim, Germany from September 30th to October 3rd. The event brought together professionals, experts, and enthusiasts from around the globe to [...] Read more.
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193 KiB  
Editorial
Preface of the International Coffee Convention 2023 (ICC2023)
by Steffen Schwarz and Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14823 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
The International Coffee Convention 2023 (ICC2023) is a unique three-day event in Mannheim, Germany, from September 30 to October 3, that will bring together academics, practitioners and coffee industry experts from around the world to discuss the challenges and solutions facing the coffee [...] Read more.
The International Coffee Convention 2023 (ICC2023) is a unique three-day event in Mannheim, Germany, from September 30 to October 3, that will bring together academics, practitioners and coffee industry experts from around the world to discuss the challenges and solutions facing the coffee industry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
1 pages, 157 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Steffen Schwarz and Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2023089030 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 688
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)

Research

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154 KiB  
Abstract
“Highvalue.Coffee Project” and the Growing Importance of Coffee Traceability
by Massimiliano Fabian
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14833 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
Nowadays, traceability is the main issue in many businesses, particularly for coffee. The advantages of keeping it at a high degree are that it provides a guarantee for consumers, provides increased power in the value chain, helps quality monitoring, and, last but not [...] Read more.
Nowadays, traceability is the main issue in many businesses, particularly for coffee. The advantages of keeping it at a high degree are that it provides a guarantee for consumers, provides increased power in the value chain, helps quality monitoring, and, last but not least, can be used a marketing tool. In the coffee business, it means verifying the history and the area of origin of green coffee beans (now moving to geolocation) and being able to identify them throughout all the logistic supply chain up to the last customer; to help this, we conceived an innovative service model of traceability and integration through a technique that recognizes the connection between genetic characteristics of coffee varieties and chemical and sensory analysis results, shared on a dedicated platform and linked to a QR code. By linking shipping documents with the results of chemical, genetic, and sensory analysis, users can verify the compliance of all declared data with the quality of the product received. Genetic analysis is based on DNA fingerprinting, detecting the presence of short and repetitive sequences (microsatellites) and characteristics of beans’ genetic code; thanks to a rich Coffea Arabica library that was built, DNA analysis identifies different varieties of green coffee beans which are also linked to the production countries. Chemical–physical analyses consist precisely of the determination of moisture, caffeine, 5-hydroxytrypdamides, and OTA, and sensory analyses are performed through the SCA cupping protocol. Gathered using a blockchain system, all the documents are available in sample cards to guarantee the transparency to both buyer and seller, from bean to cup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
157 KiB  
Abstract
Volatilomics, Foodomics and Fermentomics at Trace Levels: Role of Modern Untargeted Benchtop Analytical Strategies in Improving Coffee Research
by Philipp Weller, Catherine Kiefer and Sascha Rohn
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14839 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
The characterization of complex products, such as foodstuffs or raw materials via metabolomic approaches, often referred to as “foodomics”, is a modern and generally accepted strategy. As a derivative, “volatilomics”, is an elegant way of correlating volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the gas [...] Read more.
The characterization of complex products, such as foodstuffs or raw materials via metabolomic approaches, often referred to as “foodomics”, is a modern and generally accepted strategy. As a derivative, “volatilomics”, is an elegant way of correlating volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the gas phase from the matrix with specific properties of that product, such as authenticity, quality or provenance. This is particularly relevant, as a major part of the aroma-relevant compounds, e.g., roasted coffee that belong to the VOC fraction, can be analyzed without sample contact using the headspace over the sample. A major challenge is the complexity of the enormous amount of different substances found, which often are not relevant as individual species, but rather their total “fingerprint”, resulting from all amenable substances. This high-dimensional spectral information cannot be interpreted without applying powerful machine learning algorithms or chemometrics, a strategy which is generally referred to as "omics". Omics are known as holistic, full spectral analytical strategies which make use of the total information from a complex sample, e.g., a raw or roasted coffee bean, and they can be used to describe and better understand the desired aroma profiles, similarities or differences of products, as well as potential off-flavors at trace level concentrations. These data are combined with modern machine learning techniques to extract the maximum possible information from products to improve their quality and confirm authenticity. Typically, the required techniques are laboratory-based and not useable at the so-called point-of-care, which limits their use. This paper will demonstrate the principles and examples of benchtop "volatilomics" approaches in food and fermentation processes, named as “fermentomics”, that be used directly at the location where they are needed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
155 KiB  
Abstract
2023 Coffee Challenges
by Massimiliano Fabian
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14831 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
In a forcedly global system, we are facing a more and more regulated, sustainable coffee market. The International Coffee Organization is the only coffee intergovernmental organization working to face the numerous challenges of this polyhedric world, from producing fields to consuming markets. Coffee [...] Read more.
