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Proceedings, 2017, Eurosensors 2017

Eurosensors 2017

Paris, France | 3–6 September 2017

Issue Editors: Jean-Paul Viricelle, Christophe Pijolat and Mathilde Rieu

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Cover Story (view full-size image): This issue of Proceedings gathers papers presented at EUROSENSORS 2017, the XXXI edition (Paris, France, 3–6 Sept. 2017). It collects contributions concerning 10 topics (theory and modelling; [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to Eurosensors 2017, Paris, 3–6 September 2017
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1041097 - 21 Nov 2017
Viewed by 1438
Abstract
EUROSENSORS 2017, the XXXI edition of the conference series, was held in PARIS at UIC-P Congress Center close to the Tour Eiffel, from September 3 to 6, 2017 for the third time in France, after Toulouse 1994 and Lyon 2007. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)

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Open AccessProceedings
Electromagnetic Characterization and Simulation of a Carbonate Buffer System on a Microwave Biosensor
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040276 - 17 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
In order to develop a fast, sensitive and easy-to-produce biosensor, a high-quality microwave split-ring resonator is going to be developed. In the final sensing device, a blood sample will be placed as a droplet on the sensitive area of the sensor. In case [...] Read more.
In order to develop a fast, sensitive and easy-to-produce biosensor, a high-quality microwave split-ring resonator is going to be developed. In the final sensing device, a blood sample will be placed as a droplet on the sensitive area of the sensor. In case of specific target biomolecules binding a shift in resonance frequency will be induced due to the effective permittivity change. This shift in resonance frequency depends on the concentration of biomolecules and is therefore quantitative. The aim of this work is to find a position for the bio-functionalization that providesa measurable frequency shift when the analyte is added. Different areas are tested experimentally and via simulations. Two buffer solutions are used which have to be characterized in terms of its electromagnetic properties in advance. This preliminary study should pave the way for the measurements in real human samples such as serum or plasma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Two-Directional Operation of Bistable Latchable Micro Switch Actuated by a Single Electrode
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040277 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Curved micromechanical beams are a versatile platform for exploring multistable behavior, with potential applications in mechanical based logic elements and electrical and optical switches. Here we demonstrate bidirectional electrostatic actuation of a bistable, latched, micromechanical beam by the same electrode, which was used [...] Read more.
Curved micromechanical beams are a versatile platform for exploring multistable behavior, with potential applications in mechanical based logic elements and electrical and optical switches. Here we demonstrate bidirectional electrostatic actuation of a bistable, latched, micromechanical beam by the same electrode, which was used for the snap-through switching of the device. The release of the mechanically-latched beam is achieved by pre-loading the structure using a rising voltage applied to the electrode, followed by a sudden decrease of the voltage. This abrupt removal of the loading results in a transient response and dynamic snap-back of the beam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Modelling New Techniques for Improving Separation in Miniature Capillary- and Planar-Based Capillary Electrophoresis Systems
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040278 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The capillary/channel length is an important factor in capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems since it is directly related to the amount of separation attainable. In this work we present methods to increase the effective channel length without the need to modify the physical channel [...] Read more.
The capillary/channel length is an important factor in capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems since it is directly related to the amount of separation attainable. In this work we present methods to increase the effective channel length without the need to modify the physical channel length. Using an electrode located close to the capillary surface it is possible to dynamically modify zeta-potential and therefore the electroosmotic flow (EOF). By controlling the EOF, certain ionic species within a sample can be held in a short channel whilst other species migrate along the channel. Alternatively the sample can be transported back and forth along the active channel length until sufficient separation has been attained. CE enables detailed analysis of a sample’s composition and this is of interest to a range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Analytical Model of Double Barrier THz Rectifier
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040279 - 31 Aug 2017
Viewed by 949
Abstract
The application of the new structure to the complex field of THz receivers requires the availability of an analytical model, reliable and able to highlight the dependence on the parameters of the physical structure. We present a model of the rectification capability of [...] Read more.
The application of the new structure to the complex field of THz receivers requires the availability of an analytical model, reliable and able to highlight the dependence on the parameters of the physical structure. We present a model of the rectification capability of the double barrier Terahertz radiation (THz) detector, a CMOS compatible structurer. The model is based on the hydrodynamic semiconductor equations; solved in the small signal approximation. The model highlights the high frequency dynamics of carriers in the structure; and furnishes new insight on the origin of the self-mixing rectification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Geometrical Optimisation of Diode-Based Calorimetric Thermal Flow Sensors through Multiphysics Finite Element Modelling
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040280 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
For the first time, 3D multiphysics finite element modelling has been used to optimise the geometry of a calorimetric thermal flow sensor. The model involves and couples three physics domains: electric, thermal and fluid mechanics. The model is validated against experimental data obtained [...] Read more.
For the first time, 3D multiphysics finite element modelling has been used to optimise the geometry of a calorimetric thermal flow sensor. The model involves and couples three physics domains: electric, thermal and fluid mechanics. The model is validated against experimental data obtained from a thermoelectronic flow sensor comprising of a tungsten heating resistor and temperature sensing diodes. Upstream and downstream diodes measure the temperature change caused by the asymmetric thermal profile when gas flow is introduced. The optimum distance between the diodes and the heater is shown along with the advantages of altering heater and membrane geometries, providing the knowledge for application-driven sensor optimisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Modelling Cross Axis Sensitivity in MEMS Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscopes
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040281 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
In this paper a Cross Axis evaluation methodology is presented. The Cross Axis Sensitivity value depends on backend testing position tolerances as well as technological features and design properties of the MEMS gyroscope. A numerical model was developed to take into account the [...] Read more.
In this paper a Cross Axis evaluation methodology is presented. The Cross Axis Sensitivity value depends on backend testing position tolerances as well as technological features and design properties of the MEMS gyroscope. A numerical model was developed to take into account the sources of cross axis related to the last two contributions, not considering backend tolerances. Given a specific structure for the AM gyroscope, the asymmetries in the MEMS structure are acknowledged as the main sources for the cross axis. The results of the harmonic FEM simulations were finally compared with real testing data, thus proving the validity of the developed FEM model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Reduction of Electrostatic Control Voltage with a Tri-Electrode Actuator
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040282 - 11 Aug 2017
Viewed by 842
Abstract
We present a new tri-electrode topology for reducing the control voltage for electrostatic actuators. Conventional parallel plate actuators are dual-electrode systems, formed by the MEMS structure and the drive electrode. By placing a perforated intermediate electrode between these elements, a tri-electrode configuration is [...] Read more.
We present a new tri-electrode topology for reducing the control voltage for electrostatic actuators. Conventional parallel plate actuators are dual-electrode systems, formed by the MEMS structure and the drive electrode. By placing a perforated intermediate electrode between these elements, a tri-electrode configuration is formed. This topology enables a low voltage on the intermediate electrode to modulate the electrostatic force on the MEMS device, while the higher voltage on the drive electrode remains fixed. Results presented show that in comparison to conventional parallel plate electrostatic actuators, the intermediate electrode’s modulating voltage can be as low as 20% of normal, while still providing the full actuation stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Humidity Sensitivity and Coil Design of a High-Precision Eddy-Current Displacement Sensor
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040283 - 28 Aug 2017
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Unlike capacitive displacement sensors, Eddy-Current Displacement Sensors (ECDSs) possess an inherently low sensitivity to environmental conditions, such as the humidity of the ambient air. By elevating the excitation frequency it is possible to mitigate their major limitations regarding stability and resolution, making them [...] Read more.
Unlike capacitive displacement sensors, Eddy-Current Displacement Sensors (ECDSs) possess an inherently low sensitivity to environmental conditions, such as the humidity of the ambient air. By elevating the excitation frequency it is possible to mitigate their major limitations regarding stability and resolution, making them of interest for high-precision displacement sensing. However, by increasing the excitation frequency, ECDSs become less immune to environmental conditions, due to the inevitable parasitic capacitance of the sensing coil. In this work, we formulate a requirement for the minimum Self-Resonance Frequency (SRF) of the coil, based on the specified humidity variation and the allowable displacement error. This requirement provides an input for the design of the high-precision ECDS probe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Analytical Calculation of Falling Droplets from Cylindrical Capillaries
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040284 - 07 Sep 2017
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Existing investigations to estimate different properties of falling droplets are based on empirical data or complex mathematical approaches. This paper presents a new simple analytical approach to calculate selected properties of droplets, in particular the volume and frequency of falling droplets, out of [...] Read more.
Existing investigations to estimate different properties of falling droplets are based on empirical data or complex mathematical approaches. This paper presents a new simple analytical approach to calculate selected properties of droplets, in particular the volume and frequency of falling droplets, out of a thin vertical cylindrical capillary. The fluid-reservoir is located above the capillary and provides a constant flow into the droplet. This leads to drop formation times less than one second. The results of the calculation are validated by numerical simulations and experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
High Precision Accelerometer with Integrated Thermal Sensor
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040285 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
This paper investigates the design of a Vibrating Beam Accelerometer (VBA) with a resolution of 50 nano-g combined with an integrated thermal sensor. Despite quartz intrinsic thermal stability, the time delay between vibrating beam’s temperature and package’s temperature gives way to unwanted transient [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the design of a Vibrating Beam Accelerometer (VBA) with a resolution of 50 nano-g combined with an integrated thermal sensor. Despite quartz intrinsic thermal stability, the time delay between vibrating beam’s temperature and package’s temperature gives way to unwanted transient thermal behavior and thus bias instability. The aim of this study is to include a thermal sensor consisting in a torsional resonator directly at the center of the beam. Previous work demonstrated the feasibility of such integration on a tactical class accelerometer but also highlighted limitations like high motional resistance of the torsional resonator. Benefits of the in-situ temperature sensor are investigated thanks to finite element analysis of the accelerometer transient thermal behavior, which shall be compared to measurements on actual cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Efficient Vertical-Cavity Mid-IR Thermal Radiation to Silicon-Slab Waveguide Coupling Using a Shallow Blazed Grating
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040286 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
In this work we investigate the coupling of radiation originating from a vertical-cavity enhanced thermal emitter (VERTE) into an optical waveguide, which can, for instance, act as a sensing element. We present full wave modelling results demonstrating highly efficient emitter-to-waveguide diffraction coupling at [...] Read more.
In this work we investigate the coupling of radiation originating from a vertical-cavity enhanced thermal emitter (VERTE) into an optical waveguide, which can, for instance, act as a sensing element. We present full wave modelling results demonstrating highly efficient emitter-to-waveguide diffraction coupling at multiple angles using the previously designed VERTE together with a shallow blazed grating. It is shown that the coherent and dispersive thermal emission of the VERTE concept is well suited to achieve highly efficient and integrated mode coupling in the mid IR region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Simulating Rain Droplets Influence on Distance Measurement with a Time-of-Flight Camera Sensor
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040287 - 29 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera sensors measure simultaneously the light intensity and the scene distance on a pixel basis. Environmental effects, like rain droplets between the scene and the ToF camera, have an impact on the distance accuracy of the sensor. Optical raytracing simulations were [...] Read more.
Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera sensors measure simultaneously the light intensity and the scene distance on a pixel basis. Environmental effects, like rain droplets between the scene and the ToF camera, have an impact on the distance accuracy of the sensor. Optical raytracing simulations were performed to study rain influence in detail. The 3D simulation setup comprises all relevant elements including the sensor design, the object/scene geometry and a model for the environmental conditions. Specifically, a setup with small-angle ToF camera optics is investigated and a comparison of the influence of several typical rain intensities is presented. The simulation results serve as an input for developing error-compensation algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Towards Nanostructured ITO-Based Electrochemical Sensors: Fabrication, Characterization and Functionalization
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040288 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
The need for miniaturized, low-cost and ultrasensitive electrochemical sensors has motivated the search and study of new nanostructured materials. We propose nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as a promising platform due to their good electrical conductivity, transparency to visible wavelengths and high [...] Read more.
The need for miniaturized, low-cost and ultrasensitive electrochemical sensors has motivated the search and study of new nanostructured materials. We propose nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as a promising platform due to their good electrical conductivity, transparency to visible wavelengths and high surface-to-volume ratio. The nanostructured electrodes were fabricated by electron beam evaporation, and electrochemical techniques were used to quantify more than a 40% increase in electrochemical surface area compared to thin ITO films. The electrodes were derivatized with organosilanes and coated with a molecule providing redox activity. Indeed, an increase in detectability of more than 400% was observed with respect to thin films, indicating the potential viability of nanostructured ITO-based electrochemical biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Toward the Analysis of Mitochondria Isolated from Leukemic Cells with Electrochemically Instrumented Microwell Arrays
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040289 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 729
Abstract
This work deals with the development of electrochemical transducers for the analysis of the metabolic status of mitochondria isolated from leukemic cells. It proposes the use of ring nanoelectrodes (RNE) integrated into microwell arrays for the simultaneous monitoring of the oxygen (O2 [...] Read more.
This work deals with the development of electrochemical transducers for the analysis of the metabolic status of mitochondria isolated from leukemic cells. It proposes the use of ring nanoelectrodes (RNE) integrated into microwell arrays for the simultaneous monitoring of the oxygen (O2) consumption and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. The sensor enabled the real-time recording of the oxygen consumption of approximately 10,000 isolated mitochondria. Solutions are now proposed to detect H2O2 production and to reduce the number of mitochondria under test, targeting the single mitochondrion analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods on MEMS Piezoresistive Silicon Microcantilevers for Environmental Monitoring
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040290 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
In this study, a ZnO nanorods (NRs) patterned MEMS piezoresistive silicon micro-cantilever was fabricated as environmental monitor. The fabrication starts from bulk silicon, utilizing photolithography, diffusion, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, Zinc DC-sputtering, and chemical bath deposition (CBD) etc. This sensor [...] Read more.
In this study, a ZnO nanorods (NRs) patterned MEMS piezoresistive silicon micro-cantilever was fabricated as environmental monitor. The fabrication starts from bulk silicon, utilizing photolithography, diffusion, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, Zinc DC-sputtering, and chemical bath deposition (CBD) etc. This sensor shows a humidity sensitivity value of 6.35 ± 0.27 ppm/RH% at 25 °C in the range from 30% RH to 80% RH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Single-Step CMOS Compatible Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Microchannels Embedded in Silicon
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040291 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
This paper presents a new method for the CMOS compatible fabrication of microchannels integrated into a silicon substrate. In a single-step DRIE process (Deep Reactive Ion Etching) a network of microchannels with High Aspect Ratio (HAR) up to 10, can be etched in [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new method for the CMOS compatible fabrication of microchannels integrated into a silicon substrate. In a single-step DRIE process (Deep Reactive Ion Etching) a network of microchannels with High Aspect Ratio (HAR) up to 10, can be etched in a silicon substrate through a mesh mask. In the same single etching step, multidimensional microchannels with various dimensions (width, length, and depth) can be obtained by tuning the process and design parameters. These fully embedded structures enable further wafer processing and integration of electronic components like sensors and actuators in wafers with microchannels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Formation of Crumpled Graphene for Flexible Strain Sensor
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040292 - 21 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Studying the strain of materials on a small scale is very important for applications in strain sensors. Previous studies show that graphene is a promising candidate for strain sensors because of its extraordinary physical and electrical properties. However, these studies were limited to [...] Read more.
