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Proceedings, 2018, EGTEIC 2018

Environment, Green Technology, and Engineering International Conference

Cáceres, Spain | 18–20 June 2018

Issue Editors: Santiago Fernández Rodriguez, Ramón Sanguino Galván, Ascensión Barroso Martínez and Mónica Gandum Martins


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Cover Story (view full-size image) This issue of the journal Proceedings includes selected extended abstracts presented at the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessProceedings
Microwave Heating Impact on the Oil Yield from Botryococcus braunii Algae Biomass
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201289 - 26 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 389
Abstract
Stage, which is still difficult for researchers is extraction of the lipids, especially the cell disruption stage prior to the extraction process. Strength of cell walls of microalgae makes lipids difficult to access. The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence [...] Read more.
Stage, which is still difficult for researchers is extraction of the lipids, especially the cell disruption stage prior to the extraction process. Strength of cell walls of microalgae makes lipids difficult to access. The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of microwave electromagnetic radiation on the efficiency of lipid extraction from Botryococcus braunii microalgae by Bligh & Dyer method. he use of microwave heating to disintegrate the biomass of microalgae allowed to increase the yield of lipids from 18% in Stage I to 38% in Stage II in incubation time of 15 min in 45 °C. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Cellulose Acetate Recovery from Cigarette Butts
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201447 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
Cigarette butts are one of the most common types of litter all around the world. This waste when disposed of in the environment pose a major threat to living organisms and ecosystem health. Cigarette butts are mainly made of cellulose acetate (2.45 substitution) [...] Read more.
Cigarette butts are one of the most common types of litter all around the world. This waste when disposed of in the environment pose a major threat to living organisms and ecosystem health. Cigarette butts are mainly made of cellulose acetate (2.45 substitution) that biodegrades slowly and can take up to 18 months to break down under normal litter conditions. Cellulose acetate is a valuable polymer that can be used for a great variety of applications. In this communication, we present the results from an ongoing study addressed to value cigarette butt waste based on the recovery of the cellulose acetate by a methodology that includes several solid-liquid extractions and a chemical precipitation. For that purpose three samples of cigarette butts were prepared and they were extracted with 5% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solution, 5% (w/v) NaAc aqueous solution or 0,02% (w/v) H2SO4 aqueous solution. After that, they were further extracted with absolute ethanol and diethyl ether. The cleaned butts were suspended in acetone and distilled water was added until a white precipitate of cellulose acetate was formed. Cellulose acetate was characterised by FTIR-ATR and its melting point. Extracts were analized by ICP-MS and GC-MS. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Spearman Correlation between the NDVI and Quercus Airborne Pollen in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201519 - 07 Nov 2018
Viewed by 424
Abstract
New space technologies as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been used to display several phenological cycles of ecosystems around the world. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between Normalized Difference [...] Read more.
New space technologies as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been used to display several phenological cycles of ecosystems around the world. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, associated to oak trees within three training data polygons (15, 25 and 50 km-distance to the volumetric sampler Hirst), and the daily average Quercus airborne pollen concentrations in 20 years. The study was developed in Badajoz (SW Iberian Peninsula) with a continuous pollen recording in the period from 1994 to 2013. The main novelty of this study has been the analysis of the correlation between the two-time series, using Spearman test. Within the 20 studied years, 12 years obtained significant values in the Spearman test in the whole studied area. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Effects of Some Geometric Parameters in Energy-Efficient Heat Distribution of Pre-Insulated Double Pipes
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201520 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 454
Abstract
In the case of a computational example, a few aspects of the twin pipe geometry are presented, which have an effect on heat losses through double heating ducts. Proper positioning of the supply and return ducts in common thermal insulation can significantly improve [...] Read more.
In the case of a computational example, a few aspects of the twin pipe geometry are presented, which have an effect on heat losses through double heating ducts. Proper positioning of the supply and return ducts in common thermal insulation can significantly improve the efficiency of the heating network and reduce heat losses. In this work, unit heat losses generated by the example double heating ducts and unit heat flux of the supply, return and exchange between the supply and return pipes as a function of the distance between the supply and return pipes were determined. On the basis of graphs of unit heat fluxes as a function of the distance between the duct and the return, one can formulate the optimal solution of the position, the supply and return duct in common insulation. In an optimal solution for the location of the supply and return ducts in a common insulation, both the total heat losses and the heat flux exchanged between the supply and return ducts should be minimal. All calculations were made in a proprietary calculation program written in Fortran language within the framework of the VIPSKILLS project. The work also presents solutions of temperature fields and heatlines in the cross-section of the duct of a dual heating network in the presented example. Full article

Other

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Open AccessExtended Abstract
Consequence Modelling for Estimating the Toxic Material Dispersion Using ALOHA: Case Studies at Two Different Chemical Plants
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201268 - 18 Oct 2018
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Industrial disaster does not only result in enormous calamities and huge property damages but also deteriorate the environment especially when it involved hazardous materials. The occurrence of major accident at major hazard installation (MHI) is unpredictable. Therefore, both structural and non-structural measures should [...] Read more.
Industrial disaster does not only result in enormous calamities and huge property damages but also deteriorate the environment especially when it involved hazardous materials. The occurrence of major accident at major hazard installation (MHI) is unpredictable. Therefore, both structural and non-structural measures should come in the forefront before it claims human life and tremendously destroy the assets and environment. Thus, the main objectives of this study is to simulate the consequence modelling due to toxic materials dispersion (sulfuric acid) and subsequently suggest the evacuation mapping. The Areal Location Hazardous Atmosphere (ALOHA Version 5.4.7) was used to determine the threat zone and estimates the radius of toxic material dispersion from the source point. Two petrochemical plants were selected in this study and both are located at different petrochemical industrial estates in East Coast Region of Peninsular Malaysia. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the radius of toxic material affects the adjacent facilities and other chemical plants in proximity. The threat zones with the radius of 0.72 miles (red), 2.6 miles (orange) and 6.0 miles (yellow) respectively were determined for the first case study. As for the latter, the threat zones are greater than 6 miles for all zones. Based on both estimations, the evacuation mappings were proposed by sketching the map from Google satellite in the MARPLOT application. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Power Flow Management in a Wind Generation System Using a Dual Feed Induction Generator
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201269 - 22 Oct 2018
Viewed by 350
Abstract
The management of the power flow of a wind generation system is presented. This system is made up of a doubly fed induction generator and a Back to Back converter. The analysis focuses on the grid-side converter. The control loops of the current [...] Read more.