In a forcedly global system, we are facing a more and more regulated, sustainable coffee market. The International Coffee Organization is the only coffee intergovernmental organization working to face the numerous challenges of this polyhedric world, from producing fields to consuming markets. Coffee statistics, a unique table for discussion, starting from multilateral up to bilateral dialogue, involving private entities and civil society, cooperation and development projects, and the circular economy are some of the main issues for this intense year 2023. In Europe, one of the main issues for coffee contaminants is the renewal of the authorization as an active substance for glyphosate, which is a chemical widely used in herbicide products, especially in the coffee sector. The use of glyphosate is approved in the EU until 15 December 2023, subject to each product being authorized by national authorities following a safety evaluation. In July 2023, EFSA published the results of a risk assessment for the active substance glyphosate, where no critical areas of concern for the health of humans, animals, or the environment have been identified. Due Diligence: On 1 June 2023, the European Parliament agreed on its position on the Directive on Corporate Sustainability Due Diligence (CSDDD), which requires in-scope companies to conduct due diligence on and take responsibility for human rights abuses and environmental harm throughout their global value chains. The European Coffee Federation has supported the proposal in May 2022 through a position paper, as it is an important step toward the development and promotion of more socially and environmentally sustainable and responsible coffee value chains, sustainable sourcing approaches, and the prevention of loss of biodiversity and natural resources. Deforestation EU regulation: changes to food systems are required to halt deforestation and forest degradation to slow the rate of climate change and the threat to global diversity. Henceforth, the EU deforestation regulation aims to minimize the risk of placing products and commodities on the EU market that cause deforestation and forest degradation. There is a strong need to conduct country-level assessments on the readiness to fulfill the new EU legislation, especially on how smallholder coffee farming families would be affected. To be prepared, producing countries, coffee farmers (and particularly small-holder farmers) and their producer organizations need timely information on guidelines and capacity building on regulatory due diligence. Data requirements on geo-localization and traceability need to feed a discussion on how data should be managed and by whom, as well as on data ownership. Sector-specific guidelines are required, and for the coffee sector specifically, on how to differentiate between forest and coffee agroforestry systems such that coffee farm management is not seen as deforestation. As evident, more and more issues for a sustainable coffee world are arising, impacting the whole global coffee market; traceability is becoming a pillar on which it needs to be developed, stimulating multilateral and bilateral dialogue to help all countries align their capacities to reach this important common target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
164 KiB  
Abstract
The Aromatic Fingerprint of Fermented Coffea liberica 
by Catherine Kiefer, Steffen Schwarz, Sascha Rohn and Philipp Weller
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14838 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Coffea liberica presents the smallest proportion of cultivated coffee worldwide. Its taste varies highly from C. arabica spp. or C. canephora spp. As the unfermented taste of C. liberica is often described as lactic, and animalic with aromatics of blue cheese, fermentation experiments [...] Read more.
Coffea liberica presents the smallest proportion of cultivated coffee worldwide. Its taste varies highly from C. arabica spp. or C. canephora spp. As the unfermented taste of C. liberica is often described as lactic, and animalic with aromatics of blue cheese, fermentation experiments of C. liberica coffee cherries were conducted. Coffee cherry fermentation is carried out to modify and enhance the sensory profile of green and roasted coffee beans. Various microorganisms change the composition of organic precursor compounds, reducing off-flavours during green bean coffee processing and roasting. For the comparison of the sensory properties of fermented coffee beans, SCA-trained experts grade the coffees by specific sensory attributes. Roasted and ground coffee powder, as well as ground raw coffee samples, were analysed by headspace-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/ion mobility spectrometry (GC-MS/IMS) to determine the volatile fingerprint of unfermented and fermented C. liberica coffee. Eight different unfermented C. liberica samples were analysed and the volatile profiles compared to those of arabica spp. and canephora spp. The unfermented coffee beans differ in origin and processing. Furthermore, single-origin C. liberica fermented with two different wine yeasts was compared to unfermented C. liberica. The fermented coffee beans share the same variety, processing, and profile of roasting and differ only in their origin and fermentation inoculum. This study presents the direct comparison of the aromatic fingerprint measured in the instrument. Compound regions in the spectra associated with different coffee species and ferments are shown. The potential of GC-IMS for fast comparison of the aromatic fingerprint is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
161 KiB  
Abstract
Sensorial and Aroma Profiles of Coffee By-Products—Coffee Leaves and Coffee Flowers
by Marina Rigling, Marc C. Steger, Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Steffen Schwarz and Yanyan Zhang
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14837 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
The utilization of coffee leaves and flowers has been underestimated over the years. Both by-products can be obtained from coffee trees without adversely affecting the production of coffee beans. To gain fundamental knowledge of their sensorial and aroma profiles, it becomes essential to [...] Read more.
The utilization of coffee leaves and flowers has been underestimated over the years. Both by-products can be obtained from coffee trees without adversely affecting the production of coffee beans. To gain fundamental knowledge of their sensorial and aroma profiles, it becomes essential to reintroduce them into the food chain. Accordingly, 24 different coffee leaf samples generated from diverse processing as well as 38 varied species of coffee flowers were analyzed for their sensory characteristics by descriptive analysis and liking tests, and their corresponding aroma profiles were decoded by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry. For the coffee leaves, a wide range of different flavors could be detected in the sensory evaluation. The fermented coffee leaf samples clearly showed more sweetish and fruity aroma notes compared to the intense green and vegetable aroma of the non-fermented samples. β-Ionone (honey-like), decanal (citrus-like, floral), α-ionone (floral), octanal (fruity), and hexanal (green) were identified as key volatile compounds but distributed in different ratios. In the predominant coffee flowers, hay-like, hop-like, sage-like, dried apricot-like, and honey-like impressions were identified as major aroma descriptors in addition to a basic floral note. 2-Heptanol (fruity), 2-ethylhexanol (green), nerol (floral), and geraniol (floral) were identified as representative aroma compounds. All in all, a great variety of flavors was detected from the coffee leaves and flowers, which will not only provide an insight into the potential applications for the food market (i.e., coffee leaf tea and coffee flower tea) but will also help make coffee growing more sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
153 KiB  
Abstract
Refreshing the Agronomic R&D Approach towards Coffee Farmers’ Profitability
by Christophe Montagnon
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14828 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 399
Abstract
Recommendations to coffee farmers regarding agronomic practices are eventually based on agronomic research. The main target of agronomic research is often, if not always, yield measured in Kilograms of green coffee per Ha. We often see or hear claims that a given practice [...] Read more.
Recommendations to coffee farmers regarding agronomic practices are eventually based on agronomic research. The main target of agronomic research is often, if not always, yield measured in Kilograms of green coffee per Ha. We often see or hear claims that a given practice will double or even triple the yield. However, everyone can feel that supposed agronomic silver bullet solutions are not widely adopted by farmers. The reason often put forward is that farmers ignore these solutions and require training. Too often, agronomists and technical assistants explain that farmers are stubborn and will not change and not to mention other more derogatory statements used. We need to understand that the vast majority of farmers, just like any human being, is making rational decisions, optimizing the expected return on any investment in time or money. We hence need to refresh our R&D approach towards coffee farmers’ profitability. Yield is not profitability. Every entrepreneur will understand the difference between gross and net income. In fact, extra-coffee yield obtained by recommended practices is not necessarily covering the extra-cost related to these practices. It is a compulsory first step to understand what the limitations of farmers are and then specifically work out some practices addressing these limitations. In my presentation, I will give some illustrations and show what a refreshed agronomic R&D approach would look like. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
169 KiB  
Abstract
Food Security Opportunities from Plant to Coffee Cup
by Maria Dolores del Castillo and Amaia Iriondo-DeHond
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14829 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 403
Abstract
Food insecurity and malnutrition, in a scenario further complicated by the enduring effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine War, are global priorities. The affordability of healthy diets, which determines food security and nutrition indicators, is a tremendous challenge to be solved [...] Read more.