Studying the strain of materials on a small scale is very important for applications in strain sensors. Previous studies show that graphene is a promising candidate for strain sensors because of its extraordinary physical and electrical properties. However, these studies were limited to strain applied in a single direction. In this study, flexible strain sensors based on graphene were fabricated and evaluated for strain applied in two directions. For this, the CVD graphene was crumpled with the help of a pre-stretched silicone film. The preliminary results for applied strain in one direction by keeping a fixed strain in the other direction show a significant change in the resistance, up to 20 kΩ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Hierarchically Assembled Titania Based Nanostructures: Innovative and Efficient Strategies for the Synthesis and the Improvement of Sensing Properties
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040293 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
We have developed innovative and efficient strategy for the preparation and improvement of sensing performance of well-ordered titania nanotubes. We have synthesized different materials based on titania nanotubes using cost-effective techniques. The morphological and structural analyses of the prepared materials have been carried [...] Read more.
We have developed innovative and efficient strategy for the preparation and improvement of sensing performance of well-ordered titania nanotubes. We have synthesized different materials based on titania nanotubes using cost-effective techniques. The morphological and structural analyses of the prepared materials have been carried out. The sensing properties of the structures have been studied towards NO2. Investigations have shown the functionalization process has crucial effect on sensing properties of titania nanotubes. The obtained results demonstrate that the prepared structures are promising for the potential applications in the area of chemical sensors for the environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
VO2: A Phase Change Material for Micromechanics
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040294 - 11 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Micro- and nano-mechanical systems may take advantage from using materials having multiple functional characteristics. VO2 is a compound characterised by a solid state phase transition (SSPT) just above room temperature, consisting in a concurrent metal-insulator transition and a change of lattice symmetry [...] Read more.
Micro- and nano-mechanical systems may take advantage from using materials having multiple functional characteristics. VO2 is a compound characterised by a solid state phase transition (SSPT) just above room temperature, consisting in a concurrent metal-insulator transition and a change of lattice symmetry and parameters. Here, the combination of non-linear electrical response and structural changes is employed to realise a novel high-frequency mechanical actuation scheme, showing direct conversion from DC voltage to mechanical excitation in the MHz range and selective activation of the different mechanical modes of a microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Silicon Sacrificial Layer Technology for the Production of 3D MEMS (EPyC Process)
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040295 - 11 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The EPyC process uses silicon sacrificial layer technology, which makes it possible to generate high volume sacrificial structures of up to 100 microns thickness. The biggest challenge is the rapid and complete removal of the 3D sacrificial structure at the end of the [...] Read more.
The EPyC process uses silicon sacrificial layer technology, which makes it possible to generate high volume sacrificial structures of up to 100 microns thickness. The biggest challenge is the rapid and complete removal of the 3D sacrificial structure at the end of the process. This paper examines and compares in detail two silicon dry etching methods to optimize a new silicon etching process for successful EPyC manufacturing Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Multilayer Micromechanics Process with Thick Functional Layers (EPyC40)
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040296 - 17 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The EPyC process (Epi-Poly-Cycle) (by Robert Bosch GmbH) opens up unique opportunities for manufacturing complex 3D MEMS structures having high effectiveness in small space. EPyC40 is an EPyC process with up to 40 μm thick polysilicon layers and sacrificial silicon technique. For successful [...] Read more.
The EPyC process (Epi-Poly-Cycle) (by Robert Bosch GmbH) opens up unique opportunities for manufacturing complex 3D MEMS structures having high effectiveness in small space. EPyC40 is an EPyC process with up to 40 μm thick polysilicon layers and sacrificial silicon technique. For successful manufacturing a 40 μm EPyC the epitaxial polysilicon layer must be electrically and mechanically optimized. A vertical deep trench patterns the functional and sacrificial areas. A passivation must be deposited homogeneously and has to be tight and robust towards silicon-etching gases. For more than one cycle it is necessary to tailor the layer stress of the epitaxial polysilicon and the wafer-bow. The full process for stacking up 5 EPyC cycles with two 40 μm epitaxial polysilicon layers was investigated in detail. A true 3D MEMS device providing high z deflection by use of a vertical comb drive with 40 μm electrodes was built up successfully to prove the feasibility of the EPyC process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Porous Silicon Carbide for MEMS
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040297 - 30 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Metal assisted photochemical etching (MAPCE) of 4H Silicon Carbide (SiC) was utilized to generate locally defined porous areas on single crystalline substrates. Therefore, Platinum (Pt) was sputter deposited on 4H-SiC substrates and patterned with photolithography and lift off. Etching was performed by immersing [...] Read more.
Metal assisted photochemical etching (MAPCE) of 4H Silicon Carbide (SiC) was utilized to generate locally defined porous areas on single crystalline substrates. Therefore, Platinum (Pt) was sputter deposited on 4H-SiC substrates and patterned with photolithography and lift off. Etching was performed by immersing the Pt coated samples into an etching solution containing sodium persulphate and hydrofluoric acid. UV light irradiation was necessary for charge carrier generation while the Pt served as local cathode. The generated porous areas can be used for the generation of integrated cavities in the single crystalline SiC substrates when covered with a chemical vapor deposited thin film of poly-crystalline SiC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Integration of Silica Aerogels in Microfluidic Chips
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040298 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
This paper reports a method to integrate silica aerogels monolithically in microfluidic chips. Silica Aerogel is a highly porous bulk material. The gel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate by a sol-gel process. Polyethylene glycol and an extended aging period were used to strengthen [...] Read more.
This paper reports a method to integrate silica aerogels monolithically in microfluidic chips. Silica Aerogel is a highly porous bulk material. The gel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate by a sol-gel process. Polyethylene glycol and an extended aging period were used to strengthen the matrix minimizing gel shrinkage. This technique allows alcogel structures with high strength and stiffness that withstand high pressure during the subcritical drying process. Hexamethyldisilazane provides for hydrophobizing and prevents the formation of siloxane bonds during the drying process. The resulting transparent aerogels reach porosities of 85%, pore diameters around 50 nm and contact angles of 136°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Simple Method to Allow Parylene-C Coatings on Gold Substrates
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040299 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Parylene-C, a biocompatible coating material, does not adhere well to metals. This is problematic especially for biomedical devices containing gold structures. In this contribution, we present a simple method to adhere Parylene-C to gold-coated substrates based on thiol-based adhesion promoters. The effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Parylene-C, a biocompatible coating material, does not adhere well to metals. This is problematic especially for biomedical devices containing gold structures. In this contribution, we present a simple method to adhere Parylene-C to gold-coated substrates based on thiol-based adhesion promoters. The effectiveness of the adhesion promoters has been demonstrated by pull-tests on autoclaved Parylene-C coated gold-substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Driving and Sensing M/NEMS Flexural Vibration Using Dielectric Transduction
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040300 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 742
Abstract
We show that nanometer-scale dielectric thin films can act as efficient electromechanical transducers to simultaneously drive and sense the vibration of the first flexural mode of micro/nano-cantilevers. Here, 16 μm-long, 5 μm-wide and 350 nm-thick cantilevers are actuated by a 15 nm-thick silicon [...] Read more.
We show that nanometer-scale dielectric thin films can act as efficient electromechanical transducers to simultaneously drive and sense the vibration of the first flexural mode of micro/nano-cantilevers. Here, 16 μm-long, 5 μm-wide and 350 nm-thick cantilevers are actuated by a 15 nm-thick silicon nitride layer, and electrically detected by charge measurement at megahertz frequencies. The displacement was also checked by optical interferometry, and the electromechanical transduction efficiency is extracted and compared to an analytical modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Electrostatically Actuated Membranes of Cross-Linked Gold Nanoparticles: Novel Concepts for Electromechanical Gas Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040301 - 29 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
We report the preparation of freestanding membranes of cross-linked gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and demonstrate their application as electromechanical sensors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). First, we show that the fundamental vibrational mode frequency of electrostatically excited GNP-membranes shifts significantly when exposing them to [...] Read more.
We report the preparation of freestanding membranes of cross-linked gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and demonstrate their application as electromechanical sensors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). First, we show that the fundamental vibrational mode frequency of electrostatically excited GNP-membranes shifts significantly when exposing them to solvent vapors. We attribute this effect mainly to the reduction of the membranes’ pre-stress. Second, the relief in pre-stress upon analyte sorption can also be detected via quasi-static actuation of the membranes. In this case, the increase of the deflection amplitudes at constant bias voltages can be measured as the sensor signal and correlated to the analyte’s concentration. Additionally, we propose a facile route to the fabrication of such hybrid MEMS/NEMS sensors using layer-by-layer spin-coating and contact printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Microfabrication of Embedding a Flexible Parylene-Based Microelectrode Array within Body-on-a-Chip
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040302 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
To study drug response on human heart cells and predict drug induced cardiotoxicity, a microfluidic cell culture device with an integrated microelectrode array (MEA) is a promising approach. Here we integrate flexible MEA into microengineered and microfluidic in vitro human models, known as [...] Read more.
To study drug response on human heart cells and predict drug induced cardiotoxicity, a microfluidic cell culture device with an integrated microelectrode array (MEA) is a promising approach. Here we integrate flexible MEA into microengineered and microfluidic in vitro human models, known as “Body-on-a-Chip”, during its fabrication. In this work, Au electrodes are covered by two layers of parylene C films, and then embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, resulting in an easy-to-integrate process and compatible with soft-lithography. For a proof of fabrication concept, the impedance of individual electrode-electrolyte interfaces are measured to show a potential for network electrophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Cu Thin Film Polyimide Heater for Nerve-Net Tactile Sensor
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040303 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
Tactile sensing is required for assistant robots. A new stacked sensor head was proposed which detects forces and thermal sensations with a nerve-net LSI chip. To measure temperatures and heat flows, the sensor head required a thin and small heater to heat up [...] Read more.
Tactile sensing is required for assistant robots. A new stacked sensor head was proposed which detects forces and thermal sensations with a nerve-net LSI chip. To measure temperatures and heat flows, the sensor head required a thin and small heater to heat up the sensor head. The features of the polyimide heater are compact, low heat capacity, low power consumption and ease of attaching it to the LSI chip. The polyimide heater consisted of Au 10 nm/Cu 200 nm/Cr 20 nm thickness layers on a polyimide film. The surface of the sensor head heated up to 60 °C by the polyimide heater with 0.3 W. By the Cu thin film polyimide heater, the small stacked sensor head with the nerve-net LSI chip is enable to detect forces, temperatures, and heat flows, simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Fabrication of Sharp Tip-Separable Microneedle Device for Trans-Dermal Drug Delivery Systems
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040304 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
An alignment mechanism for producing a sharp tip-separable microneedle device for trans-dermal drug delivery systems has been developed. The needle and base parts were placed on a mechanical precision motion stage to align their central axes. The overlapping region between them in the [...] Read more.
An alignment mechanism for producing a sharp tip-separable microneedle device for trans-dermal drug delivery systems has been developed. The needle and base parts were placed on a mechanical precision motion stage to align their central axes. The overlapping region between them in the height direction was controlled by inserting a thickness gauge between them. A 400-μm-high sharp tip-separable microneedle device was successfully produced by using the developed alignment mechanism with an accuracy of less than 19 μm. We also demonstrated that it can be used to produce an arrayed tip-separable microneedle device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Scandium Aluminium Nitride-Based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040305 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR) are promising candidates to replace surface acoustic wave devices as filters or delay lines, but also offer exciting opportunities as biological or gas sensors. In this work, solidly mounted FBARs were manufactured by substituting commonly used pure aluminium [...] Read more.
Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR) are promising candidates to replace surface acoustic wave devices as filters or delay lines, but also offer exciting opportunities as biological or gas sensors. In this work, solidly mounted FBARs were manufactured by substituting commonly used pure aluminium nitride (AlN) by scandium doped aluminium nitride (ScAlN) thin films as the piezoelectric layer. The ScAlN-based resonators feature a significant improvement of the electromechanical coupling factor from ~3% to ~12% compared to the pure AlN, while the decreased stiffness of ScAlN results in a decrease of the quality factor from ~300 to ~100 due to increased damping losses in the piezoelectric material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Segmented Control of Electrostatically Actuated Bimorph Beams
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040306 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 749
Abstract
This research focused on improving the control and sensing of electrostatically actuated, large deflection bimorph beams for optical beam steering. Current iterations of designs utilize a ‘zipper’ beam and have demonstrated large deflection angles. However, with these devices precise control and deflection measurements [...] Read more.
This research focused on improving the control and sensing of electrostatically actuated, large deflection bimorph beams for optical beam steering. Current iterations of designs utilize a ‘zipper’ beam and have demonstrated large deflection angles. However, with these devices precise control and deflection measurements can be difficult to achieve. Through using segmented bias channels of doped polysilicon, modeling shows it is possible to control and measure different segments of the actuation arm, thus controlling the amount of tip, tilt, or piston deflection. This paper discusses current and future designs, along with test procedures and modeling results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Novel Method for Adhesion between PI-PDMS Using Butyl Rubber for Large Area Flexible Body Patches
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040307 - 07 Aug 2017
Viewed by 895
Abstract
This paper reports the use of rubber—Polybutadiene as an intermediate adhesive layer for improving the adhesion between polyimide (PI) and silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which is required for a reliable fabrication of flexible/stretchable body patches for various applications. The adhesive bond initiated by the [...] Read more.
This paper reports the use of rubber—Polybutadiene as an intermediate adhesive layer for improving the adhesion between polyimide (PI) and silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which is required for a reliable fabrication of flexible/stretchable body patches for various applications. The adhesive bond initiated by the butyl rubber (BR), apart from being extremely strong, is also chemically resistant and mechanically stable as compared to the state of the art processes of improving adhesion between PI and Silicone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Incorporation of ZnO Nanostructures in MIS Architecture through Chemical Routes
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040308 - 18 Aug 2017
Viewed by 981
Abstract
Because it’s physical properties, ZnO is considered a potential semiconductor compound for fabricating electronic and optoelectronic functional devices. In this regard, several growth techniques have been developed in order to meet the requirements of commercial devices based in this material. On the pathway [...] Read more.
Because it’s physical properties, ZnO is considered a potential semiconductor compound for fabricating electronic and optoelectronic functional devices. In this regard, several growth techniques have been developed in order to meet the requirements of commercial devices based in this material. On the pathway for improving the performance of the current devices, low-dimensional ZnO structures seem a promising alternative. Here, we report the process to obtain a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure based on ZnO nanostructures grown on the surface of an anodized aluminum substrate (Al2O3/Al) by chemical routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Nanofabrication of Vertically Aligned 3D GaN Nanowire Arrays with Sub-50 nm Feature Sizes Using Nanosphere Lift-off Lithography
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040309 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Vertically aligned 3D gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire arrays with sub-50 nm feature sizes were fabricated using a nanosphere lift-off lithography (NSLL) technique combined with hybrid top-down etching steps (i.e., inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching (ICP-DRIE) and wet chemical etching). Owing to [...] Read more.
Vertically aligned 3D gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire arrays with sub-50 nm feature sizes were fabricated using a nanosphere lift-off lithography (NSLL) technique combined with hybrid top-down etching steps (i.e., inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching (ICP-DRIE) and wet chemical etching). Owing to the well-controlled chemical surface treatment prior to the nanobead deposition and etching process, vertical GaN nanowire arrays with diameter of ~35 nm, pitch of ~350 nm, and aspect ratio of >10 could be realized using 500 nm polystyrene nanobead (PN) masks. This work has demonstrated a feasibility of using NSLL as an alternative for other sophisticated but expensive nanolithography methods to manufacture low-cost but highly ordered 3D GaN nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Thermal Stability of Micro-Structured PDMS Piezo-Electrets under Various Polymeric Reticulation Ratios for Sensor Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040310 - 21 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
The effect of the polymeric reticulation on the thermal stability of the piezoelectricity of a micro-structured PDMS piezo-electret was investigated. This new family of flexible piezoelectric materials with very low Young’s modulus is used for wearable sensors and energy harvester devices. The best [...] Read more.