The management of the power flow of a wind generation system is presented. This system is made up of a doubly fed induction generator and a Back to Back converter. The analysis focuses on the grid-side converter. The control loops of the current to the grid and the voltage of the DC-Link are designed based on proportional-integral controllers. These controls allow to manage the active and relative power that is injected into the grid. The Converter is simulated in Simulink of Matlab, where its operation as a rectifier and inverter is validated. This is able to be done due to the vector control technique used in the control structure of the wind generation system, in addition an adequate power exchange is obtained between the generator and the grid. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Control of a Boost Converter to Improve the Performance of a Photovoltaic System in a Microgrid
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201270 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 370
Abstract
In this work, the analysis of a CD-CD converter type Boost is presented. This converter works in Discontinuous Conduction Mode; In addition, the design of its control loops is performed, using an Average Current Mode control. The Boost converter is part of a [...] Read more.
In this work, the analysis of a CD-CD converter type Boost is presented. This converter works in Discontinuous Conduction Mode; In addition, the design of its control loops is performed, using an Average Current Mode control. The Boost converter is part of a photovoltaic generation system using solar panels. The photovoltaic system is established in a microgrid, with which the inverter works in grid mode and island mode. The main objective of the Boost convertor is to raise and regulate the voting from the solar panels to feed a single-bridge full-bridge inverter. The controllers designed for the boost converter are validated by simulation. The results obtained prove that the designed controller has an acceptable transient response to disturbances in the system input and adequately analyzing overdrafts and establishment times when disturbances are generated. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Effect of Inorganic Coagulants on the Characteristics in Anaerobic Digested Distillery Stillage Valorization
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201271 - 17 Oct 2018
Viewed by 361
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of using coagulation for treatment of anaerobically digested distillery stillage. Post-fermentation sludge from waste product of bioethanol production is usually drained. Then, condensed sediments are directed as a fertilizer for arable fields. The [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of using coagulation for treatment of anaerobically digested distillery stillage. Post-fermentation sludge from waste product of bioethanol production is usually drained. Then, condensed sediments are directed as a fertilizer for arable fields. The remaining liquid phase due to the high content of organic compounds cannot be discharged to environment. The study used inorganic salts of iron and aluminum as coagulants to treatment liquid fraction obtained after methane fermentation of distillery stillage. In valorization process, the reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids was not sufficient. The highest doses of coagulants reduced COD concentration of about 80% and lower the pH of the solution. However, the dose 10 mL/L is not economically profitable and due to concentration of aluminum or iron it is too harmful for environment. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Analysis of the Solar Collectors Installation on a Roof of the Small Public Building in Poland, Lithuania and Spain—A Case Study
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201272 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 372
Abstract
A solar collector market is most European countries is at the stage of continuous development, however its expansion rate differs. It shows that much more factors than only the local solar radiation is important, including a technology progress, costs, local manufactures’ engagement, an [...] Read more.
A solar collector market is most European countries is at the stage of continuous development, however its expansion rate differs. It shows that much more factors than only the local solar radiation is important, including a technology progress, costs, local manufactures’ engagement, an economic government support or an environmentally consciousness raising relevant to a mitigating climate change. We conducted the analysis for a public office building, with a few toilets and a social room, used by 54 people. As a primary heat source for HVAC and DHW systems an oil boiler was used, whereas solar collectors were considered as an energy source for hot water preparation. The analysis was conducted for three locations of the building: Bialystok (Poland), Cordoba (Spain) and Kaunas (Lithuania), using a simulation software delivered within the framework of VIPSKILLS project. Theoretical hot water consumption was considered as 3–7 dm3/(day person) in compliance with national recommendations. It was found that beam solar radiation share in a total radiation balance was nearly twice higher in Cordoba than in Bialystok or Kaunas. The highest efficiency (44%) was estimated in Cordoba for solar collectors installed with the tilt angle between 45–50°. In case of Bialystok and Kaunas the efficiency was lower than in Cordoba and nearly equal 40–41% and the recommended tilt angle was in a range 30– 45°. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Surface Modification of Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) Nanoparticles (NPs) on Detection of Crude Oil Production
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201273 - 23 Oct 2018
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Surface modification is one of several techniques on improving the characteristic of certain elements. The surface of material can be modified by coating it with certain coating material. In this study Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) is used and [...] Read more.
Surface modification is one of several techniques on improving the characteristic of certain elements. The surface of material can be modified by coating it with certain coating material. In this study Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) is used and its coating material are Oleic Acid and Silica Dioxide. The main objectives of this study are to observe the properties of Al2O3 NPs after being coated with OA and SiO2 at paraffin oil and brine water interface and to investigate the changes of NPs structure and chemical properties using three analysis which are Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). Al2O3 NPs was coated with OA and then followed by SiO2 coating. After that, the modified NPs was analyzed by these analysis (SEM, FTIR and XRD). The modified Al2O3 NPs then were injected into mixture of paraffin oil and brine water. Al2O3 NPs coated with OA inhibit hydrophobic tails which prevent the molecules of NPs to mix with water. While for NPs coated with SiO2, its aggregate well at the interface and most of it sticking to test tube wall. However, some of the NPs dissolve in water. SEM analysis images of before and after coating show different in thickness indicate the successfulness in coating. OA and SiO2 can be seen attach to Al2O3 NPs quasi-spherical surface. While FTIR and XRD peaks show that there are changes in chemical properties and existence of contaminant at Al2O3 NPs crystallite structure. These analysis and observation of NPs confirming the successful of coating. Thus, can help in detection of crude oil production and improve the performance of Al2O3 NPs. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Inhibition of Methane Fermentation by Antibiotics Introduced to Municipal Anaerobic Sludge
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201274 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
Annually, a few thousand tons of antibiotics and their transformation products (metabolites and degradation products) are introduced to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a result of human and animal excretion, or dispose of expired or unused medications. Antibiotics present in wastes might inhibit [...] Read more.
Annually, a few thousand tons of antibiotics and their transformation products (metabolites and degradation products) are introduced to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a result of human and animal excretion, or dispose of expired or unused medications. Antibiotics present in wastes might inhibit their treatment processes for instance during methane fermentation. In this study, β-lactams, tetracycline’s, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamides and metronidazole were selected as inhibitors of methane fermentation of sewage sludge collected from municipal WWTP. The experiments were performed in two series with different concentrations of antibiotics. The biogas production did not significantly differ between series, and was from 151.7 ± 18.9 mL/g VS (in the bioreactor with metronidazole addition—II series) to 208.3 ± 11.9 mL/g VS (in the bioreactor with amoxicillin addition—I series). In the control sample biogas production was 203.7 ± 21.1 mL/g VS. The methane content in all experiments was from 61.3 ± 2.1% to 66.4 ± 3.1%. The results indicated that microorganisms in anaerobic sludge from municipal wastewater are highly resistant to antibiotics in the tested concentrations. Antibiotic present in wastewater probably caused of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Directional Statistics in Solar Potential of Rooftops at Three Different Neighborhoods of a Medium Size City
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201275 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 380
Abstract
The utilization of solar energy is one of the best effective methods to combat the climate change. The estimation of solar potential in urban areas can vary depending on the urban morphology. This paper performs a directional statistical analysis of the distribution of [...] Read more.