Food insecurity and malnutrition, in a scenario further complicated by the enduring effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine War, are global priorities. The affordability of healthy diets, which determines food security and nutrition indicators, is a tremendous challenge to be solved by the transformation of food systems into sustainable ones. The coffee industry is being transformed to contribute to end hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition in all its forms and to achieve affordable healthy diets for all. For achieving these goals, the policy of the coffee system for its effective transformation should be based on innovation and research. About ninety percent of the coffee cherry is discarded before reaching the cup that we have for breakfast each morning. The “by-products” or waste generated in this process must be valued to increase the sustainability of the coffee industry, in addition to maximizing the benefits for the environment, society and economy. The by-products (cascara, mucilage, parchment, silverskin and spent coffee grounds) can be converted into new products to be incorporated into a healthy daily diet and daily life to enjoy, solve small problems and contribute to making this the first sustainable agricultural product in the world. In this way, it is feasible to achieve a coffee value chain with zero waste, neutral products for the environment and thousands of solutions for the present and future of humanity. As a consequence, in recent decades, a lot of innovation and research have been focused on these global objectives. We present our contribution in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
153 KiB  
Abstract
The Potentials of Green Coffee Proteins as New Functional Food Components
by Harshadrai Rawel and Sorel Tchewonpi Sagu
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14827 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Proteins/enzymes, peptides and free amino acids in green coffee beans are the main contributors to the development of coffee flavor and quality during roasting, as a result of the Maillard reaction, and are ultimately responsible for the formation of the coffee aroma. Only [...] Read more.
Proteins/enzymes, peptides and free amino acids in green coffee beans are the main contributors to the development of coffee flavor and quality during roasting, as a result of the Maillard reaction, and are ultimately responsible for the formation of the coffee aroma. Only 0.15–2.5% of free amino acids are present in the green beans. A crude protein content of 8.5 to 12% after correction for caffeine and trigonelline has been reported. The proteins can be classified into storage, structural and metabolic proteins. A recent UniProt data bank search (May 2023) delivered some 104 reviewed proteins, with mostly enzymes listed. The most abundant were the legumin-like 11S seed storage proteins, accounting for about 45% of the total proteins in the coffee bean. An accumulation of 11S during bean development/maturation is consistent with its storage function and ultimately is a source of amino acids. Recent data reveal that the proteins are being modified even before coffee roasting, and can be impacted by post-harvest treatment. Coffee’s own phenolic compounds are subject to oxidation reactions and can subsequently attack the amino acid side chains of the proteins. Such interactions result in unique properties in the coffee bean proteins, with enhanced antioxidative properties, altered structural properties and differences in solubility, surface hydrophobicity and emulsification. These naturally present protein modifications provide new potential uses of green coffee bean proteins for the food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
169 KiB  
Abstract
Coffee Fruit Cascara: A New, Sustainable Way to Drink Coffee
by Amaia Iriondo-DeHond and Maria Dolores del Castillo
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14830 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 561
Abstract
In January 2022, dried coffee cherries from Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner, commonly called cascara, were finally authorized as a Traditional Food from a Third Country and were added to the Union List of Authorized Novel Foods. Coffee [...] Read more.
In January 2022, dried coffee cherries from Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner, commonly called cascara, were finally authorized as a Traditional Food from a Third Country and were added to the Union List of Authorized Novel Foods. Coffee fruit cascara is rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. It is proposed that coffee fruit cascara is used for the preparation of infusions, hot beverages, and non-alcoholic, ready-to-drink beverages. Moving forward, the beverage industry will be able to upcycle this material that has been wasted and undervalued in the past. In addition to its use as a beverage, coffee fruit cascara has the potential to be consumed by humans in many ways before it is used for animal feed, compost, energy production, or incineration, which are less preferable revalorization options according to the Food Waste Hierarchy Pyramid proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). It is said that if you want to change the world, you should start with coffee. Therefore, the current research focuses on the valorization of coffee fruit cascara to contribute to the sustainability of the coffee industry and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
1 pages, 156 KiB  
Abstract
Regulatory Aspects and Correct Labeling of Coffee By-Products on the EU Food Market
by Ann-Kathrin Kull, Tabata Rajcic de Rezende and Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14851 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
In addition to the well-known coffee bean, many other parts of the coffee plant can be used as food. These materials have been traditionally used in some coffee-producing countries but were not known in the European Union (EU) before 1997, and are therefore [...] Read more.
In addition to the well-known coffee bean, many other parts of the coffee plant can be used as food. These materials have been traditionally used in some coffee-producing countries but were not known in the European Union (EU) before 1997, and are therefore classified as novel in the EU and require approval before being placed on the market. Authorization of novel foods is carried out in accordance with the requirements of Article 10 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. For certain categories, such as plant products, there is also the possibility of a simplified notification as a “traditional food from a third country” according to Articles 14 and 15 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 if the product has a "history of safe food use" in a country outside the EU. Currently, only infusions of coffee leaves and cherry pulp and the dried cherry pulp as such (also known as cascara (“husk”)) are permitted in the EU as traditional foods from third countries for certain categories. When using authorized novel foods, the general legal requirements for food as well as the specific requirements of Regulation (EU) 2017/2470 (the so-called Union list) must be observed. The mandatory labeling elements according to the Food Information Regulation (Regulation (EU) 1169/2011) include the name of the food, the list of ingredients, the net quantity, the name and address of the food business operator, the date of minimum durability, the instructions for use, and the nutrition declaration. In addition, the Union list specifies certain labeling elements, such as the legally defined name of the authorized novel food such as “coffee cherry pulp”, “cascara (coffee cherry pulp)”, or “infusion from coffee leaves” and the categories of use, which must also be complied with. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
143 KiB  
Abstract
Innovation through Digitalization in Coffee Roasting
by Christian Müller
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14835 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
In today’s dynamic landscape, products have transcended their traditional role as isolated devices. Instead, they find synergy within digital ecosystems, facilitating immersive user experiences that extend beyond mere functionality. These ecosystems provide not only the necessary hardware but also grant access to essential [...] Read more.