The effect of the polymeric reticulation on the thermal stability of the piezoelectricity of a micro-structured PDMS piezo-electret was investigated. This new family of flexible piezoelectric materials with very low Young’s modulus is used for wearable sensors and energy harvester devices. The best thermal stability was obtained for the piezo-electret material made from the ratio 1:10 between the prepolymer and the crosslinking agent with a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 350 pC/N. The highest piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 750 pC/N was obtained for the ratio 1:20, but the piezoelectricity was lost at 45 °C by thermally stimulated discharge Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Thermoelectric Measurement of a Single, TiO2-Catalyzed Bi2Te3 Nanowire
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040311 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
We report on the functionality of our Thermoelectric Nanowire Characterization Platform (TNCP). As a proof of concept of our design, we present a set of experimental results obtained from the characterization of a single Bi2Te3 nanowire, allowing for the determination [...] Read more.
We report on the functionality of our Thermoelectric Nanowire Characterization Platform (TNCP). As a proof of concept of our design, we present a set of experimental results obtained from the characterization of a single Bi2Te3 nanowire, allowing for the determination of the nanowire’s electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
On the Development of Label-Free DNA Sensor Using Silicon Nanonet Field-Effect Transistors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040312 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
In this paper, the process and electrical characteristics of DNA sensor devices based on silicon nanonet (SiNN) field-effect transistors are reported. The SiNN, another name of randomly oriented Si nanowires network, was successfully integrated into transistor as p-type channel using standard microelectronic technology. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the process and electrical characteristics of DNA sensor devices based on silicon nanonet (SiNN) field-effect transistors are reported. The SiNN, another name of randomly oriented Si nanowires network, was successfully integrated into transistor as p-type channel using standard microelectronic technology. The SiNN-based transistors exhibit a high initial ON-state current (5.10−8 A) and homogeneous electrical characteristics. For DNA detection, a new and eco-friendly functionalization process based on glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPS) was performed which enables the covalent grafting of DNA probes on SiNN. This hybridization leads to a significant decrease of ON-state current of device. Additionally, it is observed that SiNN devices reveal reproductive current response to DNA detection. We demonstrate, for the first time, the successful integration of SiNN into sensor for electrical label-free DNA detection at low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Particle Separation with Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD): The Anisotropy Effect
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040313 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a passive and label-free microfluidic separation technique with a strong potential for biological sample preparation purposes. Numerical and experimental models have been proposed so far to predict the particle behavior in DLD channels. However, they do not take [...] Read more.
Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a passive and label-free microfluidic separation technique with a strong potential for biological sample preparation purposes. Numerical and experimental models have been proposed so far to predict the particle behavior in DLD channels. However, they do not take into account the influence of the pillar anisotropy that induces a secondary pressure gradient in the direction perpendicular to the main flow. The influence of the pillar geometry on the anisotropy magnitude is presented. We show that anisotropy impacts the trajectory of particles in DLD devices and should be included in predictive models for the critical diameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Ionogel—Based Composite Material for CO2 Sensing Deposited on a Chemiresistive Transducer
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040314 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
A novel miniaturized carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor based on an IDE transducer is described and characterized. The CO2 sensor based on different semiconducting metal oxide and ionogel composites films deposited by ink-jet printing. The sensor is operated as a simple [...] Read more.
A novel miniaturized carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor based on an IDE transducer is described and characterized. The CO2 sensor based on different semiconducting metal oxide and ionogel composites films deposited by ink-jet printing. The sensor is operated as a simple chemiresistor. The sensors were investigated under trace gas exposure (CO2, NO2, CO and humidity). The CO2 sensitivity is found to be exceptionally high and the sensing mechanism is supposed to be entirely different compared to those of the components of the composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Protuberant Electrode Structures for New Retinal Implants
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040315 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Focal stimulation of neural tissue is a challenge in retinal prosthetic devices in which the aim is to improve the spatial resolution of the stimulation and therefore increase the electrode density of the prosthetic devices. Our work intends to create a new implant [...] Read more.
Focal stimulation of neural tissue is a challenge in retinal prosthetic devices in which the aim is to improve the spatial resolution of the stimulation and therefore increase the electrode density of the prosthetic devices. Our work intends to create a new implant able to enhance the focalisation of the stimulation signal through protuberant electrodes. These electrodes are micro fabricated on a soft polyimide substrate using classical metal electrodeposition techniques. Before proceeding with fabrication a FEM model of the electrode’s current density was done to select the best-performing structures and geometries in terms of local stimulation. Based on these models, several prototypes were fabricated and implanted in vivo into a rat’s eye to verify the adaptation to the retina tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Aerosol Jet Printing of Miniaturized, Low Power Flexible Micro-Hotplates
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040316 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
We report on printed flexible micro-hotplates operating at high temperature at lower power consμmption than ever reported using aerosol jet printing of fine metallic conductor features. Efficient heating (i.e., 40 mW at 325 °C) was produced by reducing the effective heating area and [...] Read more.
We report on printed flexible micro-hotplates operating at high temperature at lower power consμmption than ever reported using aerosol jet printing of fine metallic conductor features. Efficient heating (i.e., 40 mW at 325 °C) was produced by reducing the effective heating area and substrates thickness. Gold (Au) nanoparticles solution was used for printing micro-hotplates of two different sizes, i.e., 500 × 500 μm2 and 300 × 300 μm2, on 50 μm- and 13 μm-thick PI substrates, respectively. Comsol simulations were used to optimize the thermal design of micro-hotplates. Their power consμmption at 325 °C was of 54 mW for the large hotplate and of 40 mW for the smaller design. These results validate the simple manufacturing of high temperature and power efficient flexible micro-hotplates for applications such as in portable gas and chemical sensors, thermal metrology, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Repeated Temperature and Humidity Stability of SERS-active Periodical Silver Nanostructure
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040317 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 703
Abstract
In this work the effect of physical aging on the plasmonic properties of surface plasmon-polariton supported silver grating was studied. As physical treatment the periodical variation of external temperature, humidity and their combination was applied. It was previously expected, that the physical aging [...] Read more.
In this work the effect of physical aging on the plasmonic properties of surface plasmon-polariton supported silver grating was studied. As physical treatment the periodical variation of external temperature, humidity and their combination was applied. It was previously expected, that the physical aging will results in the silver oxidation, redistribution, and potential worse of plasmonic properties. The oxidation processes were studied using the XPS technique, the changes of surface morphology were examined by AFM, and finally, the shift of plasmonic efficiency was checked using the SERS test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Layer by Layer Deposition of Colloidal SnO2 Nano Particles
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040318 - 22 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1467
Abstract
The gas sensing properties of functional metal oxide layers depend on multitude parameters, including vacancy concentration, layer morphology and thickness, size and shape of the nano/microstructure, and porosity. Using colloidal tin oxide inks we demonstrate a layer by layer deposition technique to control [...] Read more.
The gas sensing properties of functional metal oxide layers depend on multitude parameters, including vacancy concentration, layer morphology and thickness, size and shape of the nano/microstructure, and porosity. Using colloidal tin oxide inks we demonstrate a layer by layer deposition technique to control the thickness and composition of gas sensitive layers. To do this we combine inkjet-printing with colloidal suspensions of SnO2 particles to provide a scalable method to interface microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with nano particles. The approach may pave the way towards an industry ready integration technique to incorporate gas sensitive quantum dots or hybrid nanomaterials in arbitrary sensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Near Infrared Plasmonic Gas Sensing with Doped Metal Oxide Nanocrystals
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040319 - 05 Sep 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the application of ZnO doped with gallium (GZO), aluminum (AZO) and germanium (GeZO) nanocrystals as novel plasmonic and chemiresistive sensors for the detection of hazardous gases including hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). GZO, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate the application of ZnO doped with gallium (GZO), aluminum (AZO) and germanium (GeZO) nanocrystals as novel plasmonic and chemiresistive sensors for the detection of hazardous gases including hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). GZO, AZO and GeZO nanocrystals are obtained by non-aqueous colloidal heat-up synthesis with high transparency in the visible range and strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the near IR range, tunable with dopant concentration (up to 20% mol nominal). Thanks to the strong sensitivity of the LSPR to chemical and electrical changes occurring at the surface of the nanocrystals, such optical features can be used to detect the presence of toxic gases. By monitoring the changes in the dopant-induced plasmon resonance in the near infrared, we demonstrate that GZO, AZO and GeZO thin films prepared depositing an assembly of highly doped ZnO colloids are able to optically detect both oxidizing and reducing gases at mild (<100 °C) operating temperatures. Combined optical and electrical measurements show that the dopants within ZnO nanocrystals enhance the gas sensing response compared to undoped ZnO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Optical and Morphological Analysis of c-Si/PSi and c-Si/PSi/MWCNT/SiOx Heterostructures
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040320 - 09 Aug 2017
Viewed by 802
Abstract
In the present work, the optical and morphological properties of Porous Silicon (PSi) in the c-Si-n/PSi and c-Si-n/SiP-n/MWCNT/SiOx structures are studied and analyzed. The PSi layer is grown on n-type c-Si (<0.005 Ω·cm <100>) by electrochemical anodization using different currents as: 10, [...] Read more.
In the present work, the optical and morphological properties of Porous Silicon (PSi) in the c-Si-n/PSi and c-Si-n/SiP-n/MWCNT/SiOx structures are studied and analyzed. The PSi layer is grown on n-type c-Si (<0.005 Ω·cm <100>) by electrochemical anodization using different currents as: 10, 50 and 100 mA. The etching solution used was C2H6O:HF:C3H8O3 in a proportion of 6:3:1 by volume, respectively. The deposition of multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the PSi was done by spin coating, and later the surface was passivated by thermal oxidation. The porosity and thickness were obtained by gravimetry. UV-VIS spectroscopy and photoluminescence were used to obtain the optical properties and SEM was used to analyze the morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Gas Sensors Based on Individual (Ga, In)2O3 Nanowires
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040321 - 21 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1382
Abstract
In this work the growth and characterisation of (Ga, In)2O3 NWs inside a CVD furnace using different mixtures of Ga2O3 and In2O3 is reported. The NWs have been characterised by SEM, XRD and TEM, [...] Read more.
In this work the growth and characterisation of (Ga, In)2O3 NWs inside a CVD furnace using different mixtures of Ga2O3 and In2O3 is reported. The NWs have been characterised by SEM, XRD and TEM, proving their cubic crystalline nature similar to In2O3 and the degree of incorporation of Ga in this lattice. Furthermore, gas nanosensors based on single NWs have been fabricated and measured, demonstrating the sensing properties of the synthesized material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Eni Carbon Silicates: Innovative Hybrid Materials for Room-Temperature Gas Sensing
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040322 - 30 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to satisfy both materials and technological sciences, on the one hand implementing innovative hybrid materials referred to as ECS (Eni Carbon Silicate) in gas sensors manufacturing, and on the other hand verifying their possible operation at room [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to satisfy both materials and technological sciences, on the one hand implementing innovative hybrid materials referred to as ECS (Eni Carbon Silicate) in gas sensors manufacturing, and on the other hand verifying their possible operation at room temperature as a technological progress. The ECS-14 and ECS-13 phases were employed as functional materials for films deposited by drop coating onto alumina substrates. Room-temperature gas tests were performed to study their potential sensing properties. In humidity conditions, the ECS-14 based sensor showed outstanding performance and a complete calibration vs. moisture concentration was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Laser Interferometry for Broad Area SPR-Grating Couplers in Chemical Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040323 - 28 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
In this work, the fabrication of a SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance)-grating coupler using Laser Interference Lithography (LIL) has been investigated, giving rise to large area diffraction gratings on a 100 nm-thick gold film. The period of the diffraction grating is Λ = 500 [...] Read more.
In this work, the fabrication of a SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance)-grating coupler using Laser Interference Lithography (LIL) has been investigated, giving rise to large area diffraction gratings on a 100 nm-thick gold film. The period of the diffraction grating is Λ = 500 nm. The SPR sensor has been tested towards several liquids showing a maximum sensitivity of S = 390 nm/RIU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
MEMS Sensors Based on Very Thin LTCC
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040324 - 16 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
The application of thin LTCC is a very interesting and promising approach to the fabrication of ceramic MEMS gas sensors. The attempts to use this material were restricted till now by the thickness of commercial material (>50 μm). In this work, we found [...] Read more.
The application of thin LTCC is a very interesting and promising approach to the fabrication of ceramic MEMS gas sensors. The attempts to use this material were restricted till now by the thickness of commercial material (>50 μm). In this work, we found a possibility to fabricate thin LTCC membranes (20–30 μm) stretched on a frame made of 100 μm thick LTCC. Aerosol jet printed Pt microheater and laser cutting of the membrane gave a cantilever shaped microhotplate with hot spot of about 300 × 300 μm. Power consumption of the heater is ~150 mW at 450 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
DNA-Origami-Aided Lithography for Sub-10 Nanometer Pattern Printing
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040325 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6959
Abstract
We report the first DNA-based origami technique that can print addressable patterns on surfaces with sub-10 nm resolution. Specifically, we have used a two-dimensional DNA origami as a template (DNA origami stamp) to transfer DNA with pre-programmed patterns (DNA ink) on gold surfaces. [...] Read more.
We report the first DNA-based origami technique that can print addressable patterns on surfaces with sub-10 nm resolution. Specifically, we have used a two-dimensional DNA origami as a template (DNA origami stamp) to transfer DNA with pre-programmed patterns (DNA ink) on gold surfaces. The DNA ink is composed of thiol-modified staple strands incorporated at specific positions of the DNA origami stamp to create patterns upon thiol-gold bond formation on the surface (DNA ink). The DNA pattern formed is composed of unique oligonucleotide sequences, each of which is individually addressable. As a proof-of-concept, we created a linear pattern of oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles complementary to the DNA ink pattern. We have developed an in silico model to identify key elements in the formation of our DNA origami-driven lithography and nanoparticle patterning as well as simulate more complex nanoparticle patterns on surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Fabrication of Hybrid Microfluidic System on Transparent Substrates for Electrochemical Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040326 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 672
Abstract
In this work the critical aspects of the process sequence developed for fabrication of hybrid polymer microfluidic systems integrating metal electrode pattern and precisely aligned microfluidic structure are discussed in details. Glass and polycarbonate were considered as primary transparent substrate materials for metal [...] Read more.
In this work the critical aspects of the process sequence developed for fabrication of hybrid polymer microfluidic systems integrating metal electrode pattern and precisely aligned microfluidic structure are discussed in details. Glass and polycarbonate were considered as primary transparent substrate materials for metal (Au, Pt) electrode deposition and the microchannels were formed in multi-layered SU-8 negative photoresist. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layer was proposed as cover layer to ensure proper sealing and sample inlet formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Characterization and Ammonia Sensing Properties of 2D SnS2/SnO2−x Flakes-Based Films
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040327 - 09 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Hybrid SnS2-SnO2−x flaked nanostructures were obtained from 2D-SnS2 flakes deposited as a thin sensing film onto a conductometric transducing platform and annealed in air. The formation of 2D-SnS2/SnO2−x mixed phases and the materials morphologies were investigated [...] Read more.