The utilization of solar energy is one of the best effective methods to combat the climate change. The estimation of solar potential in urban areas can vary depending on the urban morphology. This paper performs a directional statistical analysis of the distribution of the monthly solar potential of rooftops in Cáceres city, related to the orientation of the rooftops in different neighborhoods. The orientation values of the roofs will be treated as a directional data and the radiation values as a linear data. The circular graphics representing the orientation data is a suitable representation of the distribution of the buildings being related with the urban framework. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Recycling of Rainwater in a Social and Cultural Center
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201276 - 17 Oct 2018
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The potential reuse of rainwater in a Social and Cultural Center of Santo Aleixo (Unhais da Serra, Covilhã, Portugal) can reduce drinking water consumption up to 80.1% and can promote water savings of around 40,000.00 € in 20 years by combining the use [...] Read more.
The potential reuse of rainwater in a Social and Cultural Center of Santo Aleixo (Unhais da Serra, Covilhã, Portugal) can reduce drinking water consumption up to 80.1% and can promote water savings of around 40,000.00 € in 20 years by combining the use of rainwater with the installation of hydraulically efficient equipment’s. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Methodological Evaluation of Family House with Different Thermo-Physical Parameters of Building Materials
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201277 - 19 Oct 2018
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Paper is focused on the assessment of two alternatives of family house from environmental performance. Environmental impact categories such as Global warming potential (GWP), Acidification potential (AP) and Eutrophication potential (EP) expressed as CO2eq, SO2eq and PO43 [...] Read more.
Paper is focused on the assessment of two alternatives of family house from environmental performance. Environmental impact categories such as Global warming potential (GWP), Acidification potential (AP) and Eutrophication potential (EP) expressed as CO2eq, SO2eq and PO43eq using the LCA assessment method are presented. Alternative solutions of building materials are also compared from phase shift of thermal oscillation. Results show that natural building materials are characterized by lower environmental impacts expressed as equivalent emissions of CO2 (6%), SO2 (24%) and PO43 (44%). The wood fiber board can store nearly 24 times more heat than the mineral wool. The wood fiber boards have a phase shift of thermal oscillation of 7–13 h, while other insulation materials only about 3–4 h. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Recommendations for the Management of Construction and Demolition Waste in Treatment Plants
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201278 - 18 Oct 2018
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Construction and demolition waste consists approximately of one third waste generated in the European Union. The recycling of this stream waste will provide ecological and sustainable benefits. Recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste are clearing a path into civil constructions, as substitutes [...] Read more.
Construction and demolition waste consists approximately of one third waste generated in the European Union. The recycling of this stream waste will provide ecological and sustainable benefits. Recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste are clearing a path into civil constructions, as substitutes for natural aggregates. The possible applications of recycled aggregates on infrastructure construction projects will depend on the quality of the recycled aggregates mainly. This will be determined by the nature and the origin of the construction and demolition waste, and the treatment system undergone. Hence, this work proposes recommendations for the handling of construction and demolition waste in treatment plants. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring Boat
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201279 - 17 Oct 2018
Viewed by 875
Abstract
In today’s third world countries such as Pakistan, there is an ever increasing strain regarding the provision of clean, consumable water. This problem especially arises in rural areas due to the ineffectiveness of the governments and the increasing population in the country. Therefore, [...] Read more.
In today’s third world countries such as Pakistan, there is an ever increasing strain regarding the provision of clean, consumable water. This problem especially arises in rural areas due to the ineffectiveness of the governments and the increasing population in the country. Therefore, this particular project aims to detect and display real-time physiochemical quality of the water in a much more cost effective manner, as opposed to the current methods which involves sampling and laboratory methods, through its wireless, multi-sensor network. It takes into consideration multiple factors and presents this real-time quality through the display of its electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, as well as temperature of water that is being tested. Additionally, this remote control system is specially designed for lakes, reservoir, rivers etc. where we cannot monitor water quality in such complicated scale water environment by just using a stationary system because water parameter vary at every single location. To avoid this, we manufactured a boat which can float and move on the water simply by user controller. This structure is designed as a hull shape which minimize the resistivity of water flow and this shape also maintained the stability of water. This water quality monitoring boat includes an embedded global positioning system GPS which gives the location of the point wherever water quality is varying and radio frequency module for wireless communication. All the results is generated and displayed with their readings and their graphical analogue meters through the graphical user interface GUI technique, along with water’s impurities limitation points and its hazardous level notification. It is proven through various tests conducted in reservoirs, lakes and personal water storage tanks that this project is successfully capable of demonstrating these physiochemical parameters as well as display these readings effectively. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Accuracy Enhancement for Land Cover Classification Using LiDAR and Multitemporal Sentinel 2 Images in a Forested Watershed
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201280 - 22 Oct 2018
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Mapping land cover with high accuracy has become a reality with the application of current remote sensing techniques. Due to the specific spectral response of the vegetation, soil and vegetation indices are adequate tools to help in the discrimination of land uses. Additionally, [...] Read more.
Mapping land cover with high accuracy has become a reality with the application of current remote sensing techniques. Due to the specific spectral response of the vegetation, soil and vegetation indices are adequate tools to help in the discrimination of land uses. Additionally, the accuracy of satellite imagery classification can be improved using multitemporal series combined with LiDAR data. This datafusion takes advantage of the information provided by LiDAR for the vegetation cover density, and the capability of multispectral data to detect the type of vegetation. The main goal of this study is to analyze the accuracy enhancement in land cover classification of two forested watersheds when using datafusion of annual time series of Sentinel-2 images complemented with low density LiDAR. The obtained results show that overall accuracy is better if LiDAR data is included in the classification. This improvement can be a significant issue in land cover classification of forest watershed due to relationship and influence that vegetation cover has on runoff estimation. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Catalogue of Pavements with Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201282 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 417
Abstract
Construction and Demolition Waste come from debris generated during construction, renovation and demolition of buildings, roads, and bridges. Recycling and reuse are essential in terms of sustainability, mainly from an environmental point of view. Although the recommendation of the use of these recycled [...] Read more.
Construction and Demolition Waste come from debris generated during construction, renovation and demolition of buildings, roads, and bridges. Recycling and reuse are essential in terms of sustainability, mainly from an environmental point of view. Although the recommendation of the use of these recycled aggregates is currently included in some technical specifications, its use is still not widespread due mainly to the lack of knowledge on their technical application. This work is a compilation of the recommendations proposed in the “Catalogue of road pavements with recycled aggregates”, supported by the construction of experimental stretches. It proposes different structural sections for road pavements by using recycled aggregates. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Biodegradation of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-furfural and Furan Derivatives
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201283 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 453
Abstract
Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are degradation products of lignocellulose during pretreatment operations. Furfural compounds are a group of chemical compounds whose common thread is an aldehyde group attached to a furan ring, and they constitute a problem for the development of second-generation biofuels [...] Read more.
Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are degradation products of lignocellulose during pretreatment operations. Furfural compounds are a group of chemical compounds whose common thread is an aldehyde group attached to a furan ring, and they constitute a problem for the development of second-generation biofuels because they act as fermentation inhibitors of the lignocellulose hydrolysates. Up to date, very few bacteria have been described to be able to eliminate them. The objective of this work was to isolate and characterize bacterial strains able to use, as the sole carbon source, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-furfural (HMF) and furan derivatives. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Bacterial Consortiums Able to Use Metal-Cyanide Complexes as a Nitrogen Source
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201284 - 22 Oct 2018
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Most cyanide-containing industrial effluents also contain other cyano-derivatives and high amounts of metals and metal-cyanide compounds. For this reason, the biotreatment of these wastes requires the use of microorganisms capable to degrade all these different cyano-compounds and to tolerate metals. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT [...] Read more.
Most cyanide-containing industrial effluents also contain other cyano-derivatives and high amounts of metals and metal-cyanide compounds. For this reason, the biotreatment of these wastes requires the use of microorganisms capable to degrade all these different cyano-compounds and to tolerate metals. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a cyanotrophic bacterium capable of metabolize cyanide in its free form, but it is not very efficient at degrading metal-cyanide complexes. Therefore, for the optimization of the cyanide biodegradation process it is essential to find and characterize new bacterial strains, capable of assimilating metal cyanide-complexes, to complement the capacities of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Purification of Post-Fermentation Effluent Using Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201285 - 22 Oct 2018
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Waste-water rich in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus may serve as a convenient source of carbon and nutrients for a year-long microalgae production. Scientific reports indicate that some single-cell microalgae such as Chlorella and Scenedesmus, are highly tolerant to waste-water environments and [...] Read more.
Waste-water rich in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus may serve as a convenient source of carbon and nutrients for a year-long microalgae production. Scientific reports indicate that some single-cell microalgae such as Chlorella and Scenedesmus, are highly tolerant to waste-water environments and efficiently remove biogenic compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using the effluent produced in the process of anaerobic degradation of whey, as a culture medium for the multiplication of Chlorella vulgaris algae biomass and to characterise their growth efficiency and rate. The content of nitrogen and phosphorus in waste-water was sufficient for conducting an effective culture of algae. The efficiency of nitrogen removal in the flow system was 15.61 ± 1.38 mg N/dm3/day. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Removal of As(III) from Water Using “Green” Synthetized Zero Valent Iron in the Presence of Competing Phosphate Ions
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201286 - 17 Oct 2018
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been widely investigated for treatment of environmental contaminants. Various technologies are currently available to remove As(III) and phosphate from aqueous environment, but among them, adsorption is most common because its simplicity, treatment stability and cost effectiveness. This [...] Read more.
Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been widely investigated for treatment of environmental contaminants. Various technologies are currently available to remove As(III) and phosphate from aqueous environment, but among them, adsorption is most common because its simplicity, treatment stability and cost effectiveness. This study is focused on the removal efficiency of As(III) in the presence of competing phosphate ions by nZVI synthesized using polyphenols from oak and mulberry leaf extracts producing OAK-nZVI and M-nZVI, respectively. The highest removal efficiency of As(III) was obtained for M-nZVI (up to 91% at all nZVI doses). 87% removal was obtained for OAK-nZVI. The same conclusion could be retrieved in the case of PO43 removal (the highest removal, up to 78% at all nZVI doses for M-nZVI). Concerning OAK-nZVI, removal efficiencies increased with increasing nZVI doses (21–76% for doses 2–16 mL). Adsorption of As(III) in the presence of competing PO43 ions on M-nZVI, decreased from 91% to 79%. On OAK-nZVI material, significant changes could not be observed. One can conclude that the presence of PO43 ions in arsenic aqueous solutions would reduce effectiveness of the M-nZVI for As(III) remediation. This conclusion was supported by the fact that M-nZVI particles had a greater antioxidative capacity in comparison to OAK-nZVI which directly influenced nanoparticles synthesis and stability. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Testing the Supplementary Cementitious Material Based on GGBFS and Zeolite for Prediction of the Activity Index
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201287 - 19 Oct 2018
Viewed by 273
Abstract
The article deals with cement supplementary materials based on ground granulated blast furnace slag and zeolite. Purpose of the experiment was to observe dependences (if they exist) between selected parameters (modulus of basicity, modulus of hydraulicity and initial setting time) and activity indexes, [...] Read more.
The article deals with cement supplementary materials based on ground granulated blast furnace slag and zeolite. Purpose of the experiment was to observe dependences (if they exist) between selected parameters (modulus of basicity, modulus of hydraulicity and initial setting time) and activity indexes, for easier and quicker way to determine or predict the activity index. Testing showed that moderate dependences between those parameters and activity indexes were observed. Results showed that prediction of activity indexes based on chemical composition is feasible. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Removal of Diclofenac and Metformin from Water in Laboratory Photo Reactor
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201288 - 18 Oct 2018
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Diclofenac (DCF) and metformin (MET) are pharmaceuticals often detected in influents and effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants and surface waters which may cause adverse effects to human health and the environment. In recent years, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been demonstrated to [...] Read more.
Diclofenac (DCF) and metformin (MET) are pharmaceuticals often detected in influents and effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants and surface waters which may cause adverse effects to human health and the environment. In recent years, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been demonstrated to be effective technology for the removal of many organic pollutants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the removal and toxicity of investigated pharmaceuticals by UV and UV/H2O2 processes. UV irradiation was provided by a Pen Ray lamp emission at 254 nm which was covered with a quartz tube and placed in the middle of the reactor. Experimental conditions of the process were: [DIC, MET] = 10 mg/L, [H2O2] = 2.5 mM, reaction time 3 h. Results obtained by only UV exposition of solution showed that diclofenac and metformin were degradated 30% and 50% during 3 h test. Addition of 2.5 mM H2O2 to photo reactor contributed to 90% and 100% removal of DCF and MET, respectively. Inhibition toxicity test of MET increased in the following range: 13% (C0) < 38% (UV) < 77% (UV/ H2O2), while toxicity measured for DCF solutions followed the range: 33% (UV) < 75% (C0) < 78% (UV/H2O2). The results confirmed that addition of hydrogen-peroxide accelerated the removal of investigated pharmaceuticals, but at the same time, lead to formation of the more toxic intermediates. The possible reason for better removal efficiency of metformin can be related to its simpler aliphatic structure in comparison to more aromatic diclofenac. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
The Effect of Mixing Technique and Prolonged Mixing Time on Strength Characteristics of Concrete
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201290 - 22 Oct 2018
Viewed by 354
Abstract
The experiment aims to test the triple mixing (3M) technique to produce the concrete with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). Then, the impact prolonged mixing, representing the influence of delivery and discharge time in praxis, is analysed by the change in strength properties. Both [...] Read more.