In today’s dynamic landscape, products have transcended their traditional role as isolated devices. Instead, they find synergy within digital ecosystems, facilitating immersive user experiences that extend beyond mere functionality. These ecosystems provide not only the necessary hardware but also grant access to essential resources and knowledge, fostering a comprehensive user journey. Leveraging the power of technological platforms, these ecosystems successfully manage the seamless collaboration of diverse stakeholders, creating a room for innovation and value creation. This presentation employed Design Thinking methodologies to explore new territories, investigating untapped potentials for enhancing user experiences in the context of coffee roasting. Through this exploration, the feasibility of translating these enhancements into tangible software solutions was also assessed. Finally, this paper highlights the identified potential and introduces an innovative concept—a digital ecosystem designed to enhance the user experience in the craft of coffee roasting. Regarding the potential, optimization possibilities around the hardware and software of coffee roasters are presented. However, the greatest potential for innovation in coffee roasters through digitalization lies in a digital platform and, thus, the associated ecosystem. In this ecosystem, roasters can, for example, exchange knowledge and roasting profiles with each other or obtain the right green coffee for their device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
192 KiB  
Abstract
Colonic Fermentation of Coffee Melanoidins and Resulting Cardioprotective Metabolites
by Fernanda Machado, Irene Gómez-Domínguez, Raul Hurtado-Ribeira, Diana Martin, Manuel A. Coimbra, María Dolores del Castillo and Filipe Coreta-Gomes
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14836 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Worldwide, noncommunicable diseases accounted for 7 out of 10 deaths in 2019 (WHO), being ischemic heart disease one of the major contributors. Coffee has been implicated with several health benefits, namely the hypocholesterolemic potential, attributed to its high molecular weight compounds (e.g., polysaccharides [...] Read more.
Worldwide, noncommunicable diseases accounted for 7 out of 10 deaths in 2019 (WHO), being ischemic heart disease one of the major contributors. Coffee has been implicated with several health benefits, namely the hypocholesterolemic potential, attributed to its high molecular weight compounds (e.g., polysaccharides and melanoidins) ability to affect cholesterol bioaccessibility. However, the pathways through which the nitrogen-containing brown-colored melanoidins (prevalent in many thermally processed foods) can affect cholesterol metabolism are partially unknown. In order to access coffee melanoidin’s cardioprotective potential, its colonic fermentability was simulated in vitro using human feces, employing simgi® (Dynamic Gastrointestinal Simulator). The fermentation degree was evaluated by the analysis of total carbohydrates and ammonium. The cardioprotective effect of the ferments was estimated by measuring short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and primary and secondary bile salts (BS) after 48h of fermentation. Melanoidin total sugar content decreased due to polysaccharides fermentation, used as the primary source of energy, while ammonium production increased, owing to the degradation of the melanoidin’s proteins. SCFA production increased, as well as secondary BS, due to the microbiota activity. The conversion of primary to secondary BS (more hydrophobic) was significantly lower in the presence of melanoidins than in its absence (control). This decrease promoted by melanoidins may lower BS enterohepatic circulation, which in turn can lower cholesterol bioaccessibility and bioavailability, configuring a hypocholesterolemic effect. The in vitro colonic fermentation of coffee melanoidins, using human microbiota, yielded cardioprotective metabolites (SCFA) and decreased secondary BS, suggesting that they may regulate cholesterol homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
152 KiB  
Abstract
Coffee By-Products for Sustainable Health Promotion
by Adriana Farah
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14845 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
Food systems (from farm to fork and disposals) are responsible for about a third of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In turn, the agricultural sector is negatively impacted by GHG and climate change, while facing the challenge of having to reduce carbon emissions [...] Read more.
Food systems (from farm to fork and disposals) are responsible for about a third of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In turn, the agricultural sector is negatively impacted by GHG and climate change, while facing the challenge of having to reduce carbon emissions through sustainable practices and produce more food due to the continuous world population growth, projected to reach nine billion in 2050. At the same time, the incidence of obesity and degenerative diseases also continuously increases, demanding changes in the quality of dietary patterns that favor the intake of more plant foods with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a sustainable food system contributes to food security and nutrition for all so that the economic, social, cultural, and environmental bases to generate food security and nutrition for future generations are safeguarded New types of foods are being presented as alternative ways to ensure food security. However, controlling waste is a priority. Food waste, including by-products, can be a relevant source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, delivering several benefits to health and adding value to the production chain. Coffee is one of the main food crops in the world. The annual production of about 10 million tons generates a large amount of waste material of excellent quality, which is converted into healthy bioproducts. In this presentation, we will approach the use of coffee by-products as a means for sustainable consumer health promotion and to support the improvement of the lives of those who work in the coffee production chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
165 KiB  
Abstract
Introduction into the Flavor World of Cascara
by Ennio Cantergiani
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14842 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 535
Abstract
Derived from the residues of coffee processing, cascara has been consumed traditionally in Yemen, Ethiopia, and Bolivia as a herbal or tea-like infusion due, in part, to its pleasant flavor and nutritional properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the volatile [...] Read more.