Hybrid SnS2-SnO2−x flaked nanostructures were obtained from 2D-SnS2 flakes deposited as a thin sensing film onto a conductometric transducing platform and annealed in air. The formation of 2D-SnS2/SnO2−x mixed phases and the materials morphologies were investigated by in situ Micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX analysis. As annealing temperature of the sensitive film increases, the response towards ammonia increases showing a maximum at 250 °C. This behavior can be explained on the basis of the morphological modification and the formation of mixed phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Fabrication Tolerance Sensitivity in Large-Area Mid-Infrared Metamaterial Absorbers
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040328 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Metamaterial absorbers are photonic structures composed of an array of sub-wavelength metallic patterns. Results in literature are usually based on structures of nominal dimensions, despite the significant effect of fabrication tolerances on performance. This research aims to identify the main sources of uncertainty [...] Read more.
Metamaterial absorbers are photonic structures composed of an array of sub-wavelength metallic patterns. Results in literature are usually based on structures of nominal dimensions, despite the significant effect of fabrication tolerances on performance. This research aims to identify the main sources of uncertainty and to investigate their effect, notably that of an irregular surface quality (i.e., roughness) of the thin metallic layer and the lithography related variations in size and shape. The effect of the shape and positioning of the resonance peak was investigated and validated using mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers. This sensitivity analysis is essential to the batch fabrication of metamaterial absorbers for MEMS applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Novell Hall Magnetometer Using Dynamic Offset Cancellation
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040329 - 09 Aug 2017
Viewed by 987
Abstract
A novel Hall magnetometer using dynamic offset cancellation principle is presented. It consists from a single triangular silicon plate with three contacts and interface electronics. The proposed dynamic offset-cancelling measurement cycle includes three states. During each state, an external circuit is switched to [...] Read more.
A novel Hall magnetometer using dynamic offset cancellation principle is presented. It consists from a single triangular silicon plate with three contacts and interface electronics. The proposed dynamic offset-cancelling measurement cycle includes three states. During each state, an external circuit is switched to the plate contacts in a certain way. This way, the direction of current flow through the Hall plate is changed from phase to phase. At the same time, the output voltage is measured. After averaging the obtained three voltages per a measurement cycle, the offset voltage cancelled and this way the offset-free Hall voltage is obtained. The obtained offset reduction factor is very promising, reaching 120–130. The Hall device sensitivity is about 25 V/AT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Angle Measurement and 3D Magnetic Field Sensing Using Circular Hall Microsensor
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040330 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 768
Abstract
A new three-axis magnetometer for both 3-D magnetic field sensing and contactless in-plane 360° absolute angle encoding has been developed. The magnetometer is based on the Hall effect and consists of a circular in-plane sensitive CMOS Hall-effect microsensor, biasing and signal conditioning circuits. [...] Read more.
A new three-axis magnetometer for both 3-D magnetic field sensing and contactless in-plane 360° absolute angle encoding has been developed. The magnetometer is based on the Hall effect and consists of a circular in-plane sensitive CMOS Hall-effect microsensor, biasing and signal conditioning circuits. The sensing device contains a narrow n-well ring with a chain of contacts positioned radial on the ring. The signal conditioning circuit gives two output analogue signals: a voltage Vz, proportional to the magnetic field component Bz, and a sine wave function Vxy(t). The magnitude of the in-plane magnetic field B(x,y) is directly proportional to the sine amplitude and the phase Ψ corresponds to the angle between the applied in-plane magnetic field and a reference direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Monitoring the Etching Process in LPFGs towards Development of Highly Sensitive Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040331 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
In this work, the monitoring of the etching process up to a diameter of 30 µm of two LPFG structures has been compared, one of them had initially 125 µm, whereas the second one had 80 µm. By tracking the wavelength shift of [...] Read more.
In this work, the monitoring of the etching process up to a diameter of 30 µm of two LPFG structures has been compared, one of them had initially 125 µm, whereas the second one had 80 µm. By tracking the wavelength shift of the resonance bands during the etching process it is possible to check the quality of etching process (the 80 µm fibre performs better than de 125 µm fibre), and to stop for a specific cladding mode coupling, which permits to obtain an improved sensitivity compared to the initial structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Absorption Based Characterization Method for Fluid Properties Using Electrowetting-on-Dielectric Forces: Modeling and Fabrication
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040332 - 11 Aug 2017
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Electrowetting-on-Dielectrics (EWOD) can be used to build a device, where a polar fluid droplet gets actuated between two EWOD electrodes. In our setup, each electrode is located between a laser diode and an oppositely arranged photo diode. In that manner, the presence of [...] Read more.
Electrowetting-on-Dielectrics (EWOD) can be used to build a device, where a polar fluid droplet gets actuated between two EWOD electrodes. In our setup, each electrode is located between a laser diode and an oppositely arranged photo diode. In that manner, the presence of a fluid droplet located above one certain electrode can be optically detected by means of this transmission setup. The droplet’s viscosity dependent switching time, i.e., the time it takes to move the droplet between these two electrodes can be obtained by a time difference measurement of both transmission signals. CFD simulations of the switching time, which depends on the droplet’s viscosity, and furthermore absorption simulations according to the Beer Lambert law have been carried out with DI water as a sample fluid. A low-cost and rapid fabrication method of the so called absorption EWOD (aEWOD) switch is reported and the fabricated EWOD stack is characterized with the aid of surface profilometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Etched and Nanocoated SMS Fiber Sensor for Detection of Salinity Concentration
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040333 - 25 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
An optical fibre refractometer has been developed by etching and deposition of a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) on a single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) fibre structure. The interference between modes in this structure is sensitive to the refractive index changes of the surrounding [...] Read more.
An optical fibre refractometer has been developed by etching and deposition of a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) on a single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) fibre structure. The interference between modes in this structure is sensitive to the refractive index changes of the surrounding medium, achieving sensitivities of up to 7000 nm/RIU in the 1.333–1.338 RIU range. A salinity sensor has been implemented as a practical application of this proposed structure. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis and tracking of an interference dip were used to monitor the interference between modes obtaining sensitivities of 0.99 nm/PSU and 0.025 rad/PSU, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Low-Power Heating Platform for the Characterization and Calibration of Scanning Thermal Probes
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040334 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 842
Abstract
We report on a micro-hotplate technology platform optimized for the calibration of Scanning Thermal Microscopy probes (SThM) used in surface temperature measurement mode. The three chips designed include the same heating area with a calibration area of 10 × 10 µm2 where [...] Read more.
We report on a micro-hotplate technology platform optimized for the calibration of Scanning Thermal Microscopy probes (SThM) used in surface temperature measurement mode. The three chips designed include the same heating area with a calibration area of 10 × 10 µm2 where the SThM probes can land. The 1st design allows to study the influence of the nature of the material on the SThM probes thermal contact resistance. The 2nd design includes a resistive temperature sensor (RTD) integrated on the contact area, which is dedicated to evaluate the capability of a probe to measure a surface temperature. The 3rd design has a contact area made of a suspended platinum membrane for coupling SThM probes with optical thermal measurements. The thermal response of a thermocouple (TC) SThM probe was extracted demonstrating the relevance of these chips for SThM probes characterization and calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Direct Piezoelectric Coefficient Measurements of PVDF and PLLA under Controlled Strain and Stress
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040335 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Open-circuit direct piezoelectric coefficients g31 of bi-axially stretched PVDF and chiral PLLA are reported. This measure is decisive for sensor, generator and energy harvesting applications. We use an in-situ method with contactless voltage measurement during a conventional tensile-test, greatly improving measurement precision [...] Read more.
Open-circuit direct piezoelectric coefficients g31 of bi-axially stretched PVDF and chiral PLLA are reported. This measure is decisive for sensor, generator and energy harvesting applications. We use an in-situ method with contactless voltage measurement during a conventional tensile-test, greatly improving measurement precision (error less than 10%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Transparent Glass/SU8-Based Microfluidic Device with on-Channel Electrical Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040336 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
This paper presents a transparent microfluidic chip designed for continuous-flow photochemistry applications with integrated electrical sensing. The transparent chip design allows for microscale photochemistry, and permits direct, real-time visual/electrical observation. The microchip uses optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes for reagent and [...] Read more.
This paper presents a transparent microfluidic chip designed for continuous-flow photochemistry applications with integrated electrical sensing. The transparent chip design allows for microscale photochemistry, and permits direct, real-time visual/electrical observation. The microchip uses optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes for reagent and phase tracking. High-speed videography was performed to validate the electrical measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Monolithic Three-Axis Accelerometer with Wafer-Level Package by CMOS MEMS Process
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040337 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
This paper presents a monolithic three-axis accelerometer with wafer-level package by CMOS MEMS process. The compositions of the microstructure are selected from CMOS layers in order to suppress the in-plane and out-of-plane bending deflection caused by the residual stresses in multiple layers. A [...] Read more.
This paper presents a monolithic three-axis accelerometer with wafer-level package by CMOS MEMS process. The compositions of the microstructure are selected from CMOS layers in order to suppress the in-plane and out-of-plane bending deflection caused by the residual stresses in multiple layers. A switched-capacitor sensing circuit with a trimming mechanism is used to amplify the capacitive signal, and decrease the output dc offset voltage to ensure the desired output voltage swing. The CMOS MEMS wafer is capped with a silicon wafer using a polymer-based material. The measured sensitivities with and without a wafer-level package range from 113 mV/G to 124 mV/G for the in-plane (x-axis, y-axis) accelerometer, and from 50 mV/G to 53 mV/G for the z-axis accelerometer, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Linear-Logarithmic CMOS Image Sensor with Reduced FPN Using Photogate and Cascode MOSFET
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040338 - 18 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
We propose a linear-logarithmic CMOS image sensor with reduced fixed pattern noise (FPN). The proposed linear-logarithmic pixel based on a conventional 3-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) structure has additional circuits in which a photogate and a cascade MOSFET are integrated with the pixel [...] Read more.
We propose a linear-logarithmic CMOS image sensor with reduced fixed pattern noise (FPN). The proposed linear-logarithmic pixel based on a conventional 3-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) structure has additional circuits in which a photogate and a cascade MOSFET are integrated with the pixel structure in conjunction with the photodiode. To improve FPN, we applied the PMOSFET hard reset method as a reset transistor instead of NMOSFET reset normally used in APS. The proposed pixel has been designed and fabricated using 0.18-μm 1-poly 6-metal standard CMOS process. A 120 × 240 pixel array of test chip was divided into 2 different subsections with 60 × 240 sub-arrays, so that the proposed linear-logarithmic pixel with reduced FPN could be compared with the conventional linear-logarithmic pixel. We confirmed a reduction of pixel response variation which affected image quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Resin Flow Monitoring in Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Composite
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040339 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Using piezoresistive pressure sensors and in-situ measurement of pressure gradient, the infusion of resin in fiber reinforced composite can be optimized. The optimization of resin flow in Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI) is necessary to produce high-quality fibre-reinforced composites. To control the resin [...] Read more.
Using piezoresistive pressure sensors and in-situ measurement of pressure gradient, the infusion of resin in fiber reinforced composite can be optimized. The optimization of resin flow in Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI) is necessary to produce high-quality fibre-reinforced composites. To control the resin infusion process, piezoresistive pressure sensors are embedded to detect the resin flow and resin pressure in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). The measured pressure validates the accuracy of analytical calculations, based on Darcy’s law in a porous medium. The sensors are of small size and therefore do not affect the natural flow of the resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Combined Temperature and Stress Sensor in 0.18 μm CMOS Technology
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040340 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1334
Abstract
This paper presents a solution for on-chip temperature and mechanical stress measurement in CMOS integrated circuits. Thereby both temperature and stress sensors are realized as resistive Wheatstone bridges. By design, both sensors show outputs affected by non-linearities and parasitic cross-sensitivities. The novelty presented [...] Read more.
This paper presents a solution for on-chip temperature and mechanical stress measurement in CMOS integrated circuits. Thereby both temperature and stress sensors are realized as resistive Wheatstone bridges. By design, both sensors show outputs affected by non-linearities and parasitic cross-sensitivities. The novelty presented in this work is to combine both non-ideal sensor outputs by applying a two-dimensional Newton-Raphson method to extract the actual values of temperature and mechanical stress which were obtained with errors of less than 0.5 K and 0.5 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Harsh Environmental Surface Acoustic Wave Temperature Sensor Based on Pure and Scandium doped Aluminum Nitride on Sapphire
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040341 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as low power MEMS temperature sensors using reactive sputter deposited aluminum nitride (AlN) and scandium doped aluminum nitride (AlScN) as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates. In detail, devices with a wavelength of [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as low power MEMS temperature sensors using reactive sputter deposited aluminum nitride (AlN) and scandium doped aluminum nitride (AlScN) as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates. In detail, devices with a wavelength of 16 μm are fabricated with both AlN and AlScN films having a resonance frequency at room temperature of ~354 MHz and ~349 MHz, respectively. The samples are placed in a furnace and measured in argon atmosphere up to 800 °C. The temperature dependency on the frequency shows for both materials a linear decrease up to the maximum measured temperature level resulting in constant temperature coefficients of −27.62 kHz/°C and −27.81 kHz/°C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
MEMS Capacitive Microphone with Dual-Anchored Membrane
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040342 - 09 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1146
Abstract
In this paper, we proposed a MEMS capacitive microphone with a dual-anchored membrane. The proposed dual anchor could minimize the deviation of operating characteristics of the membrane according to the fabrication process variation. The membrane is connected and fixed to the back plate [...] Read more.
In this paper, we proposed a MEMS capacitive microphone with a dual-anchored membrane. The proposed dual anchor could minimize the deviation of operating characteristics of the membrane according to the fabrication process variation. The membrane is connected and fixed to the back plate insulating silicon nitride structures instead to the sacrificial bottom insulating oxide layer so that its effective size and boundary conditions are not changed according to the process variation. The proposed dual-anchored MEMS microphone is fabricated by the conventional fabrication process without no additional process and mask. It has a sensing membrane of 500 μm diameter, an air gap of 2.0 μm and 12 dual anchors of 15 μm diameter. The resonant frequency and the pull-in voltage of the fabricated device is 36.3 ± 1.3 kHz and 6.55 ± 0.20 V, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
MEMS Inertial Switch for Military Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040343 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
We developed a MEMS inertial switch (hereafter, the switch) for an ignition system of missiles. The developed switch consists of four folded beams and a plate suspended by the beams, analogous to a well-known spring-mass system. The plate and four beams compose a [...] Read more.
We developed a MEMS inertial switch (hereafter, the switch) for an ignition system of missiles. The developed switch consists of four folded beams and a plate suspended by the beams, analogous to a well-known spring-mass system. The plate and four beams compose a single body, which is made from single crystalline silicon wafers by deep reactive ion etching techniques. This process gives high thermal stability and stress-free structure. The switching, either open or close a conductive path, is achieved by the movement of the plate suspended with four folded beams when the acceleration exceeds a predetermined threshold. With a spinning-rate table, the function of the switch was tested at various revolution speeds. The test results are compared with the calculation results by our analytical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
CMOS Technology Integrated Terahertz Rectifier
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040344 - 22 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
We present new developments of CMOS compatible direct conversion terahertz detector operating at room temperature. The rectenna consists of an integrated antenna, realized on the surface of the integrated circuit and connected to a nanometric metallic whisker at one of its edges. The [...] Read more.