The experiment aims to test the triple mixing (3M) technique to produce the concrete with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). Then, the impact prolonged mixing, representing the influence of delivery and discharge time in praxis, is analysed by the change in strength properties. Both the 28-day compressive strength and tensile splitting strength are evaluated in two aspects: the prolonged mixing time (0, 45 and 90 min after initial mixing), and the mixing method (normal and triple). Prolonged mixing time brought both the positive and negative changes in strength characteristics however the worst difference between initial mixing (0′) and 90′ minutes of mixing was only 8.4% for compressive strength and 8.5% for tensile splitting strength. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Characteristics of Mediterranean Sea Water in Vicinity of Tangier Region, North of Morocco
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201291 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 464
Abstract
Coastal areas play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems and developing the social and economic wellbeing of the countries bordering it. However, the pressure on both terrestrial and marine resources, the use of oceans as a wastes deposit, the [...] Read more.
Coastal areas play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems and developing the social and economic wellbeing of the countries bordering it. However, the pressure on both terrestrial and marine resources, the use of oceans as a wastes deposit, the growth of population and the increasing of urbanization and human activities in coastal areas are all causes for marine and coastal degradation. The present situation constitutes a significant danger in many places. As an example, the pollution of the coastal waters in the Mediterranean has increased in recent years. Industrialization, tourism and ports activities along the coastline of the Mediterranean are the main sources of many pollutants that have effects on human’s health and environment. So that, it is very important to examine seawater quality in order to protect the marine and coastal areas from degradation. Hence, comes the need to consider a physicochemical and bacteriological study to evaluate the quality of Tangier coastal seawater using the Water Quality Index (WQI). A campaign of 25 sampling points was conducted and the results of the WQI calculation have highlighted the Tangier water was between medium and bad. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Dynamic Spatial Modeling of Optimal Locations for Territorial Planning Ordering of the Industrial Waste in a Mining City
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201292 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 453
Abstract
In mining, the decrease in the quality of grades has led to further deepening of the existing deposits, determining the existence of a greater quantity of waste, increasing the probability of contact between the waste and the environment, communities and productive soils. For [...] Read more.
In mining, the decrease in the quality of grades has led to further deepening of the existing deposits, determining the existence of a greater quantity of waste, increasing the probability of contact between the waste and the environment, communities and productive soils. For this reason, we propose new logics to organize mining spaces, employing Multi-Criteria Evaluation techniques, risk assessment and the integration of spatial data into the Geographic Information System, with the purpose of determining the optimal locations of industrial waste deposit. Also, using cellular automata, we define a sustainable logistic plan for the dynamic distribution of waste, evaluating the interaction of a determined rhythm of waste production, with the variable dynamic of the wind. In conclusion, a new methodology of systematic vision is created for the planning and territorial ordering of future mining projects. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Evaluation of Zeolite Adsorption Properties for Cu(II) Removal from Acidic Aqueous Solutions in Fixed-Bed Column System
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201293 - 22 Oct 2018
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The development of human society after 18th century is associated with metals. Technology of extraction and processing of heavy metals is essential for many areas of industry. Naturally, the extraction, processing and cleaning of impurities give the metals not only a new form, [...] Read more.
The development of human society after 18th century is associated with metals. Technology of extraction and processing of heavy metals is essential for many areas of industry. Naturally, the extraction, processing and cleaning of impurities give the metals not only a new form, but also cause their intensive distribution in the environment, which represents a huge threat. Countries of the middle Europe, where extraction of mineral resources takes place a long period, have to solve the problems of mine wastewater. Finding of the new and cheap ways of these wastewater treatment can increase the quality of the environment in the affected areas. Sorption techniques belong to an effective and cost acceptable methods for remove of heavy metals from aqueous environment. The presented paper describes the adsorption behavior of Slovak natural zeolite in fixed-bed column system. In order to determine its applicability for mine drainage treatment, copper removal from model sulfuric acid solutions (pH 4) was studied. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Exhalation Rate Study of Thoron in Some Building Materials of the Iberian Peninsula
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201294 - 17 Oct 2018
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Thoron isotope has been growing in importance in the last years because, despite of its short half-life, can also contribute in the development of lung cancer. In this work, we assess the thoron massic exhalation rate and emanation factor of some building materials [...] Read more.
Thoron isotope has been growing in importance in the last years because, despite of its short half-life, can also contribute in the development of lung cancer. In this work, we assess the thoron massic exhalation rate and emanation factor of some building materials commonly used in the Iberian Peninsula. A continuous thoron monitor was used to measure the thoron activity growth as a function of time. To calculate the emanation factor, the activity of thoron radionuclide mother element (Th-232) by gamma spectrometry was employed. The exhalation rate values range from 0.0007 to 0.040 Bq•kg−1•s−1 for gypsum and Gris Quintana granite, respectively and the emanation factor range from 0.2 to 4.8% for Gran Beige and Gris Quintana granites, respectively. Ranges of results of all these parameters are in good agreement with the values reported by other authors for building materials of different countries. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Determination of Trace Elements in Atmospheric Samples by Ultrasonic Probe Microextraction and ICP-MS
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201295 - 17 Oct 2018
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Pb is a relevant atmospheric pollutant, mainly associated to particulate matter (PM). In this work, an ultrasound probe-assisted microextraction (UAME) pretreatment methodology has been optimized and validated for the extraction of Pb from atmospheric particulate matter samples before determination by ICP-MS. Factors that [...] Read more.
Pb is a relevant atmospheric pollutant, mainly associated to particulate matter (PM). In this work, an ultrasound probe-assisted microextraction (UAME) pretreatment methodology has been optimized and validated for the extraction of Pb from atmospheric particulate matter samples before determination by ICP-MS. Factors that influence the ultrasonic extraction procedure were evaluated and optimized using a Box-Behnken design in conjunction with a response surface methodology, by assaying a PM certified reference material. The optimum conditions obtained for the Pb extraction are 62.5% of sonication amplitude, 200 s of sonication time, 47.5% v/v HNO3 as extracting medium, and sample/solvent ratio of 35 mg/mL. The US-probe assisted extraction methodology was applied to real PM from active and passive sampling for the extraction of Pb and other relevant elements such As, Cd and Cu. Analytical results demonstrated that ultrasonic microextraction is an efficient tool for the extraction of Pb and Cu from atmospheric samples, faster and greener than standard high temperature acid digestion. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Characterization of the Siderurgy Slags as the Presence of Natural Radionuclides
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201296 - 18 Oct 2018
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Present day steelmaking slags are being successfully used as a high quality mineral aggregate for the building industry. With this, it is of vital importance to be familiar with the technical significance of the secondary application of steel slag, because some steel slag [...] Read more.