Derived from the residues of coffee processing, cascara has been consumed traditionally in Yemen, Ethiopia, and Bolivia as a herbal or tea-like infusion due, in part, to its pleasant flavor and nutritional properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the volatile fraction of eight cascaras from different origins and different processes, the pulp and husk of the Coffea arabica L. fruit from Congo, Brazil, Guatemala, Bolivia, Honduras, Colombia and two from Peru. In this study, the volatile compositions of these eight cascaras were characterized to understand their sensorial properties. Using SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction), more than one hundred volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The assessment of these analyses in parallel with classical sensory analysis provides an idea of the potential use of cascara as an interesting ingredient for the food and beverage sector. Finally, a cascara flavor wheel has been proposed based on a sensory evaluation of all the investigated cascaras. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
141 KiB  
Abstract
Design Thinking Applied in the Coffee Industry: With Common Sense to Unexpected Outcomes
by Kirstin Kohler
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14832 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
Design Thinking is a human-centered innovation approach that has gained increasing attention in recent years, as it promises to manage complexity and supports organizations to prepare for a competitive future. Design Thinking helps to uncover the non-obvious that might remain hidden with purely [...] Read more.
Design Thinking is a human-centered innovation approach that has gained increasing attention in recent years, as it promises to manage complexity and supports organizations to prepare for a competitive future. Design Thinking helps to uncover the non-obvious that might remain hidden with purely analytical thinking. As such, it serves to identify new business opportunities and to address complex social or environmental challenges. The talk will provide insights into the Design Thinking projects conducted at Mannheim University of Applied Sciences with international partners. Drawing from examples out of the coffee industry, the essential elements of the approach will be explained and the audience will become inspired to rethink their own pathways to innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
155 KiB  
Abstract
New Sensory Lexicon for Liberica Coffee: Insights into the Sensory Attributes of the Different Origins, Processing Methods, Elevation, and Roasting
by Rave Sun Kwok
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14848 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 473
Abstract
Liberica coffee, an often-overlooked species, has emerged from the shadow of Arabica and Canephora in recent years, gaining recognition and value due to various factors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
148 KiB  
Abstract
“The International Conservation Collection of Coffee Varieties” at Wilhelma, Stuttgart, Germany—A First Step towards Preserving the Diversity of Coffee Cultivars
by Björn Schäfer
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14843 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 466
Abstract
The coffee world is changing. Farmers and industry are facing major challenges, largely driven by climate change, changing consumer habits, sustainability and digitalization. One major way to solve these challenges is the coffee cultivars themselves. The coffee farmer might not be able to [...] Read more.
The coffee world is changing. Farmers and industry are facing major challenges, largely driven by climate change, changing consumer habits, sustainability and digitalization. One major way to solve these challenges is the coffee cultivars themselves. The coffee farmer might not be able to stop the effects of our changing climate or the habits of consumers, but by growing the right plant at the right place, they might be able to withstand at least harsh weather conditions like heavy rain or long-lasting dry periods. Moreover, the production of single-estate high-quality coffee of pure cultivars guarantees a higher income for the farmer and increased enjoyment for the consumer. For this reason, in 2016, the Zoological-Botanical Garden Wilhelma started to build up a living collection of coffee cultivars. The so called “International conservation collection of Coffee varieties” contains 115 accessions of Coffea arabica L., Coffea benghalensis B. Heyne ex Schult., Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner and Coffea liberica Hiern. The aim of the collection is to preserve as many different coffee cultivars for following generations as possible. The scientific collection is based on the trust and support of coffee farmers from all over the world. Currently, there are project partners in Brazil, China, Columbia, El Salvador, India, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand. All of them are able to exchange knowledge about their different cultivars and have a backup of living specimens if their own plants are lost due to plant pests or natural disaster. They might even try new cultivars from foreign origins that might be better suited for changing local climate conditions. From every accession, four plants are grown, from which one is cultivated as a big, mostly natural-looking shrub used for exhibitions and cherry harvest. The three remaining plants are kept at a smaller size of up to 120 m to guarantee the preservation of the genetic resource. In addition, the “International conservation collection of Coffee varieties” might be the ultimate resource for all studies dealing with sensorial and aroma profiles of different coffee cultivars because all plants are grown under similar conditions, for instance, similar soil conditions, temperature and water quality. Another advantage is the permanent availability of 115 genetically different coffee varieties for genetic studies. This includes the possibility of generating a family tree of coffee varieties, and in reverse, this offers the opportunity to identify every cultivar by its genetic fingerprint. To be able to realize further projects, it is necessary to obtain an exemption from the Nagoya Protocol to access genetic resources and for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization for all coffee cultivars. We are working on this, supported by the Federal Office for Agriculture and Food. Finally, to be able to conserve the diversity of existing coffee varieties, more effort will be necessary in traditionally coffee-growing countries on the African continent and the Arabian peninsula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
157 KiB  
Abstract
Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry to Coffee Authentication
by Jan Teipel
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14850 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
Food authenticity is becoming increasingly important to consumers, producers, and retailers. Furthermore, more and more food properties considered to be value-relevant are advertised. Food fraud, which is the intentional misrepresentation of a food’s true qualities, not only harms buyers but also undermines confidence [...] Read more.
Food authenticity is becoming increasingly important to consumers, producers, and retailers. Furthermore, more and more food properties considered to be value-relevant are advertised. Food fraud, which is the intentional misrepresentation of a food’s true qualities, not only harms buyers but also undermines confidence in entire market segments. Worldwide coffee production has had a rising trend despite some setbacks in recent years. Global consumption is also increasing and has only been slightly attenuated by phases of economic weakness. For example, the appetite for coffee in Germany has been growing over the years, with an average consumption of 450 cups per person in 2022, which is equivalent to 5.4 kg of coffee. The top coffee-loving countries consume around 10 kg of coffee per person per year. The rising demand for higher quality coffee with declared origin, botanical variety, and/or processing methods, combined with the significantly higher market prices for such specialty coffee, are opportunities for food fraudsters. In addition to compliance visits to production and processing sites and to auditing a company’s accounting, well-established standardised and efficient laboratory analyses are an important part in fighting food fraud. As a metrological primary method of measurement, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) has been increasingly used for routine chemical quantitative analysis. The NMR spectra typically show very good signal resolution, excellent reproducibility, and linearity of response independent of the substance. NMR can record signals from most metabolites in a biological sample with a single experiment in just a few minutes. Thus, NMR has a high potential to provide reliable data for the analysis of complex mixtures, such as food extracts. NMR spectra can be used as fingerprints to compare individual samples against databases of authentic references using multivariate analysis. This talk will present recent research on the potential of using NMR with targeted, quantitative analysis and also with non-targeted multivariate analysis to verify several product claims on roasted coffee, i.e. the geographical origin, botanical variety, and farming method (organic/conventional). By using targeted analysis, over a dozen characteristic substances can be quantified with good precision. The chemometrical evaluation of NMR spectra can raise reasonable suspicion about the geographical origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
1 pages, 154 KiB  
Abstract
Isotopic Fingerprinting: A Promising Tool for Coffee Authenticity Checks
by Johannes Wintel, Corina Knipper, Mila Spross, Ronny Friedrich and Steffen Schwarz
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14857 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 532
Abstract
Almost every physical or chemical process in nature favors certain light stable isotopes over others, and thereby leaves an isotopic “fingerprint” on the substances involved. Prominent examples are the evaporation and condensation of water, which act together to produce a global “map” of [...] Read more.