We present new developments of CMOS compatible direct conversion terahertz detector operating at room temperature. The rectenna consists of an integrated antenna, realized on the surface of the integrated circuit and connected to a nanometric metallic whisker at one of its edges. The rectifying device can be obtained introducing just minor modifications of the charge storage well in conventional CMOS active pixel image sensor devices, making the proposed solution easy to integrate with existing imaging systems. In the paper we present technological developments of the rectifier structure, realized with minor changes from a standard 0.15 µm technology node. We also present the study of a patch antenna which can be directly integrated on the chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Cricket Inspired High Efficiency MEMS Speakers
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040345 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
We report on the realization of a biomimetic MEMS speaker inspired by field crickets. This speaker is at least five times thinner and four times more efficient than the current dynamic speakers used in portable electronics. We present results of the acoustic characterization [...] Read more.
We report on the realization of a biomimetic MEMS speaker inspired by field crickets. This speaker is at least five times thinner and four times more efficient than the current dynamic speakers used in portable electronics. We present results of the acoustic characterization of a single MEMS speaker. Computational extrapolation of the results suggests that an array of such thin speakers will be highly efficient compared to the existing speakers of equal area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Comb-Based Capacitive MEMS Microphone with High Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Modeling and Noise-Level Analysis
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040346 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1439
Abstract
We present a physics-based system-level model for optimizing a novel comb-based capacitive MEMS microphone towards high signal-to-noise ratios. The model includes non-linear coupling effects between the electrodes as well as the physical dependencies on relevant design parameters, thus enabling predictive statements w.r.t. the [...] Read more.
We present a physics-based system-level model for optimizing a novel comb-based capacitive MEMS microphone towards high signal-to-noise ratios. The model includes non-linear coupling effects between the electrodes as well as the physical dependencies on relevant design parameters, thus enabling predictive statements w.r.t. the device performance. It is calibrated and validated by finite element simulations and laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of first prototypes. Being formulated as a generalized Kirchhoffian network, it can be implemented in a standard circuit simulation tool. The predicted signal-to-noise ratio of this concept reaches up to 78 dB(A), which significantly exceeds state-of-the-art devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
1 Million-Q Optomechanical Microdisk Resonators with Very Large Scale Integration
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040347 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Cavity optomechanics have become a promising route towards the development of ultrasensitive sensors for a wide range of applications including mass, chemical and biological sensing. We demonstrate the potential of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) with state-of-the-art low-loss performance silicon optomechanical microdisks for [...] Read more.
Cavity optomechanics have become a promising route towards the development of ultrasensitive sensors for a wide range of applications including mass, chemical and biological sensing. We demonstrate the potential of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) with state-of-the-art low-loss performance silicon optomechanical microdisks for real-world applications. We report microdisks exhibiting optical Whispering Gallery Modes (WGM) with 1 million quality factors. These high-Q microdisks allow their Brownian motion to be resolved at few 100 MHz in ambient air. Such performance shows our VLSI process is a viable approach for the next generation of high-end sensors operating in vacuum, gas or liquid phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Characterization of Acoustic Sources by Optical Feedback Interferometry
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040348 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Sound can be described as the propagation of pressure variations in compressible media that involves compression and expansion and induces a change in the density of the medium. This change in acoustic pressure as it induces a change of the refractive index can [...] Read more.
Sound can be described as the propagation of pressure variations in compressible media that involves compression and expansion and induces a change in the density of the medium. This change in acoustic pressure as it induces a change of the refractive index can be measured by optical methods, the most recent being the optical feedback interferometry. With this technique, a laser diode is beaming on a reflective surface thus creating a cavity where the acoustic wave propagates. This paper presents anovel experimental technique to measure radiation pattern of acoustic sources based on optical feedback interferometry in a laser diode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis on Chattering Phenomena by the Tilt of the Proof Mass in MEMS Switch
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040349 - 29 Aug 2017
Viewed by 887
Abstract
This paper reports an analysis on the relationship between the tilt of the proof mass in MEMS switch and the chattering phenomena. Low-g MEMS acceleration switch developed by Kim’s group was modelled in 2D and displacements of each end of the proof mass [...] Read more.
This paper reports an analysis on the relationship between the tilt of the proof mass in MEMS switch and the chattering phenomena. Low-g MEMS acceleration switch developed by Kim’s group was modelled in 2D and displacements of each end of the proof mass were analysed using RK 4th method. Some elementary assumptions were made to ease the modelling and analysis. The chattering time of the MEMS switch gets longer as the tilt of the proof mass increases. The reason is that the elongated travel distance of one end of proof mass increases the impact velocity and lengthens the bouncing back time. From the results, we found that the chattering phenomena can last very long even if the tilt of the proof mass is very small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Torsional Moving Electric Field Sensor with Modulated Sensitivity and without Reference Ground
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040350 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
A MEMS electric field sensor is presented with wide measurement resolution and adjustable sensitivity. The sense membrane is mounted using torsional springs and employs opposite biased electrodes on its surface, causing rotation in presence of an electric field, enabling operation without reference ground. [...] Read more.
A MEMS electric field sensor is presented with wide measurement resolution and adjustable sensitivity. The sense membrane is mounted using torsional springs and employs opposite biased electrodes on its surface, causing rotation in presence of an electric field, enabling operation without reference ground. Control of electrode bias enables adjustable linear measurement range from V/m to MV/m. Compared to earlier works with vertical moving sense membranes, higher sensitivity is achieved for the same bias voltage. Employing on-board electronics to enable independent resonant operation, a noise limited resolution of 3 V/m was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Large Tilt Angle Lorentz Force Actuated Micro-Mirror with 3 DOF for Optical Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040351 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
A versatile MEMS micro-mirror for optical platforms is presented, that operates using Lorentz force for actuation, resulting in low voltage operation. While maintaining below 20 mA drive current, this mirror has a tilting angle of over 50° and 20° around two diagonal axes [...] Read more.
A versatile MEMS micro-mirror for optical platforms is presented, that operates using Lorentz force for actuation, resulting in low voltage operation. While maintaining below 20 mA drive current, this mirror has a tilting angle of over 50° and 20° around two diagonal axes and a linear motion of 1.5 mm in vertical axis. Compared to other works, it has larger angle of rotation and additional out of plane linear motion. The temperature rise on the mirror is kept bellow 25 °C to avoid thermal expansion of the support flexures and curvature of the mirror. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Steady-State and Transient Response of a Micromechanical Broadband Shoaling Amplifier
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040352 - 07 Sep 2017
Viewed by 951
Abstract
An in-plane MEMS broadband shoaling motion amplitude amplifier based on a coupled mass-spring system is presented. It is shown how the amplification amplitude can be traded for the operational bandwidth by design. Three devices with different numbers of masses (three, five and seven), [...] Read more.
An in-plane MEMS broadband shoaling motion amplitude amplifier based on a coupled mass-spring system is presented. It is shown how the amplification amplitude can be traded for the operational bandwidth by design. Three devices with different numbers of masses (three, five and seven), but all of them with the same total mass, were fabricated in silicon. The achieved baseline-amplification × bandwidth product ranges from 18.0 dB × 11.5 kHz for the seven mass device to 27.7 dB × 3.9 kHz for the three mass device. Transient recordings show amplification along the mass-spring-chain. The response time to reach the baseline amplification was found to be in the order of 10−4 s. This passive device can be used for ultra-low power structural and environmental monitoring (e.g., bridges, pipelines or rock-faces). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
An Electromagnetically-Driven Piezoresistively Sensed CMOS MEMS Scanning Mirror for Projection Display
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040353 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
Bi-axial MEMS scanning mirrors are considered the key component for applications like laser scanning projectors and Lidars. Most studies have shown fabricated devices driven by open-loop operation without sensing, making it difficult to meet the requirements for practical applications. To facilitate bi-axial closed-loop [...] Read more.
Bi-axial MEMS scanning mirrors are considered the key component for applications like laser scanning projectors and Lidars. Most studies have shown fabricated devices driven by open-loop operation without sensing, making it difficult to meet the requirements for practical applications. To facilitate bi-axial closed-loop operation, this work presents an electro magnetically-driven scanning mirror with piezoresistive sensing conveniently implemented in a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process. The measured resonant frequencies with respect to the slow and fast axes are 4.3 and 36.05 kHz, respectively, with the aim to provide SXGA display resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
High Gauge Factor Piezoresistors Using Aluminium Induced Crystallisation of Silicon at Low Thermal Budget
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040354 - 05 Sep 2017
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
This paper reports on polysilicon piezo-resistors that are fabricated at a low thermal budget using aluminium-induced-crystallization (AIC) of ultra-high-vacuum e-beam evaporated silicon films. By in-situ phosphorus doping of precursor amorphous silicon films e-beam evaporated at room temperature on aluminium layer, we are able [...] Read more.
This paper reports on polysilicon piezo-resistors that are fabricated at a low thermal budget using aluminium-induced-crystallization (AIC) of ultra-high-vacuum e-beam evaporated silicon films. By in-situ phosphorus doping of precursor amorphous silicon films e-beam evaporated at room temperature on aluminium layer, we are able to increase and control the gauge factor of the polysilicon films formed by AIC at 450 °C. Piezo-resistors made from the polysilicon films are integrated on microcantilever beams to measure their gauge factors. Gauge factors as high as 62 is obtained for 2 × 1018/cm3 phosphorus doping level in the precursor amorphous silicon film. The measured gauge factors are significantly higher than previously reported values for polysilicon films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Tuning the Anti-Phase Mode Sensitivity to Vibrations of a MEMS Gyroscope
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040355 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
This paper proposes a stiffness correction method to improve the resilience to vibration of a dual-mass MEMS gyroscope with a particular focus near the resonance frequency of the anti-phase drive mode (fDa), i.e., its operational mode. Because of its balanced [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a stiffness correction method to improve the resilience to vibration of a dual-mass MEMS gyroscope with a particular focus near the resonance frequency of the anti-phase drive mode (fDa), i.e., its operational mode. Because of its balanced shape, this operating mode is ideally insensitive to vibrations. However, fabrication imperfections generates a residual sensitivity to parasitic vibrations that can disturb normal operation of the sensor. This work shows that the application of a DC voltage (Vtr) at the drive actuation electrode enables to decrease this sensitivity by a factor of at least 30 because of the stiffness tuning of the dual-mass structure. Experiments are performed to confirm this assumption and an efficient stiffness correction method is proposed to improve device operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Development of Catheter Flow Sensor for Breathing Measurements at Different Levels of Tracheobronchial Airway
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040356 - 21 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
We attempted to develop different sized catheter flow sensors for evaluating breathing characteristics at different levels of the tracheobronchial airway in a lung system. Two catheter flow sensors with 1.8 and 3.5 mm outer diameters were designed for measuring breathing characteristics in bronchus- [...] Read more.
We attempted to develop different sized catheter flow sensors for evaluating breathing characteristics at different levels of the tracheobronchial airway in a lung system. Two catheter flow sensors with 1.8 and 3.5 mm outer diameters were designed for measuring breathing characteristics in bronchus- and bronchiole- regions in the lung system, respectively. They were fabricated by using photolithography and heat shrinkable tube packaging processes. We experimentally investigated the fundamental sensor characteristic and found that the sensor output depended on the mean flow velocity. The developed catheter flow sensors also successfully detected the oscillating airflow produced by an artificial ventilator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Micromachined Tube Type Thermal Flow Sensor for Adult-Sized Tracheal Intubation Tube
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040357 - 07 Sep 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
We designed and fabricated a tube-type thermal flow sensor for fabricating an adult-sized tracheal intubation tube device intended for clinical practice. The sensor film was packaged into the inside surface of the tube by interface tension and parylene coating, and a flow sensor [...] Read more.
We designed and fabricated a tube-type thermal flow sensor for fabricating an adult-sized tracheal intubation tube device intended for clinical practice. The sensor film was packaged into the inside surface of the tube by interface tension and parylene coating, and a flow sensor for an adult-sized tracheal intubation tube was successfully produced. We experimentally investigated flow rate detection and response time and found that the flow sensor fitted King’s model in terms of flow rate detection and has a sufficiently short response time of 59 ms. Thus, we concluded that the developed sensor will be applicable to measuring breathing characteristics of adults in the near future. Finally, the developed sensor was assembled into a tracheal intubation tube actually used in medical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Temperature Sensors Integrated into a CMOS Image Sensor
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040358 - 07 Sep 2017
Viewed by 1896
Abstract
In this work, a novel approach is presented for measuring relative temperature variations inside the pixel array of a CMOS image sensor itself. This approach can give important information when compensation for dark (current) fixed pattern noise (FPN) is needed. The test image [...] Read more.
In this work, a novel approach is presented for measuring relative temperature variations inside the pixel array of a CMOS image sensor itself. This approach can give important information when compensation for dark (current) fixed pattern noise (FPN) is needed. The test image sensor consists of pixels and temperature sensors pixels (=Tixels). The size of the Tixels is 11 μm × 11 μm. Pixels and Tixels are placed next to each other in the active imaging array and use the same readout circuits. The design and the first measurements of the combined image-temperature sensor are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Development of Small-Footprint Thermal Sensor Detecting Airflow at Mouth in Baby
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040359 - 07 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
This paper presents a novel tube flow sensor to measure airflow in mouths for detecting respiration and heartbeat signals of premature babies in incubators. A flow rate sensor with temperature compensation and a flow direction sensor were combined to decrease their footprint on [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel tube flow sensor to measure airflow in mouths for detecting respiration and heartbeat signals of premature babies in incubators. A flow rate sensor with temperature compensation and a flow direction sensor were combined to decrease their footprint on a sensor film. The fabricated sensor film was assembled onto the inside surface of the tube, and its detection properties were investigated. The sensor output in the flow rate sensor obeyed King’s model. The value of output in the flow-direction sensor was changed in accordance with the change of the airflow direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Flexible Hydrogel Capacitive Pressure Sensor for Underwater Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040360 - 07 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
This paper reports development of a novel, flexible hydrogel based capacitive pressure sensor. It features a simple design of hydrogel thin film sandwiched between two gold electrodes. The sensor shows linear increase in output with increase in pressure. The microporous network of hydrogel [...] Read more.
This paper reports development of a novel, flexible hydrogel based capacitive pressure sensor. It features a simple design of hydrogel thin film sandwiched between two gold electrodes. The sensor shows linear increase in output with increase in pressure. The microporous network of hydrogel enables high water retention while its flexible and stretchable structure ensures usage over large areas. These factors, combined with its stability in water, make it an ideal candidate for underwater applications. Further, the physical and chemical properties of hydrogels can be tailored to tune the capacitance to specific sensing needs. Flexible arrays of capacitive sensors with hydrogel hold great potential for underwater smart skin applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Portable SAW Impedance Sensor Using a 1-Port Resonator Approach
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040361 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
All actually used SAW sensors have in common that they analyze the transmission characteristics of propagating SAWs. Here, a portable device using the SAW-based impedance sensor type based on one interdigital transducer (IDT) simultaneously as SAW generator and sensor element (1-port approach) is [...] Read more.