Present day steelmaking slags are being successfully used as a high quality mineral aggregate for the building industry. With this, it is of vital importance to be familiar with the technical significance of the secondary application of steel slag, because some steel slag might contain increased concentration of substances harmful to human health. In terms of steel slag impact on the environment, radionuclides are the least researched of all pollutants emitted from the metallurgical processes. This work presents the preliminary study about the presence of the uranium in siderurgy slag aggregates for the purpose of its use in the production of construction material. The results showed that this slag is free of uranium which brings greater security in its use as building material. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Study of pH Changes in Media during Bacterial Growth of Several Environmental Strains
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201297 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
The effect of pH on bacterial cell-growth and the evolution of extracellular pH triggered by bacterial growth has been monitored for three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as reference strains, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 because of its [...] Read more.
The effect of pH on bacterial cell-growth and the evolution of extracellular pH triggered by bacterial growth has been monitored for three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as reference strains, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 because of its capacity to assimilate cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions. In a first instance, the influence of the initial pH in the growth curve has been texted in LB-medium adjusted to pH 6, 7 and 8, for E. coli and P. putida, and 7.5, 8.25 and 9 for P. pseudoalcaligenes. Although the initial pH were different, the pH of the extracellular medium at the end of the stationary phase converged to a certain pH that is specific for each bacterium. Similar experiments were carried out in minimal medium with glucose as the carbon source. In this case, the pHs of the culture of both Pseudomonadaceae strains were almost constant, whereas it suddenly dropped during the exponential growth phase of E. coli. When the initial pH was 6 the extracellular pH fell sharply to 4.5, which irreversibly prevented further cellular growth. Nevertheless, at higher initial pH values subsequent cellular growth of E. coli restored the medium to the initial pHs values. Finally, in all cases the evolution of the pH has been shown to depend on the carbon source used. Among the sources used, cellular growth with glucose or glycerol did not affect the extracellular pH, whereas citrate caused the alkalinization of the media. This phenotype is in concordance with computational predictions, at least in the case of the genome-scale metabolic model of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Hydropower Potential Assessment in Water Supply Systems
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201299 - 19 Oct 2018
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Energy recovery in water supply systems (WSS) is environmentally friendly, since it is a renewable energy based on exploiting the excess pressure existing in water pipes for obtaining electricity. This paper presents the methodology development for the identification of the hydropower potential in [...] Read more.
Energy recovery in water supply systems (WSS) is environmentally friendly, since it is a renewable energy based on exploiting the excess pressure existing in water pipes for obtaining electricity. This paper presents the methodology development for the identification of the hydropower potential in WSS and the possible installations by means of a Matlab rutine. The results showed the interactions among the design flow and maximum head have provided the possible scenarios with electric potential and the selection of possible turbines. The methodology proposed allows determining the suitability of electricity production in the urban water cycle by MHPs, in order to avoid the need for the installation of dissipation devices for this energy. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Small and Micro-Hydropower Plants Location by Using Geographic Information System
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201300 - 23 Oct 2018
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Small-scale hydropower plants (SHP), and in particular the micro-hydropower plants (MHP) and pico-hydropower plants (PHP), are considering as an alternative energy resource based on the hydroelectric potential available in urban water cycle because of the excess of pressure existing in some urban water [...] Read more.
Small-scale hydropower plants (SHP), and in particular the micro-hydropower plants (MHP) and pico-hydropower plants (PHP), are considering as an alternative energy resource based on the hydroelectric potential available in urban water cycle because of the excess of pressure existing in some urban water supply systems (WSS). Nowadays, pressure-reducing valves are necessary to reduce water pressure in WSS, so the use of a pump as turbine (PAT) can be considered as a proper way for reaching both an enough water head reduction and a hydropower generation possibility (self-consumption or energy recovery). MHPs are based on existing hydraulic resources where the PAT location is necessary, especially in those points with an excess of energy, which derives in an extra cost in terms of conservation and maintenance of the infrastructure or lead to the necessary installation of dissipation devices. The locations of these points are strongly influenced by the geographical and hydrological conditions, so a Geographic Information System (GIS) is a very useful tool for implementation of SHP and MHP or PHP projects. This paper describes the assessment and comparison of the methodology followed in the SHP and MHP locations: necessary data, GIS development, hydrologic model and hydropower potential. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Environmental Impacts of Detached Family Houses Used Natural Building Materials
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201301 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 447
Abstract
This paper aims to assess the environmental impact of family houses designed as a building with green technologies and green materials. These family houses are located in villages of Velky Folkmar and Jedlinka, which are situated in eastern Slovakia. The analysis investigates the [...] Read more.
This paper aims to assess the environmental impact of family houses designed as a building with green technologies and green materials. These family houses are located in villages of Velky Folkmar and Jedlinka, which are situated in eastern Slovakia. The analysis investigates the role of application of these technologies on impact categories such as: global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP), abiotic depletion potential fossil fuels (ADPF) expressed as CO2eq, SO2eq, PO43eq, kg ethylene and MJ, respectively within “Cradle to Grave” boundary by using the LCA assessment method. The main contribution of the study is to highlight the significance of green technologies in reduction of environmental impacts. The presented results show that house with built-in green materials and technologies causes significantly lower environmental impacts compared to house where both green technologies and conventional materials are built. The operation phase (B6) is characterized by greater environmental impacts compared to the product and construction phases, as well as deconstruction phase due to the use of green materials and technologies. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Wireless Sensor Network for Sustainable Agriculture
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201302 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 508
Abstract
Precision agriculture can be defined as the science of using technology to improve the agricultural production. It is advisable for farmers to use a decision support system; in fact, real–time monitoring of climatic conditions is the only way to know the water needed [...] Read more.
Precision agriculture can be defined as the science of using technology to improve the agricultural production. It is advisable for farmers to use a decision support system; in fact, real–time monitoring of climatic conditions is the only way to know the water needed by a cultivation. On the other hand, since the 1990s, a strong decrease of the Mediterranean Quercus has been observed in the pastures of southwestern Spain and Portugal, causing a high mortality of holm and cork oak trees. Among the factors associated with this decrease, the radical decomposition caused by Phytophthora Cinnamomi is remarkable for its gravity, which makes it necessary to reforest the trees and to monitor the microclimatic factors that have an influence on this regeneration. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are a technology in full evolution and development, as well as their appropriate use in cultivations that help to implement ecological techniques. With these considerations in this work five units/nodes with one or more sensors that allow different environmental readings have been developed. In this work, the acquisition of data obtained from different sensors has been achieved, allowing the monitoring of climatic elements such as soil moisture, air quality, temperature and humidity, rainfall intensity, precipitation level, wind speed and direction, luminous flux and atmospheric pressure. A web page has been designed where the user can consult the climatic conditions of the cultivation or reforestation. Different devices interconnected with a central unit have been developed where measurements of the cultivation are sent for its later analysis by the farmer. The microclimatic data acquisition developed in the WSN proposed in this paper allows a farmer to make decisions about the irrigation of the cultivation, use of fertilizers, the development and maturation phases of the cultivated products, obtaining the optimum stages of cultivation and harvesting. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Modelling Two Dimensional Affected Regions by “Seca” Disease with Proximity Diagrams
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201303 - 23 Oct 2018
Viewed by 339
Abstract
In this work we propose a mathematical model to determine the potentially propagation areas of the Mediterranean Quercus disease commonly referred to as “seca” in specific areas of Extremadura. To do it we will use optimal computational geometry algorithms based on proximity diagrams [...] Read more.