Almost every physical or chemical process in nature favors certain light stable isotopes over others, and thereby leaves an isotopic “fingerprint” on the substances involved. Prominent examples are the evaporation and condensation of water, which act together to produce a global “map” of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rainwater. Environmental parameters including humidity and soil fertility influence the stable isotope compositions of carbon and nitrogen in plant tissues. Therefore, every agricultural product carries isotopic information regarding its geographical origin, growing conditions, treatment and others. This makes stable isotope analysis a powerful tool for disclosing food authenticity and to applying quality checks to a number of products (e.g., wine, honey, and vanilla). Here we recapitulate the principles of stable isotope analysis in general as well as some applications to coffee from the literature and present our recent measurements of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes on a well defined set of coffee samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
150 KiB  
Abstract
Economic Potential of Using Coffee Cherries and Waste to Produce Biogas and Activated Carbon
by Herbert Kowa
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14853 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Planting and harvesting coffee produces large amounts of waste biomass. This waste biomass has great economic and ecological potential. The presented information of the O2HC procedure (organic to hydrogen and carbon) shows possibilities for using these materials with influences on climate targets, soil [...] Read more.
Planting and harvesting coffee produces large amounts of waste biomass. This waste biomass has great economic and ecological potential. The presented information of the O2HC procedure (organic to hydrogen and carbon) shows possibilities for using these materials with influences on climate targets, soil improvement, CO2-reduction and economic benefit. The lecture is oriented more towards the possibilities of structural improvements and practical experiences for the farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
144 KiB  
Abstract
The New Importance of Coffee and Food Solutions at Workplaces
by Aris Kaschefi
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14856 - 6 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
Even before the outbreak of the pandemic, new working environments were considered an important trend in the office landscape, accompanied by modern office coffee solutions and catering concepts. Changes within the office environment have now accelerated further, influenced by factors such as progressive [...] Read more.
Even before the outbreak of the pandemic, new working environments were considered an important trend in the office landscape, accompanied by modern office coffee solutions and catering concepts. Changes within the office environment have now accelerated further, influenced by factors such as progressive digitization, contactless work processes, home offices, open or co-working spaces and changing employee expectations. In the context of getting people back to work from home offices, the availability of coffee and food solutions has a central meaning (gained prominence of 33% (YouGov/Sodexo Study 2023) as a competitive advantage). The communal act of coffee breaks or gathering around coffee machines encourages informal networking, idea sharing and team building, thus fortifying the social fabric of the workplace. Research indicates that coffee consumption can enhance cognitive functions such as alertness, attention and memory, thereby positively impacting productivity and problem-solving capabilities for effective teamwork and interpersonal interactions. Furthermore, the provision of high-quality coffee options by employers not only reflects a commitment to employee well-being, but also serves as a tangible expression of the corporate culture and values. Requirements for modern vending concepts are evolving. It is not only the classic office environment that is subject to major changes; innovative solutions must also be found in the canteen/catering and hotel sectors in order to adapt to the new conditions. What this means for office coffee service and vending services in offices and businesses will be illustrated in this presentation under the motto “This is where New Work meets New Retail”. To this end, new to-go concepts from the out-of-home market will be presented, as well as innovations and modern solutions from the classic vending industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)

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216 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Coffee By-Products: Economic Opportunities for Sustainability and Innovation in the Coffee Industry
by Mariano Peluso
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14834 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
The coffee by-product market represents a transformative paradigm in the coffee industry, capitalizing on previously overlooked resources and generating economic value through sustainable practices. We will explore the multifaceted opportunities and economic benefits stemming from the utilization of coffee by-products, and the diverse [...] Read more.
The coffee by-product market represents a transformative paradigm in the coffee industry, capitalizing on previously overlooked resources and generating economic value through sustainable practices. We will explore the multifaceted opportunities and economic benefits stemming from the utilization of coffee by-products, and the diverse applications and industries that contribute to its economic significance. The economic value attributed to the coffee by-product market encompasses the overall sum of transactions and economic activities associated with the utilization, processing, and commercialization of coffee by-products. This encompasses the worth derived from diverse applications and industries that harness coffee by-products to generate products, services, and various economic opportunities. Coffee by-products, once considered waste, now serve as valuable feedstock for energy production, driving cost-saving initiatives. From coffee grounds powering biofuel generation to coffee husks fueling biomass energy plants, the industry is witnessing an impactful shift towards renewable and eco-friendly energy sources, mitigating operational expenses and bolstering financial resilience. The convergence of sustainability and innovation finds expression in the food and beverage sector, where coffee cherry pulp and cascara are harnessed for the production of functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals. Leveraging the rich antioxidants and nutritional benefits of coffee by-products, this burgeoning market segment presents lucrative opportunities, while also promoting health-conscious choices for consumers. Apart from its conventional applications, the coffee by-product market has a significant impact on sustainable infrastructure development. Coffee silverskin, renowned for its remarkable insulating properties, presents an opportunity to transform building materials, leading to energy-efficient construction and decreased long-term operational expenses. Furthermore, coffee silverskin offers opportunities for market diversification, particularly in niche segments like artisanal products. Through the transformation of coffee cherry pulp into biochar, agricultural practices experience a rejuvenation, benefiting from improved soil health and enhanced nutrient retention. In conclusion, coffee by-products play a crucial role in driving the coffee industry towards a sustainable future in line with circular economy principles. Coffee by-products possess immense potential to create significant economic opportunities for coffee-producing regions, fostering growth and prosperity within these communities. They can capitalize on their abundant availability of these products and explore various avenues for utilization. The economic value of the coffee by-product market represents a dynamic amalgamation of innovation, environmental consciousness, and sound economic principles. Regulatory support and consumer demand for sustainable practices further amplify the market’s potential, creating a compelling incentive for stakeholders to embrace the transformation from waste to wealth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
5731 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Utilizing the Antioxidant Properties of Coffee By-Products to Stabilize Bioplastics
by Mirko Rennert
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14847 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
Without additives, bioplastics tend to undergo oxidative and light-induced decomposition, which limits technical applications. In addition to the lignocellulosic components, antioxidants in coffee by-products offer a recyclable potential for material utilization and completely bio-based bioplastics. Polyphenols and vitamins prevent or slow down radical-forming [...] Read more.