All actually used SAW sensors have in common that they analyze the transmission characteristics of propagating SAWs. Here, a portable device using the SAW-based impedance sensor type based on one interdigital transducer (IDT) simultaneously as SAW generator and sensor element (1-port approach) is presented. The input port reflection coefficient S11 is measured at the IDT instead of the commonly used S21 transmission forward gain parameter. As a novelty, the so far required expensive vector network analyzer (VNA) is replaced by a hand-held device to measure the impedance spectrum of the SAW sensor by RF-gain-phase meters. The pivotal aspect of the portable system is the transfer of the sophisticated high frequency approach into a quasi-static one. This enables the use of simple lumped electronics without the need of impedance matching circuits. Proof-of-concept was carried out by measuring conductivities of phosphate-buffered solutions (PBS) and viscosities of glycerin. Sensitivities for conductivity of 64 Hz/S cm−1 and for viscosity of 122 mΩ/mPas were obtained, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Ferroelectret Receiver with Additional DC Voltage
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040362 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Highly sensitive air-coupled ultrasonic sensors are essential for various applications such as testing of composite materials. One of the major challenges for the development of air-coupled ultrasonic sensors is the impedance matching to air. With a lower acoustic impedance than the usual piezoelectric [...] Read more.
Highly sensitive air-coupled ultrasonic sensors are essential for various applications such as testing of composite materials. One of the major challenges for the development of air-coupled ultrasonic sensors is the impedance matching to air. With a lower acoustic impedance than the usual piezoelectric materials, charged cellular polypropylene film (cPP) offers better matching to air with a similar piezoelectric coefficient. The piezoelectric behaviour demonstrated by cPP comes from polarized air cells that create a permanent internal voltage. The sensitivity of the sensor varies with the application of an additional DC bias voltage. Thus, this work presents a cPP ultrasonic sensor with an improvement of up to 15 ± 1 dB on the signal-to-noise ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Single-Element Omnidirectional Piezoelectric Ultrasound Transducer for under Water Communication
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040363 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
This paper presents the design and fabrication procedure of a single-element omnidirectional piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, which can be utilized for under water communication. The transducer consists of a spherical silicon infiltrated silicon carbide (Si-SiC) body and is able to perform communication at 160 [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and fabrication procedure of a single-element omnidirectional piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, which can be utilized for under water communication. The transducer consists of a spherical silicon infiltrated silicon carbide (Si-SiC) body and is able to perform communication at 160 kHz with a Q factor of about 5.6 over a distance of more than one meter. The circumferential pressure amplitude of the beam pattern of the transducer varies less than 10 dB, which allows reliable communication between different transducers at an arbitrary orientation with respect to each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (pMUT) Array, for Wide Bandwidth Underwater Communication Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040364 - 07 Aug 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
This paper presents an array of five aluminum nitride (AlN) based piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (pMUTs) with different dimensions operating at 540–2360 kHz in air. Due to the damping effect of water or oil on the vibration of each individual pMUT, their frequency [...] Read more.
This paper presents an array of five aluminum nitride (AlN) based piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (pMUTs) with different dimensions operating at 540–2360 kHz in air. Due to the damping effect of water or oil on the vibration of each individual pMUT, their frequency response tends to merge and significantly increases the bandwidth of the pMUTs array. The device is fabricated based on the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process on the backside of an SOI wafer to realize the circular diaphragms. Theoretical calculations, measured frequency response, simulation results, and detail of the fabrication are explained in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Mechanical Characterization of (La,Sr)MnO3 Microbridges for Thermometric Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040365 - 28 Aug 2017
Viewed by 804
Abstract
MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) made of heterostructures of crystalline oxide materials with targeted physical properties may be applied as sensors having different integrated functionalities. In this work, we explore the feasibility of manganite thin film based epitaxial MEMS for thermometric micromechanical sensing. We investigate [...] Read more.
MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) made of heterostructures of crystalline oxide materials with targeted physical properties may be applied as sensors having different integrated functionalities. In this work, we explore the feasibility of manganite thin film based epitaxial MEMS for thermometric micromechanical sensing. We investigate the mechanical properties of La1−xSrxMnO3, with x ≈ 1/3, freestanding microbridges as a function of temperature for applications in the field of micromechanical temperature sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Thin Film PZT Acoustic Sensor for Fully Implantable Cochlear Implants
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040366 - 22 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
This paper presents design and fabrication of a MEMS-based thin film piezoelectric transducer to be placed on an eardrum for fully-implantable cochlear implant (FICI) applications. Resonating at a specific frequency within the hearing band, the transducer senses eardrum vibration and generates the required [...] Read more.
This paper presents design and fabrication of a MEMS-based thin film piezoelectric transducer to be placed on an eardrum for fully-implantable cochlear implant (FICI) applications. Resonating at a specific frequency within the hearing band, the transducer senses eardrum vibration and generates the required voltage output for the stimulating circuitry. Moreover, high sensitivity of the sensor, 391.9 mV/Pa @900 Hz, decreases the required power for neural stimulation. The transducer provides highest voltage output in the literature (200 mVpp @100 dB SPL) to our knowledge. A multi-frequency piezoelectric sensor, covering the daily acoustic band, is designed based on the test results and validated through FEA. The implemented system provides mechanical filtering, and mimics the natural operation of the cochlea. Herewith, the proposed sensor overcomes the challenges in FICI operations and demonstrates proof-of-concept for next generation FICIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Multiresonator-Based Printable Chipless RFID for Relative Humidity Sensing
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040367 - 07 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
We present a chipless RFID for relative humidity sensing. It consists of three spiral resonators coupled to a 50 Ω microstrip line. One resonator is used for humidity sensing, and the other two are used for encoding ID. The sensing resonator is coated [...] Read more.
We present a chipless RFID for relative humidity sensing. It consists of three spiral resonators coupled to a 50 Ω microstrip line. One resonator is used for humidity sensing, and the other two are used for encoding ID. The sensing resonator is coated with a humidity sensitive polymer film. As the relative humidity changes the permittivity of the polymer film varies changing the resonant frequency of the sensing resonator. Results show that a dedicated resonator can sense relative humidity over 21–53% range with 2.5 MHz/%RH sensitivity whereas the other two resonators can represent the ID. The sensor does not require any IC and is amenable to low-cost production using printed electronic technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Modelling and Experimental Analysis of a Magnetic Material Actuator: Towards Wireless Implantable Devices
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040368 - 21 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
This paper presents a wireless diaphragm actuator and focuses on a lumped parameter grey-box model capable of simulating actuation displacement. Here, modelling aims to provide further insight into this smart material actuator and help facilitate design into new implantable applications. Model parameters were [...] Read more.
This paper presents a wireless diaphragm actuator and focuses on a lumped parameter grey-box model capable of simulating actuation displacement. Here, modelling aims to provide further insight into this smart material actuator and help facilitate design into new implantable applications. Model parameters were calibrated to a prototype actuator using experimental data and a genetic algorithm optimisation. The model was validated against experimental data and showed a good ability to simulate both static and dynamic diaphragm displacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Photoelectrical Hydrogen Sensor Based on Pd/Anodic Oxide/InP Structure
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040369 - 17 Aug 2017
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Pd–anodic oxide–InP metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structures are fabricated to develop a hydrogen sensor capable of effectively operating at room temperature. Through palladium amount varying the signal recovery time has been improved (became shorter). Decrease of photovoltage and strong increase of photocurrent were observed for [...] Read more.
Pd–anodic oxide–InP metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structures are fabricated to develop a hydrogen sensor capable of effectively operating at room temperature. Through palladium amount varying the signal recovery time has been improved (became shorter). Decrease of photovoltage and strong increase of photocurrent were observed for illuminated by LED structures under hydrogen pulse exposure. The gas testing was carried out in 0.1–10% hydrogen in nitrogen, and in 100% hydrogen. As a result, low power-consumption hydrogen sensor with a fast response-recovery time 1/20 s. was developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Pulse Wave Monitoring for Arterial Stiffness Detection Using a Simple Portable Tonometer
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040370 - 24 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The work presented in this paper concerns the design, fabrication and test of a simple portable device able to measure in real time the cardiac frequency and the pulse wave, plus the pulse velocity in specific conditions (carotid and femoral locations). The sensing [...] Read more.
The work presented in this paper concerns the design, fabrication and test of a simple portable device able to measure in real time the cardiac frequency and the pulse wave, plus the pulse velocity in specific conditions (carotid and femoral locations). The sensing part is based on a thin film technology embedded in polymer and the data processing part is based on a classical pre-amplifying circuit associated with digitalization and shape detection algorithm. The whole device has been chosen as one demonstrator in the EveryWear project of the PROXIMA mission launched by the European Space Agency, the France’s space agency CNES with space medicine specialists MEDES, to estimate the arterial stiffness variations under microgravity conditions and weightlessness. Raw data are stored through the remote tablet application and will be later processed using Matlab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Piezo Resistive Read-Out Contact Resonance Spectroscopy for Material and Layer Analysis at High-Aspect-Ratio Geometries
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040371 - 24 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1370
Abstract
A piezo resistive, phase locked loop (PLL) controlled micro tactile measurement system for contact resonance spectroscopy (CRS) at high-aspect-ratio geometries was developed and characterised. Therefore, a piezo resistive silicon cantilever with a silicon tip at its free end was brought into contact with [...] Read more.
A piezo resistive, phase locked loop (PLL) controlled micro tactile measurement system for contact resonance spectroscopy (CRS) at high-aspect-ratio geometries was developed and characterised. Therefore, a piezo resistive silicon cantilever with a silicon tip at its free end was brought into contact with a sample surface and excited into resonance by a piezo actuator. The resonance frequency of the contacted cantilever was tracked by a homemade closed-loop PLL circuit. Different materials and layer thicknesses of photo resist (PR) on silicon were used to validate the system. To optimise the sensitivity and efficiency of the measurement system, amplitude and phase of the cantilever in surface contact were analysed under different contact forces and excitation amplitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Design, Modeling, and Characterization of a Bionically Inspired Integrated Micro-Flapper for Cooling and Venting Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040372 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
A novel, integrated micromechanical actuator based on the principle of undulatory fish locomotion and intended for efficient on-chip cooling or venting applications is conceived and designed for an aluminum nitride-based thin-film technology applying coupled piezoelectric, mechanical, and fluidic analyses. The results of the [...] Read more.
A novel, integrated micromechanical actuator based on the principle of undulatory fish locomotion and intended for efficient on-chip cooling or venting applications is conceived and designed for an aluminum nitride-based thin-film technology applying coupled piezoelectric, mechanical, and fluidic analyses. The results of the investigations prove that an undulatory motion of the fin-like micro-flapper yields a significant higher, directed fluidic net flow compared to resonant-like motion. First prototypes have been manufactured and characterized applying laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Impact of High Coupling Factor in Absolute Distance Measurement with Self-Mixing Interferometry
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040373 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
Absolute distance measurement by means of a self-mixing interferometer (SMI) can be obtained by modulating the laser frequency. This modulation is typically achieved through the modulation of the laser injection current with a triangle waveform. Various strategies have been proposed to increase the [...] Read more.
Absolute distance measurement by means of a self-mixing interferometer (SMI) can be obtained by modulating the laser frequency. This modulation is typically achieved through the modulation of the laser injection current with a triangle waveform. Various strategies have been proposed to increase the performances and recent researches have shown real-time performance of SMI with resolution reaching 100 μm for distances up to 2 m. In the present paper, we demonstrate for the first time, both experimentally and by modeling, that with high coupling factors between the laser and the target, disappearance of interferometric fringes occurs that can strongly affect the measurement reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
On-Chip Platform for Slack-Free Carbon Nanotube Resonators
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040374 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
This work describes an on-chip integrated micro-actuator device for slack-free carbon nanotube (CNT) resonators, improving frequency tunability and Q factor and to study non-linear mode interaction. The device fabricated on SOI wafer with low thermal budget (<600 K) encompasses a restricted symmetrical out-of-plane [...] Read more.
This work describes an on-chip integrated micro-actuator device for slack-free carbon nanotube (CNT) resonators, improving frequency tunability and Q factor and to study non-linear mode interaction. The device fabricated on SOI wafer with low thermal budget (<600 K) encompasses a restricted symmetrical out-of-plane vibration and a stiff in-plane electro-thermal actuator with a displacement of ~112 nm at 2.7 mW. This corresponds to 5.6% of strain for a 2 μm long suspended carbon nanotube. The in-plane mechanical resonance designed to be far from CNT resonances in MHz regime is measured at 209 kHz. The design is optimized for low power consumption, electrical and thermal isolation and is customized for dry transfer of CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Nanomechanical Traceable Metrology of Vertically Aligned Silicon and Germanium Nanowires by Nanoindentation
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040375 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Silicon and germanium pillar structures (i.e., micro- and nanowires) were fabricated by a top-down approach including nanoimprint lithography and cryogenic dry etching. Various etching parameters were tested to ensure a reliable fabrication process. The impression of nanomechanical properties of such 3-D structures were [...] Read more.
Silicon and germanium pillar structures (i.e., micro- and nanowires) were fabricated by a top-down approach including nanoimprint lithography and cryogenic dry etching. Various etching parameters were tested to ensure a reliable fabrication process. The impression of nanomechanical properties of such 3-D structures were extracted experimentally by nanoindentation showing promising and comparative results to utilize such nanostructures as small force artefacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Wall Shear Stress Calorimetric Micro-Sensor Designed for Flow Separation Detection and Active Flow Control
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040376 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
This paper presents an efficient and high-sensitive micro-sensor designed for wall shear stress measurement. The main technical application targeted is flow separation detection for closed-loop active flow control. The sensor is a temperature-resistance transducer operating on heat transfer. The device is micro-structured with [...] Read more.
This paper presents an efficient and high-sensitive micro-sensor designed for wall shear stress measurement. The main technical application targeted is flow separation detection for closed-loop active flow control. The sensor is a temperature-resistance transducer operating on heat transfer. The device is micro-structured with three substrate-free wires presenting a high aspect ratio, and periodic perpendicular micro-bridges ensuring mechanical toughness and thermal insulation. This design achieves a homogeneous temperature distribution along the wires. Welded on a flexible printed circuit, the sensor is wall-mounted on a wind tunnel. The experiments, conducted in both attached and separated flow configurations, demonstrate the sensor sensitivity to wall shear stress up to 2.4 Pa and the ability of the 3-wires based design to perform flow direction sensing for back-flow detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Nanogap Pirani Sensor Operating in Constant Temperature Mode for Near Atmospheric Pressure Measurements
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040377 - 05 Sep 2017
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
This paper presents a high sensitive micro-sensor designed for pressure measurements in a wide range around atmospheric pressure, for application in aerodynamics. The sensor is a temperature-resistance transducer operating with the Pirani effect, which states that below a certain pressure limit, the thermal [...] Read more.
This paper presents a high sensitive micro-sensor designed for pressure measurements in a wide range around atmospheric pressure, for application in aerodynamics. The sensor is a temperature-resistance transducer operating with the Pirani effect, which states that below a certain pressure limit, the thermal conductivity of a gas is pressure-dependent. The sensor presents a wide measurement range between 10 kPa and about 800 kPa, in both constant current and constant temperature mode. The last mode enables high-sensitive measurements with a maximum of sensitivity around atmospheric pressure, enabling the use of the sensor for applications in aerodynamics and fluid dynamics, such as active flow control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Neutral Argon Plasma in Minimally Invasive Medical Devices for Therapy
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040378 - 11 Aug 2017
Viewed by 707
Abstract
This paper presents a solution to implement neutral argon plasma (NAP) in minimally invasive medical devices (MIMD) for therapy in endoscopy. The NAP system is composed by compressed inert gas (argon), two electrodes and a high-voltage source to ionize the argon. The miniaturization [...] Read more.