In this work we propose a mathematical model to determine the potentially propagation areas of the Mediterranean Quercus disease commonly referred to as “seca” in specific areas of Extremadura. To do it we will use optimal computational geometry algorithms based on proximity diagrams that permit to design a pathogen transmission map and to determine causing agents. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Study of Siderurgy Slags for the Reuse of Iron Oxides for Biotechnology Application
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201304 - 18 Oct 2018
Viewed by 360
Abstract
The reuse of slag for the extraction of iron oxides, besides allowing the use of potentially polluting material, allows its strategic use in biotechnological applications. For this it is necessary a characterization of the slag as the proportion of iron oxides to study [...] Read more.
The reuse of slag for the extraction of iron oxides, besides allowing the use of potentially polluting material, allows its strategic use in biotechnological applications. For this it is necessary a characterization of the slag as the proportion of iron oxides to study the feasibility of extraction and reuse. For this work siderurgy slag was collected in the steel mill slag yards, as a remnant of the transformation of pig iron into steel and study for identify the presence of magnetite in the samples. Results were discussed in the context of reuse possibility in biotechnological application, for example, in implants of the magnetic materials. The siderurgy slag studied presents iron oxides in a proportion that encourages future work of extraction for use in the composition of magnetic materials for biotechnological applications. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Effect of Lighting on the Intensification of Phycocyanin Production in a Culture of Arthrospira platensis
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201305 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 484
Abstract
The global market shows high demand for products of natural origin to reduce the use of synthetic substances in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. One of the opportunities for acquiring natural compounds of industrial value is the use of cyanobacteria biomass. In [...] Read more.
The global market shows high demand for products of natural origin to reduce the use of synthetic substances in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. One of the opportunities for acquiring natural compounds of industrial value is the use of cyanobacteria biomass. In terms of biomass composition, cyanobacteria of the species Arthrospira platensis deserve particular attention. They are characterised by high contents of protein, γ-linolenic acid, polysaccharides, β-carotene, chlorophyll and phycocyanin. Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex widely used in the food and cosmetics industry. It is also used as fluorescent probes in histochemistry, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and fluorescence immunoassay. Due to the extensive use of phycocyanin in various industries, a high demand for this pigment is generated, which determines the search for methods of intensifying phycocyanin production by the cells of A. platensis. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of light of different wavelengths on phycocyanin productivity by cyanobacteria of the species Arthrospira platensis. The highest biomass concentration and phycocyanin concentration were obtained in a culture using Red LED lighting. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Modeling and Mitigation of Noise on the A23 Motorway Using GIS
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201306 - 18 Oct 2018
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Rendering at the European Directive 2002/49/EC, all EU members have to draw up a strategic noise map for all agglomerations with more than 250,000 inhabitants and for all major airports, roads and railways. A study of environmental impact assessment on motorway A23 in [...] Read more.
Rendering at the European Directive 2002/49/EC, all EU members have to draw up a strategic noise map for all agglomerations with more than 250,000 inhabitants and for all major airports, roads and railways. A study of environmental impact assessment on motorway A23 in the stretch between Castelo Branco–Alcains (Portugal), based in the impact of the environmental noise, allowed the modeling the noise variation, which can be useful for establishing mitigation measures. The results show that noise model can be a useful tool for the monitoring noise impact in surrounding of motorways. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Two-Dimensional Shallow-Water Model with Porosity for Urban Flood Modeling
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201307 - 24 Oct 2018
Viewed by 393
Abstract
In the world, floods are at the forefront of natural hazard. Urban areas are often at risk of flooding and just as often unprepared for management. Flood modeling is nowadays a very important topic in the theme of water, it inevitably involves the [...] Read more.
In the world, floods are at the forefront of natural hazard. Urban areas are often at risk of flooding and just as often unprepared for management. Flood modeling is nowadays a very important topic in the theme of water, it inevitably involves the numerical resolution of the shallow water equations derived from the Navier Stocks equations governing flows. Two-dimensional shallow water models with porosity appear as an interesting path for the large-scale modeling of floodplains with urbanized areas. The porosity accounts for the reduction in storage and in the exchange sections due to the presence of buildings and other structures in the floodplain. The introduction of a porosity into the two-dimensional shallow water equations leads to modified expressions for the fluxes and source terms. An extra source term appears in the momentum equation. The developed solution method consists in solving the two-dimensional shallow water equations with porosity via a finite volume scheme solving the conservative form of the equations which can be reduced to a calculation of flux through an edge, a problem that can be approached by a one-dimensional problem in the normal direction at the edge (Riemann problem). Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Heavy Metals Removal from Reclaimed Water in a Laboratory Column Using a Granitic Residual Soil
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201308 - 23 Oct 2018
Viewed by 356
Abstract
The removal of five heavy metals was evaluated in vertical downflow column, with a granitic residual soil, operated in discontinuous and continuous mode. The results show higher removal rates of the five metals for the continuous mode, with highest values to Zn and [...] Read more.
The removal of five heavy metals was evaluated in vertical downflow column, with a granitic residual soil, operated in discontinuous and continuous mode. The results show higher removal rates of the five metals for the continuous mode, with highest values to Zn and Pb followed by Ni, Cu and Cr. The removal of all metals occurs mainly at the top 5 cm essentially through complexation and precipitation in the form of hydroxides. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Method for Estimation of CO2 Gains from Persons in Builidings
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201309 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 373
Abstract
Carbon dioxide concentration is an important parameter to know Indoor Air Quality of a building. One of the most important sources of CO2 in poor ventilated building is human activity. This work presents a method for experimental determination of human CO2 [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide concentration is an important parameter to know Indoor Air Quality of a building. One of the most important sources of CO2 in poor ventilated building is human activity. This work presents a method for experimental determination of human CO2 generation rate based on measuring of time evolution of indoor CO2 concentration. The method is applied to 5 rooms of an educational building from Bialystok (Poland). Similar carbon dioxide gains were obtained in all rooms, around 0.0046 L/s, which correspond to theoretical CO2 generation rates of a sedentary activity for persons, males and females, between 21–30 years old, characteristics of occupants of analyzed rooms. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Mathematical Modeling of Vegetation Heterogeneity and Complex Topography Effects on Turbulent Exchange of GHG within the Atmospheric Surface Layer
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201310 - 17 Oct 2018
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The local-scale 2D and 3D models of greenhouse gases (GHG) exchange between a non-uniform land surface and the atmosphere were developed. They are based on solution of the system of averaged Navier-Stokes, continuity and diffusion-advection equations. For numerical solution of the differential equations [...] Read more.