Without additives, bioplastics tend to undergo oxidative and light-induced decomposition, which limits technical applications. In addition to the lignocellulosic components, antioxidants in coffee by-products offer a recyclable potential for material utilization and completely bio-based bioplastics. Polyphenols and vitamins prevent or slow down radical-forming processes and thus the ageing of bioplastics if properly prepared. Four naturally processed coffee cherries from different varieties, two parchments, and a silverskin mix were investigated with respect to their composition, micronization, particle size, structure, thermal, and antioxidative properties. Compounded with bio-based poly(butylene succinate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in various concentrations, differences were found in extrudability and mechanical properties, next to successful thermo-oxidative stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
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174 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Novel Food Regulation: A Major Obstacle to Sustainability in the Coffee Industry
by Dirk W. Lachenmeier and Stephan G. Walch
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14840 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
The global shortage of agricultural source products and the rising need for sustainability in supply chains have led to an effort to replace current sources, such as those for energy or protein, with novel foods. These include by-products from agricultural production that are [...] Read more.
The global shortage of agricultural source products and the rising need for sustainability in supply chains have led to an effort to replace current sources, such as those for energy or protein, with novel foods. These include by-products from agricultural production that are currently being wasted or completely new plant or insect sources. Unfortunately, the novel food regulation of the European Union (EU) creates a hindrance to rapidly adjusting in times of crisis, and it particularly poses an unfair barrier against traditional foods from third countries. These might include some agricultural coffee by-products or the use of silverskin as a coffee roasting by-product. This presentation argues that the novel food regulation creates a significant trade barrier for applying novel foods, such as coffee by-products, to replace sources affected by current crises, like grains from Ukraine, or to improve sustainability in the industry at large. Furthermore, it is suggested that the approval requirements for traditional foods of third countries are overly strict and do not consider the practical realities of an agricultural food product. In conclusion, it is necessary to revise the EU novel food regulation to eliminate these barriers and allow a rapid and flexible introduction of novel foods. This should include traditional foods from third countries. Such a revision would assist in upholding food security and sustainability in the EU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
201 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Identification of Coffee Species, Varieties, Origins, and Processing and Preparation Methods—A Status Report
by Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14824 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is made from roasted and ground beans of the coffee plant. There are over 100 species of coffee plants, but only 2 are widely available: Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is made from roasted and ground beans of the coffee plant. There are over 100 species of coffee plants, but only 2 are widely available: Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. There are many different ways to prepare coffee. The most common method is to brew the coffee with hot water. However, there are also many other methods, such as those employed to produce cold brew, espresso, and Turkish coffee. The brewing method can affect the flavor of the coffee. The identification of coffee species, varieties, origins and processing and preparation methods is important for a number of reasons. First, it can help to ensure that coffee is of the highest quality. Second, it can help to track the origin of coffee, which can be important for marketing and sustainability purposes. Third, it can help to develop new coffee products and to improve the quality of coffee. There are a number of different methods that can be used to identify coffee species, varieties, origins, and processing and preparation methods. One method requires the use of molecular biology techniques. Molecular biology techniques can be used to identify the genetic markers that are unique to each species of coffee plant. Another method is chemical analysis. Chemical analyses, such as NMR or GC/MS, can be used to identify the hundreds of compounds that are present in coffee, which can be used to determine the origin and processing and preparation methods of the coffee. This introductory lecture will summarize the current state of the art in coffee identification techniques and introduce the audience to the following specialized talks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
1549 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
How to Increase Farmers’ Incomes Using Coffee Cherries
by Jörg Rieke-Zapp
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14826 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 390
Abstract
Coffee processing is solely centred around isolating the seed of this sweet and fragrant stone fruit. Isolating the fruit seed from the waste stream does not denote excellent cherry quality and does not provide optimal financial benefit to the farmer. Only a fruit-centred [...] Read more.
Coffee processing is solely centred around isolating the seed of this sweet and fragrant stone fruit. Isolating the fruit seed from the waste stream does not denote excellent cherry quality and does not provide optimal financial benefit to the farmer. Only a fruit-centred coffee process will be both commercially viable and sustainable, supporting the farmers and preserving nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
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204 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Liberica Coffee Development and Refinement Project in Sarawak Malaysia
by Kenny Wee Ting Lee
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14849 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2335
Abstract
This article discusses the past, present, and future development potential of the Liberica coffee industry in Malaysia, a traditional producer of Liberica coffee. It explores the challenges faced by the industry in the context of the specialty coffee movement and global warming. The [...] Read more.
This article discusses the past, present, and future development potential of the Liberica coffee industry in Malaysia, a traditional producer of Liberica coffee. It explores the challenges faced by the industry in the context of the specialty coffee movement and global warming. The article focuses on the history of Liberica coffee cultivation among the indigenous communities in the inland regions of Sarawak and Borneo, highlighting the diversity of Liberica varieties and their potential from rainforest highlands to river valleys. The article introduces the “Liberica refinement project” in Sarawak, which emphasizes natural farming methods. It discusses how trust was built with the indigenous communities, effective quality control systems were established, and how this enabled Liberica to enter the specialty coffee market. Through market-driven approaches, the project aims to empower indigenous communities and improve their livelihoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
241 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Grinding Uncertainty: Business Model Innovation as a Strategy for Coffee Sector SMEs
by Yves Clément Zimmermann
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14846 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
The coffee industry, one of the world’s most vital commercial value chains, faces severe challenges, especially among its small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) actors. These challenges encompass social, economic, and environmental crises, with climate change being particularly menacing. This perspective article highlights business [...] Read more.