This paper presents a solution to implement neutral argon plasma (NAP) in minimally invasive medical devices (MIMD) for therapy in endoscopy. The NAP system is composed by compressed inert gas (argon), two electrodes and a high-voltage source to ionize the argon. The miniaturization of an argon reservoir is required. The finite element method simulation of a small reservoir of 304 L stainless steel with 0.2 mm thick at 7 atm of pressure was performed. The results show maximum total deformation of 40 μm and maximum equivalent stress of 160 MPa, with no permanent deformation of argon reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
High Accuracy MEMS Pressure Sensor Based on Quartz Crystal Resonator
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040379 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
This paper reports a high accuracy oil-filled MEMS absolute pressure sensor based on quartz crystal double-ended tuning fork (DETF) resonator, which is suitable for application in ocean, petroleum, meteorological, aerospace and spacecraft field, etc. The pressure sensing unit is mainly composed of DETF [...] Read more.
This paper reports a high accuracy oil-filled MEMS absolute pressure sensor based on quartz crystal double-ended tuning fork (DETF) resonator, which is suitable for application in ocean, petroleum, meteorological, aerospace and spacecraft field, etc. The pressure sensing unit is mainly composed of DETF resonator, diaphragm and back cavity structure. These pieces are all fabricated by quartz crystal using MEMS process, and are bonded together as ‘sandwich’ structure to form the absolute pressure sensing unit using glass frit under low temperature and vacuum condition. This process could effectively eliminate the thermal stress effect and form the reference vacuum cavity. The isolated packaged pressure sensor is composed of corrugated stainless steel diaphragm, silicone oil, pressure sensing unit and ceramic base package. The experimental results show that the accuracy is up to ±0.033% FS in the pressure range 0~300 kPa over the temperature range −20 °C~+45 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Tuneable Q-Factor of MEMS Cantilevers with Integrated Piezoelectric Thin Films
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040380 - 21 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
When targeting the integration of atomic force microscopes (AFM) into vacuum environments (e.g., scanning electron microscopes), a tunable Q-factor of the resonating AFM cantilever is a key feature to enable high speed measurements with high local resolution. To achieve this goal, an additional [...] Read more.
When targeting the integration of atomic force microscopes (AFM) into vacuum environments (e.g., scanning electron microscopes), a tunable Q-factor of the resonating AFM cantilever is a key feature to enable high speed measurements with high local resolution. To achieve this goal, an additional stimulus is applied to the cantilever with respect to the mechanical stimulus provided by the macroscopic piezoelectric actuator. This additional stimulus is generated by an aluminium nitride based piezoelectric actuator integrated on the cantilever, which is driven by a phase shifted excitation. With this approach, the mechanical Q-factor measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) in vacuum is electrically decreased by a factor of up to 1.7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Effect of Electrode Configuration on High Temperature Thickness Shear Gallium Phosphate Transducer
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040381 - 25 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
Gallium phosphate single crystal has a very stable thermal response, ideal for high temperature applications such as transducers for in-service monitoring of HT infrastructure in Power and Oil & Gas industries. Broadband transducers are designed to resonate with a specific mode of vibration [...] Read more.
Gallium phosphate single crystal has a very stable thermal response, ideal for high temperature applications such as transducers for in-service monitoring of HT infrastructure in Power and Oil & Gas industries. Broadband transducers are designed to resonate with a specific mode of vibration within a frequency range of interest. This desired frequency response depends on how the transducer is mounted on the structure and the target defect sensitivity. Electrode configurations are defined to achieve the transducer design. This study investigates the parallel and wrap-around electrode configurations on the transducer response. An electro-mechanical finite element model was developed to analyse the transducer response and predicted a disparity in the modes of vibration between the two configurations within the same frequency range. This model was experimentally validated by measuring the displacement patterns using 3D Laser Doppler Vibrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
High Sensitivity Ultraviolet Light Off-Stoichiometric Silicon Oxide-Based Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040382 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 661
Abstract
We have developed a UV silicon detector made of silicon and off-stoichiometric silicon dioxide that shows high efficiency and is completely compatible with silicon devices technology. The silicon-based UV detector present a solar cell-like structure which does not require any voltage source. In [...] Read more.
We have developed a UV silicon detector made of silicon and off-stoichiometric silicon dioxide that shows high efficiency and is completely compatible with silicon devices technology. The silicon-based UV detector present a solar cell-like structure which does not require any voltage source. In addition, an off-stoichiometric silicon dioxide film (Silicon Rich Oxide) with silicon nanocrystals has been integrated to this structure. It is shown that the spectral response is due to the high photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals in the visible region when illuminated with UV light and an increase of 100% in the UV detector efficiency is observed with respect to conventional silicon dioxide layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Servo-Assisted Position-Feedback MEMS Force Sensor with Tunable Sensitivity and Sub-Nanonewton Range
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040383 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
A Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) that allows to measure an external force applied to a probe tip exploiting an electrical servo-assisted mechanism based on position feedback is presented. The sensor architecture keeps the position of the probe tip fixed by driving a pair [...] Read more.
A Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) that allows to measure an external force applied to a probe tip exploiting an electrical servo-assisted mechanism based on position feedback is presented. The sensor architecture keeps the position of the probe tip fixed by driving a pair of variable-area electrostatic actuators in a feedback loop controlled by a variable-gap capacitive sensor. By adjusting specific loop parameters, the force sensitivity can be finely tuned electrically. Sub-nanonewton measurement range is achieved with high flexibility in setting the tip working point, making the system promising for measuring forces generated by living biological cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Investigation on the Influence of Solvents on MWCNT-PDMS Nanocomposite Pressure Sensitive Films
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040384 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Nanocomposites based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)—Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer achieve pressure sensors sensitive even at very low pressure less than 5 N. For film homogeneity and sensitivity, fabrication procedure and especially the dispersion quality are decisive. Because of high viscosity of PDMS, a [...] Read more.
Nanocomposites based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)—Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer achieve pressure sensors sensitive even at very low pressure less than 5 N. For film homogeneity and sensitivity, fabrication procedure and especially the dispersion quality are decisive. Because of high viscosity of PDMS, a solvent is necessary. Solvents exhibit themselves different dispersion quality and in turn different piezoresistive response of the films under pressure. In this paper, the influence of solvents in fabricating the nanocomposite is investigated considering dispersion quality and stability. The best dispersion stability was achieved with isopropanol and the nanocomposite show better results considering sensitivity and hysteresis behavior under pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Micro-Grippers with Femtosecond-Laser Machined In-Plane Agonist-Antagonist SMA Actuators Integrated on Wafer-Level by Galvanic Riveting
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040385 - 04 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
In-plane shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators operated in agonist-antagonist mode are integrated on silicon micro-grippers. The actuator elements are cut out of sheet material in a femtosecond laser ablation process. The assembly process is carried out on wafer-level, and the fixation realized by [...] Read more.
In-plane shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators operated in agonist-antagonist mode are integrated on silicon micro-grippers. The actuator elements are cut out of sheet material in a femtosecond laser ablation process. The assembly process is carried out on wafer-level, and the fixation realized by galvanic riveting. The initial deformation of the differential actuators needed to access their actuation potential is implemented during the gripper connection to energy supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Development of a MEMS Plate Based on Thin-Film Piezoelectric AlN Actuators for Biological Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040386 - 09 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
This paper presents the development of a lab-on-chip system based on the use of local vibrations to mechanically stimulate biological materials. It reports on the development and characterization of a piezoelectric actuators driven system designed to operate in liquid media. The microfluidic packaging [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of a lab-on-chip system based on the use of local vibrations to mechanically stimulate biological materials. It reports on the development and characterization of a piezoelectric actuators driven system designed to operate in liquid media. The microfluidic packaging of the Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) is first presented. Then, electromechanical measurements done to calibrate our system are compared with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. These results are the first steps for implementation of piezoelectric MEMS to study mechanical response of biological cells at the population level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Soft Triboelectric Band for Sensing of and Energy Scavenging From Body Motion
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040387 - 09 Aug 2017
Viewed by 811
Abstract
We manifest a new method of developing wearable triboelectric band for self-powerd gesture sensing and power generating. Film casting technique, that is easily scalable, was used to patterned soft stretchable elastomers and conductive carbon based composites. The developed triboelectric band showed the capabilities [...] Read more.
We manifest a new method of developing wearable triboelectric band for self-powerd gesture sensing and power generating. Film casting technique, that is easily scalable, was used to patterned soft stretchable elastomers and conductive carbon based composites. The developed triboelectric band showed the capabilities of detecting locomotion of elbow and knee movement and provides electrical signal in response. The rms voltage, current and power of 2.9 V, 0.3 μA and 1.6 μW for elbow stretching, and 1.1 V, 0.11 μA and 0.22 μW for knee stretching was obtained for the optimum load of 10.1 MΩ at operational frequency of 1 ± 0.1 Hz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Spherical Directional Anemometer Sensor System
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040388 - 04 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
In this work, the authors propose a novel directional anemometric system, showing a compact design and the absence of external mechanical moving parts. The measuring principle is based on a dual channel spherical wind conveyor structure, combined with a pressure difference sensing technique [...] Read more.
In this work, the authors propose a novel directional anemometric system, showing a compact design and the absence of external mechanical moving parts. The measuring principle is based on a dual channel spherical wind conveyor structure, combined with a pressure difference sensing technique of the conveyed air flows by the employment of electromagnetic inductive transducers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Study of Elongation and Temperature Effects on Nanocomposite Based on Elastic Fiber
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040389 - 07 Aug 2017
Viewed by 900
Abstract
Stretchable sensors are increasingly demanded in the fields of smart textiles for sports, military and medical industry. In this work, we propose novel elongation sensitive elastic fibers made up of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT), Polyester and Polyurethane. The entire fiber is encased with [...] Read more.
Stretchable sensors are increasingly demanded in the fields of smart textiles for sports, military and medical industry. In this work, we propose novel elongation sensitive elastic fibers made up of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT), Polyester and Polyurethane. The entire fiber is encased with natural rubber (NR) for protection against mechanical, electrical and humidity external influences. With this fiber, it is possible to reach elongations above 100%. It can be fabricated in different sizes according to application requirements. The relationship between fiber resistance and its physical modifications was measured at different elongations and temperatures. The experimental results show a high sensitivity and a stable temperature behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Linear Position Sensing through Conductive Wall without Permanent Magnet
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040390 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
A linear position sensor for pneumatic actuators is presented. Position of the piston rod made of ferromagnetic material is detected by low frequency magnetic field which penetrates the aluminum wall of the cylinder. The sensor consists of an array of integrated fluxgate sensors [...] Read more.
A linear position sensor for pneumatic actuators is presented. Position of the piston rod made of ferromagnetic material is detected by low frequency magnetic field which penetrates the aluminum wall of the cylinder. The sensor consists of an array of integrated fluxgate sensors and two excitation saddle coils mounted outside the actuator. The method does not need a permanent magnet attached to the piston as required by common magnetic position sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Low Impedance ALD HfO2 Partially-Filled-Gap Flexural and Bulk MEMS Resonators Piezoresistively Detected for Distributed Mass Sensing
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040391 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
This paper reports the design and characterization of partially-filled-gap capacitive MEMS resonators for distributed mass sensing applications. By filling the gap with HfO2, the coupling coefficient between electrode-resonator increases by ×6.67 times and the motional resistance decreases by ×12 times in [...] Read more.
This paper reports the design and characterization of partially-filled-gap capacitive MEMS resonators for distributed mass sensing applications. By filling the gap with HfO2, the coupling coefficient between electrode-resonator increases by ×6.67 times and the motional resistance decreases by ×12 times in comparison with its counterpart in air. An improvement by a factor of ×5.6 in the Signal-To-Noise Ratio (SNR) for DC bias up to ×2.8 lower is accomplished by performing a piezoresistive detection instead of capacitive detection. Quality factor (Q) of 11,350 and motional resistances (Rm) of 926 Ω have been achieved for Parallel Beam Resonators (PBR) vibrating at 22.231 MHz. For the first time, ALD HfO2 partially-filled-gap MEMS resonators are proven to achieve inertial distributed mass sensitivities of the order of 4.28 kHz/pg for beam-type and 1.8k Hz/pg for disk resonators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Piezoelectric Actuators for In-Liquid Particle Manipulation in Microfluidic Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040392 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
The possibility to generate acoustic modes based on FPWs (Flexural Plate Waves) in a generic non-piezoelectric substrate for microfludic applications by means of piezoelectric actuators has been explored and described in this paper. The FPW acoustic modes are generated by means of actuators [...] Read more.
The possibility to generate acoustic modes based on FPWs (Flexural Plate Waves) in a generic non-piezoelectric substrate for microfludic applications by means of piezoelectric actuators has been explored and described in this paper. The FPW acoustic modes are generated by means of actuators made of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) layers with InterDigital Transducers (IDTs) screen-printed on alumina (Al2O3) substrate. The experimental results show that, by exciting the resonances of the actuators, circular vortex rotations are obtained in a fluid drop placed on the substrate between the IDTs. Micrometric particles dispersed in the drop allow to demonstrate that standing waves can be generated in the liquid obtaining particle accumulation along circular lines. These results suggest the possibility to employ the proposed actuators for fluid mixing and controlled positioning of dispersed particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
The First Frequency-Modulated (FM) Pitch Gyroscope
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040393 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
In this work, the mechanical design and the experimental validation of a micro-electromechanical frequency-modulated (FM) pitch gyroscope are presented. The proposed device is fabricated through the ThELMA © surface micromachining process of STMicroelectronics and it represents, to the authors’ knowledge, the first small-footprint [...] Read more.
In this work, the mechanical design and the experimental validation of a micro-electromechanical frequency-modulated (FM) pitch gyroscope are presented. The proposed device is fabricated through the ThELMA © surface micromachining process of STMicroelectronics and it represents, to the authors’ knowledge, the first small-footprint (690 µm × 946 µm) prototype of FM gyroscope able to measure an in-plane angular rate. The measured scale factor, defined as the mean angular gain, equals 0.973 Hz/Hz, in close agreement with theoretical predictions. It depends only on the mass distribution in the mechanical structure and is, consequently, not influenced by environmental fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Sensitivity of Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Microsensors with Sol-Gel Derived PZT Films Prepared through Various Pyrolysis Temperatures
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040394 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Sensitivity of piezoelectric-diaphragm type ultrasonic microsensors were investigated with sol-gel derived lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) films prepared through various pyrolysis temperatures. The residual stress of the PZT film should be precisely controlled because the sensor diaphragms show static deflection by buckling and highly sensitive sensors [...] Read more.