The local-scale 2D and 3D models of greenhouse gases (GHG) exchange between a non-uniform land surface and the atmosphere were developed. They are based on solution of the system of averaged Navier-Stokes, continuity and diffusion-advection equations. For numerical solution of the differential equations the stable finite-difference schemes were suggested. The models were applied to derive effects of complex topography and vegetation heterogeneity on 2D-3D air flow patterns, as well as on CO2 exchange within the atmospheric surface layer. Several numerical experiments were also provided to describe the air-flow re-establishing after its interaction with some obstacle (e.g., forest edge). Quantitative criteria for selection of the experimental sites for continuous eddy covariance flux measurements characterized by minimum effects of horizontal advection on measured fluxes were suggested. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Noise and Air Pollution Related to Health in Urban Environments
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201311 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Environmental noise is a pollutant considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a threat to public health due to its harmful effects on human health. In this regard, the European Environmental Agency (EEA) indicates that road traffic is the sound source that [...] Read more.
Environmental noise is a pollutant considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a threat to public health due to its harmful effects on human health. In this regard, the European Environmental Agency (EEA) indicates that road traffic is the sound source that generates the greatest number of people exposed in Europe to sound levels above what is recommended by the European Noise Directive. In a similar way, the EEA also reports that air pollution is the most important environmental health risk in Europe, where road traffic is one of the main sources of emission of polluting gases. The relationship between both pollutants, leads to think about the development of common strategies. This paper presents a review on recent researches about the relationship of these two types of pollution in urban environments with different types of diseases. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Natural Mexican Zeolite Modified with Iron to Remove Arsenic Ions from Water Sources
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201312 - 23 Oct 2018
Viewed by 424
Abstract
In this work the elimination of arsenic ions (V) in water was investigated by adsorption with Mexican natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type) conditioned with iron, the zeolite originating in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico used as an adsorbent medium was placed in a [...] Read more.
In this work the elimination of arsenic ions (V) in water was investigated by adsorption with Mexican natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type) conditioned with iron, the zeolite originating in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico used as an adsorbent medium was placed in a bed zeolite fixed column system of downward and upward flow to retain arsenic ions at pH 7 and 5. The zeolite was characterized by XRD, SEM/EDS and FTIR before and after the arsenic adsorption tests, the results showed that the methods of modification used are suitable for the superficial modification of the natural zeolite since it does not modify its structure. The results showed that with an initial concentration of As of 1 ppm, at a pH of 7, at 25 °C, an elimination of 99.23% was obtained, with a capacity of 0.09 mgAs·g−1zeolite. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Promotion of Circular Economy: Steelwork Dusts as Secondary Raw Material in Conventional Mortars
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201313 - 22 Oct 2018
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Among the actions proposed by the European Union for the implementation of Circular Economy is the use of waste as a secondary raw material (SRM). During the fusion of the scrap, a steel dust is generated, named Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD). The [...] Read more.
Among the actions proposed by the European Union for the implementation of Circular Economy is the use of waste as a secondary raw material (SRM). During the fusion of the scrap, a steel dust is generated, named Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD). The EAFD is composed mainly of potentially leachable heavy metals, so is classified as “hazardous” waste. Around the world, approximately 70% of this waste is deposited in landfills, with a previous treatment through cement-based materials to prevent the metals’ mobility. However, this action is not in accordance with the Circular Economy concept due to the greater use of resources and the loss of deposited metals. The present investigation analyses the use of EAFD as SRM in conventional mortar production for its use as a construction material. Different substitution percentages (25%, 50% and 100%) were used replacing siliceous filler by EAFD. The investigation analysed the behaviour of conventional mortars by tests of workability, compressive strength, water absorption by capillarity and leaching behaviour in granular and monolithic state. The results obtained indicate a slight improvement in mechanical behaviour with the incorporation of EAFD, the reason why its use as SRM in conventional mortars would benefit the construction industry and would encourage the Circular Economy. From an environmental point of view, the mechanisms of Pb fixation should be improved in granular state. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Study on Chlorinated Gas Adsorption Using Activated Carbon via Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Stepwise Pyrolysis Process
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201314 - 22 Oct 2018
Viewed by 371
Abstract
In this research, we studied the chlorinated gas adsorption process using activated carbon. Two types of granular activated carbon were employed: GAC800 and GAC1200; with specific surface areas of 800 m2/g and 1200 m2/g, respectively. In order to optimize [...] Read more.
In this research, we studied the chlorinated gas adsorption process using activated carbon. Two types of granular activated carbon were employed: GAC800 and GAC1200; with specific surface areas of 800 m2/g and 1200 m2/g, respectively. In order to optimize the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dehydrochlorination conditions, three parameters were studied: (i) the type of precursor—PVC and PVC mixed with charcoal (1:1 by weight)—(ii) the temperature—300 and 400 °C—and (iii) the retention time—30, 120, and 240 min. Mohr’s method and acid-base titration were used to estimate the captured amount of chlorinated gas. The results indicated that the PVC dehydrochlorination occurred completely about 69–73 wt.% at 400 °C for 240 min. The amount of chloride ion was detected around 1–2 mmol/LNaOH. The estimated HCl adsorption capacity for the GAC800 and GAC1200 samples potentially absorbed 0.27 mgHCl/gGAC and 0.21 mgHCl/gGAC, respectively. In addition, the efficiency for GAC800 and GAC1200 was reported to 37.95% and 28.92%, respectively. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Microwave Support of the Alcoholic Fermentation Process of Cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis
Proceedings 2018, 2(20), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2201315 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 317
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal hydrolysis on degradation of polysaccharides contained in biomass of cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis and to assess the effectiveness of ethanol production from pre-conditioned biomass. The study aimed at the selection of the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal hydrolysis on degradation of polysaccharides contained in biomass of cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis and to assess the effectiveness of ethanol production from pre-conditioned biomass. The study aimed at the selection of the most advantageous parameters of thermo hydrolysis to reach the experiment variant with the best effects, effectiveness of alcohol fermentation. The experiment was divided into two stages; in stage I, the possibility of obtaining fermentable sugars by hydrothermal and treatment of the substrate was tested. Stage II involved an assessment of the effectiveness of the pretreatment methods to produce bioethanol in alcohol fermentation. Yeast used in industrial ethanol production—Saccharomyces cerevisiae As4—was used in the alcohol fermentation. The results have shown that the temperature of 150 °C was the most beneficial for the process of thermohydrolysis. The control substrate yielded 0.49 g/L of bioethanol, the alcohol concentration in the conventionally pre-tretment sample increased by 45%, i.e., to 0.71 g/L, the mash in the microwave-treatment sample contained the highest concentration of alcohol: 0.97 g/L, which is 98% more than in the control mash and 37% more than in the conventionally heated sample. Full article
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