The coffee industry, one of the world’s most vital commercial value chains, faces severe challenges, especially among its small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) actors. These challenges encompass social, economic, and environmental crises, with climate change being particularly menacing. This perspective article highlights business model innovation (BMI) as a proactive strategic option for SMEs in the coffee industry, providing a roadmap from the field to the coffee cup for navigating these uncertainties. Drawing on recent BMI research within the coffee sector and related fields, the piece explores transferable strategies and potential implementations, with an emphasis on sustainability-oriented BMI. The discussion identifies both potential benefits and challenges of implementing BMI. Ultimately, the article positions BMI as a promising field for both researchers and practitioners, offering sustainable solutions to the multifaceted challenges faced by the coffee industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
2399 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Instant Cascara: A Potential Sustainable Promoter of Gastrointestinal Health
by Vanesa Sánchez-Martín, Marta B. López-Parra, Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Ana I. Haza, Paloma Morales and María Dolores del Castillo
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14841 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 691
Abstract
Instant Cascara (IC) is a beverage made from dried coffee cherries, enriched in nutrients and bioactive compounds such as caffeine and other phytochemicals with a positive impact on the brain–gut axis health. The use of dried coffee cherries as novel foods in drinks [...] Read more.
Instant Cascara (IC) is a beverage made from dried coffee cherries, enriched in nutrients and bioactive compounds such as caffeine and other phytochemicals with a positive impact on the brain–gut axis health. The use of dried coffee cherries as novel foods in drinks was authorized by the EU in 2023. The process for obtaining IC involves the concentration of the regular drink by spray-drying. Colorectal cancer, chronic gut disease, is the third most common cancer type causing 1 million deaths/year. In high-income countries, colon and rectum cancers were one of the top ten causes of death in 2019. The present research aimed to obtain novel and preliminary information about the potential prophylactic or therapeutic effect of IC on colon cancer. In vitro cell models were used to analyze its genotoxicity and effects on key physiological cell events such as intracellular ROS production, proliferation and apoptosis associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. IC was determined non-genotoxic using the comet assay, reduced ROS production in normal and cancer colon cells and selectively affected the proliferation and apoptosis of colon cancer cells by labeled annexin incorporation assay. In conclusion, our preliminary data supported the safety and potential use of IC as a sustainable promoter of gastrointestinal health. Therefore, the upcycling of dried coffee cherries into IC may contribute to the sustainability of the coffee industry and to achieving Global Sustainable Development Goals (3: “Good health and well-being” and 12: “Responsible consumption and production”). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
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204 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Navigating the Coffee Business Landscape: Challenges and Adaptation Strategies in a Changing World
by Mariano Peluso
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14825 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
The coffee industry is encountering a plethora of challenges amidst a rapidly evolving world. We will delve into the multifaceted landscape of the coffee business, highlighting the emerging hurdles that have reshaped its dynamics. Climate change remains an ever-present concern, threatening coffee production [...] Read more.
The coffee industry is encountering a plethora of challenges amidst a rapidly evolving world. We will delve into the multifaceted landscape of the coffee business, highlighting the emerging hurdles that have reshaped its dynamics. Climate change remains an ever-present concern, threatening coffee production with unpredictable weather patterns and diminishing yields. Additionally, growing consumer demands for sustainable and ethically sourced coffee have urged the industry to adopt eco-friendly practices and support fair trade initiatives. The saturation of the market, coupled with changing consumer preferences, compels businesses to remain agile and adapt their offerings to meet evolving demands. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the fragility of global supply chains, highlighting supply chain disruptions, shipping delays, and labor shortages that directly impact the coffee business. Digital transformation has become a pivotal factor in connecting with customers, streamlining operations, and maintaining a competitive edge in an increasingly virtual world. Regulatory compliance, certification, and energy standards pose another layer of complexity. Navigating these challenges requires proactive approaches. Coffee businesses must embrace innovation to optimize processing, roasting, and brewing techniques while fostering sustainability and quality. Embracing e-commerce platforms, leveraging social media, and enhancing digital experiences are essential steps in establishing strong connections with the consumer base. The coffee industry stands at a crossroads, but with determination and ingenuity, businesses can adapt to these challenges. Embracing sustainability, digital transformation, and innovation will enable the coffee sector to thrive amidst changing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
1794 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Variability in Philippine Coffea liberica Provides Insights into Development Amidst a Changing Climate
by Ma. Carmen Ablan Lagman
Proceedings 2023, 89(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ICC2023-14852 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
The Philippines is one of only a few countries where Coffea liberica is commercially produced. Two infra-species, C. liberica liberica (also locally known as ‘liberica’) and C. liberica var dewevrei (also known as ‘excelsa’) comprise 1.1% and 5.7% of the national coffee production, respectively. [...] Read more.
The Philippines is one of only a few countries where Coffea liberica is commercially produced. Two infra-species, C. liberica liberica (also locally known as ‘liberica’) and C. liberica var dewevrei (also known as ‘excelsa’) comprise 1.1% and 5.7% of the national coffee production, respectively. These rare varieties are produced widely in the provinces of Batangas and Cavite mainly because of historical affinity, a local market, and more recently the renewed interest from importers. Aside from its unique flavor profile, renewed interest comes from the potential of the larger beans and deeper root systems of the species to thrive on a warming planet. In this paper, we present work that has been performed in evaluating bean morphology, chlorogenic acid, caffeine content and genetic variability of C. liberica varieties from different areas of the country. The initial efforts to predict areas for increased production were based on a maximum entropy model. Combining these data provides insights into development areas for increased production in the Philippines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of International Coffee Convention 2023)
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