Sensitivity of piezoelectric-diaphragm type ultrasonic microsensors were investigated with sol-gel derived lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) films prepared through various pyrolysis temperatures. The residual stress of the PZT film should be precisely controlled because the sensor diaphragms show static deflection by buckling and highly sensitive sensors have been realized on upward-buckled diaphragms whose buckling direction and deflection are determined by the stress. The films were prepared under pyrolysis temperatures in the range from 250 °C to 400 °C and for (100)- or (111)-orientation. Higher pyrolysis temperature resulted in lower film stress and larger buckling deflection of the diaphragms. The (111)-oriented films showed the higher sensitivity in the higher pyrolysis temperatures. The (100)-oriented films, however, showed the highest sensitivity in the lowest pyrolysis temperature (250 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Contactless Interrogation System for Capacitive Sensors with Time-Gated Technique
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040395 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 792
Abstract
This paper presents a measurement technique and system for the contactless interrogation of capacitive sensors via electromagnetic coupling. The interrogation unit employs a primary coil to periodically excite the capacitive sensor connected to a secondary coil forming an LC resonant circuit. When the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a measurement technique and system for the contactless interrogation of capacitive sensors via electromagnetic coupling. The interrogation unit employs a primary coil to periodically excite the capacitive sensor connected to a secondary coil forming an LC resonant circuit. When the excitation to the primary coil is switched off the damped response of the LC circuit is detected. As a fundamental advantage compared to techniques based on reflected impedance, this approach ensures that the readout frequency is to first order independent of the interrogation distance between the two coils. The system has been tested with reference capacitors and with a capacitive liquid level sensor. The experimental results are in a good agreement with theoretical expectations and show a sensitivity of about −23 kHz/pF at 5.4 MHz and the possibility to operate with interrogation distances up to few centimeters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Microstructure for Thermal Impedance Spectroscopy for Biofuel Composition Measurement
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040396 - 17 Aug 2017
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Thermal impedance spectroscopy has been investigated as a non-destructive technique to determine the composition of ternary mixtures of biofuels. The principle of the thermal conductivity detector has been extended for measuring both the thermal conductivity and the thermal capacity of biofuel in the [...] Read more.
Thermal impedance spectroscopy has been investigated as a non-destructive technique to determine the composition of ternary mixtures of biofuels. The principle of the thermal conductivity detector has been extended for measuring both the thermal conductivity and the thermal capacity of biofuel in the range between 1 to 100 Hz, using an AC-operated polysilicon heater for injecting a sinusoidal heat flux, and another polysilicon strip at a well-defined spacing or thermopile sensors for measuring the in-phase and quadrature components of the resulting AC temperature difference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
ZnO Nanostructure Based QCM Sensor to Detect Ethanol at Room Temperature Fabricated by All Wet Process
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040397 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
QCM is one of major sensing methods for volatile organic compounds (VOC) at room temperature. Nanostructure is effective to increase the sensitivity because of its large surface area. We introduced ZnO nanostructure to detect ethanol gas. ZnO nanostructure was fabricated by all wet [...] Read more.
QCM is one of major sensing methods for volatile organic compounds (VOC) at room temperature. Nanostructure is effective to increase the sensitivity because of its large surface area. We introduced ZnO nanostructure to detect ethanol gas. ZnO nanostructure was fabricated by all wet process such as electrodeposition and chemical bath deposition (CBD). In this case, seed layer was obtained by electrodeposition, and nanostructure was formed by the CBD. The thickness of seed layer was controllable by charge amount on the electrodeposition, and that of nanostructure was controllable by deposition time on the CBD. As the results, the sensitivity increased with the thickness of the seed layer when the deposition time on CBD was set as 30 min. These results indicate that we can obtain high sensitive VOC sensor by using all wet process which is fit to large scale production with cost-effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Use of Gas Sensors and FOBT for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040398 - 31 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Among the major challenges of medicine today there are screening and early detection of tumors (since the adenoma stage) in order to prevent their degeneration into malignant cancer and/or metastases. In particular, the colorectal cancer shows a high curability rate, up to 90%, [...] Read more.
Among the major challenges of medicine today there are screening and early detection of tumors (since the adenoma stage) in order to prevent their degeneration into malignant cancer and/or metastases. In particular, the colorectal cancer shows a high curability rate, up to 90%, if identified when in its benign stage. The Protocol discussed here is proposed to implement the clinical validation of a device consisting of an array of chemoresistive gas sensors made of semiconductor materials, able of identifying the difference between fecal exhalation of healthy subjects and of subjects suffering from high-risk colorectal polyps or tumors. The tests are compared to the results of fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy as a gold standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Sensitive and Selective Ammonia Gas Sensor Based on Molecularly Modified SnO2
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040399 - 25 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
The development of selective and cheap metal oxide gas sensor at ambient temperature is still a challenging idea. In this study, SnO2 surface functionalization was performed in order to obtain sensitive and selective gas sensor operated at ambient temperature. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was [...] Read more.
The development of selective and cheap metal oxide gas sensor at ambient temperature is still a challenging idea. In this study, SnO2 surface functionalization was performed in order to obtain sensitive and selective gas sensor operated at ambient temperature. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was used as an intermediate step, followed by functionalization with molecules having acyl chloride with different end functional groups molecules such as alkyl, acid and ester groups. Acid and ester modified sensors are sensitive to ammonia between 0.2 and 10 ppm at room temperature. However, ester modified SnO2 is more selective than acid modified sensor regarding ethanol and carbon monoxide gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Reliable Long-Term Data from Low-Cost Gas Sensor Networks in the Environment
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040400 - 25 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
This poster examines long-term performance of low-cost instruments in environmental networks using a semiconducting oxide sensor measuring ground-level ozone (O3). Sensors were placed outside in networks and automated methodologies based on knowledge of sensor and environment characteristics were successfully applied to [...] Read more.
This poster examines long-term performance of low-cost instruments in environmental networks using a semiconducting oxide sensor measuring ground-level ozone (O3). Sensors were placed outside in networks and automated methodologies based on knowledge of sensor and environment characteristics were successfully applied to confirm sensor stability. These networks demonstrated how environmental data could be collected and confirmed using networks of low-cost sensors, which supplemented observations from the existing regulatory network. This work is a critical step in the development of networks of low-cost environmental sensors when considering the delivery of reliable data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Oxygen Sensors Based on Screen Printed Platinum and Palladium Doped Indium Oxides
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040401 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Platinum and palladium doped indium oxide sensors have been successfully fabricated by a screen printing method and tested as oxygen sensors at low temperature (150–400 °C) in a humid environment (~80–85% RH). The sensors, complying with a power law relationship, showed good differentiation [...] Read more.
Platinum and palladium doped indium oxide sensors have been successfully fabricated by a screen printing method and tested as oxygen sensors at low temperature (150–400 °C) in a humid environment (~80–85% RH). The sensors, complying with a power law relationship, showed good differentiation at lower temperatures with highest response observed at 200 °C. Platinum had sensitivity of 2.2% per %O2 and power law exponent α = 0.72 vs. 0.3% per %O2 for palladium with power law exponent α = 0.51. Overall, the response of platinum doped indium oxide was higher than the palladium doped version. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Plasma Oxidized W-WOx Sensor for Sub-ppm H2S Detection
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040402 - 29 Aug 2017
Viewed by 894
Abstract
In this work we have fabricated W-WOx core-shell nanowire structure using plasma oxidation, a CMOS compatible process, for sensing H2S gas. For comparison, the sputtered stack structure of W-WOx with different thickness ratios of W to WOx is [...] Read more.
In this work we have fabricated W-WOx core-shell nanowire structure using plasma oxidation, a CMOS compatible process, for sensing H2S gas. For comparison, the sputtered stack structure of W-WOx with different thickness ratios of W to WOx is fabricated and characterized for H2S sensing. The sensor fabricated using plasma oxidation process is found to be significantly better in sensing performance compared to the sensing results obtained from sensor fabricated using sputtering. The response of plasma oxidized sensor is 90.4% for 1 ppm H2S with response and recovery time of 4 s and 46 s respectively. In contrast, the sensor fabricated with sputtered film shows a response of 30.6% at 1 ppm with response and recovery times of 19 s and 84 s respectively. This study clearly indicates that plasma oxidation is an efficient method for development of stable sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Sensitivity Improvement of Thermoelectric Hydrocarbon Sensors: Combination of Glass-Ceramic Tapes and Alumina Substrates
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040403 - 07 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
This contribution presents the integration of glass-ceramic tapes on alumina substrates to increase the sensitivity of thermoelectric hydrocarbon gas sensors. Both ceramic materials have different thermal conductivity. Their combination into one sensor structure significantly improves the sensitivity by at the same time maintaining [...] Read more.
This contribution presents the integration of glass-ceramic tapes on alumina substrates to increase the sensitivity of thermoelectric hydrocarbon gas sensors. Both ceramic materials have different thermal conductivity. Their combination into one sensor structure significantly improves the sensitivity by at the same time maintaining the excellent mechanical stability at high temperatures. Furthermore, this special technology allows for an easy integration of additional functional elements such as screen-printed thermocouples for temperature control purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Modification of SnO2 Nanowires with TeO2 Branches and Their Enhanced Gas Sensing
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040404 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
We prepared a highly sensitive and selective NO2 sensor, based on the TeO2 branched SnO2 nanowires (NWs), in terms of vapor-liquid-solid method, with subsequent growing of branches on the stems of SnO2 NWs. Fabricated sensors showed a high response [...] Read more.
We prepared a highly sensitive and selective NO2 sensor, based on the TeO2 branched SnO2 nanowires (NWs), in terms of vapor-liquid-solid method, with subsequent growing of branches on the stems of SnO2 NWs. Fabricated sensors showed a high response higher than 10 to 10 ppm of NO2 gas at 100 °C. We investigated the associated sensing mechanisms, with respect to the enhancement of sensing behaviors by the addition of TeO2 branches. Based on the results obtained in this work, we believe that the present sensor with an efficient fabrication technique, and high sensitivity and selectivity can be used for detection of NO2 gas in real applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Selective Detection of NO2 with Specific Filters for O3 Trapping
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040405 - 28 Aug 2017
Viewed by 844
Abstract
The present study evaluates the ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) removal performance of specific filters based on nanoporous materials. These materials, produced via the sol-gel process with functionalized silicon alkoxides as precursors, are tailored for O3 trapping. [...] Read more.
The present study evaluates the ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) removal performance of specific filters based on nanoporous materials. These materials, produced via the sol-gel process with functionalized silicon alkoxides as precursors, are tailored for O3 trapping. The gas removal effectiveness of the filters was assessed through measurements of O3 concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Depending on the filter nature, O3 can be totally trapped while NO2 can pass over a specific concentration range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Enhance of Sensitivity of Corrole Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres Coated Quartz Microbalances
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040406 - 17 Aug 2017
Viewed by 897
Abstract
An innovative and efficient β-functionalization of [5,10,15-tris-(4-methylphenyl)corrolato]Cobalt derivatives introduced an acrolein substituent, which allowed the copolymerization with pure acrolein. The obtained hybrid microparticles have been used as sensing materials of quart microbalance gas sensors. The sensing properties have been tested by exposure to [...] Read more.
An innovative and efficient β-functionalization of [5,10,15-tris-(4-methylphenyl)corrolato]Cobalt derivatives introduced an acrolein substituent, which allowed the copolymerization with pure acrolein. The obtained hybrid microparticles have been used as sensing materials of quart microbalance gas sensors. The sensing properties have been tested by exposure to different volatile organic compounds chosen as model analytes. Results show an improved sensitivity of the hybrid microparticles respect to the individual constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Hybrid and Bio Nanocomposites for Ultrasensitive Ammonia Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040407 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
New organic electronic organic ammonia sensors based on hybrid nanocomposites polyaniline-titanium dioxide and on PANI/chitosan with high metrological performances were created. The physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposites were optimized to get a high sensitivity and very low detection threshold (in ppb [...] Read more.
New organic electronic organic ammonia sensors based on hybrid nanocomposites polyaniline-titanium dioxide and on PANI/chitosan with high metrological performances were created. The physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposites were optimized to get a high sensitivity and very low detection threshold (in ppb values). For hybrids, in the core shell form, the performances were analyzed by the synergetic effects of the constituents. For biopolymers it is possible to get high performances ammonia sensors using the way of green chemistry. In both cases the nanocomposites worked at room temperature and showed linear responses with a response time around one minute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
MgO-Doped (Zr,Sr)TiO3 Perovskite Humidity Sensors: Microstructural Effects on Water Permeation
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040408 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Porous (Zr0.5,Sr0.5)TiO3 and MgO (1, 3, 5 mol%) doped ZST nanocomposites have been developed and investigated as humidity sensing elements. The surface area analyser and FESEM data have indicated that the MgO doped perovskites are contained of the [...] Read more.
Porous (Zr0.5,Sr0.5)TiO3 and MgO (1, 3, 5 mol%) doped ZST nanocomposites have been developed and investigated as humidity sensing elements. The surface area analyser and FESEM data have indicated that the MgO doped perovskites are contained of the macropores and grain size of about 77 to 87 nm. EFTEM proved the reduction of particle size by addition of MgO dopant concentration. While pure ZST shows BET surface area of about 58 m2/g, MgO doped samples exhibit about 12 m2/g. Sensor contained of ZST doped with 3 mol% MgO shows highest sensitivity with about four orders of magnitude change in impedance within the range of 20% to 95% RH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Effects of Infrared Energy on Dual Elliptical NDIR Ethanol Gas Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040409 - 05 Sep 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
This paper presents the effects of infrared energies on dual elliptical nondispersive infrared (NDIR) ethanol gas sensors for preventing drunken drivers and the advantages of using dual ethanol detectors for temperature compensation algorithm. In order to achieve long-term reliability according to the aging [...] Read more.
This paper presents the effects of infrared energies on dual elliptical nondispersive infrared (NDIR) ethanol gas sensors for preventing drunken drivers and the advantages of using dual ethanol detectors for temperature compensation algorithm. In order to achieve long-term reliability according to the aging of infrared source, two ethanol detectors are placed at the two foci of ellipsoids and the averaged voltage ratios of two ethanol detectors are used to establish the compensation methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Enhanced Characteristics of Nondispersive Infrared CO2 Gas Sensor by Deposition of Hydrophobic Thin Film
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040410 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
This paper presents the NDIR CO2 gas sensor that has improved the sensitivity and also the accuracy by the deposition of thin hydrophobic film (Parylene-C film with 0.5 micrometer thick) onto the reflector surfaces of White-cell structure. After deposition of hydrophobic thin [...] Read more.
This paper presents the NDIR CO2 gas sensor that has improved the sensitivity and also the accuracy by the deposition of thin hydrophobic film (Parylene-C film with 0.5 micrometer thick) onto the reflector surfaces of White-cell structure. After deposition of hydrophobic thin film, the sensitivity of sensor has been increased with averaged 10% and the estimated errors were reduced within 13 ppm to 143 ppm from 254 K to 324 K temperature ranges and from 0 ppm to 5000 ppm CO2 concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Room Temperature NO2 Responses of Visible-Light Activated Nanosheet [email protected]1−x Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040411 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
In this study, we use a facile hydrothermal method to synthesize [email protected]1−x composites. The in-situ synthesized ZnO nanosheets are well attached on the rGO sheets, which prevent the aggregation and restacking of ZnO nanosheets, greatly increasing the specific surface area of the [...] Read more.
In this study, we use a facile hydrothermal method to synthesize [email protected]1−x composites. The in-situ synthesized ZnO nanosheets are well attached on the rGO sheets, which prevent the aggregation and restacking of ZnO nanosheets, greatly increasing the specific surface area of the synthesized materials. In addition, on account of the reducing synthesis condition, large numbers of oxygen vacancies are implanted into ZnO. With the incorporation of rGO, the visible light absorption range of the composites is greatly enhanced. The synthesized [email protected]1−x composites exhibit excellent performance to ppb-level NO2 under white light illumination at room temperature, which effectively overcomes the disadvantages of typical metal oxide gas sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Light-Assisted Room-Temperature NO2 Sensors Based on Black Sheet-Like NiO
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040412 - 22 Aug 2017
Viewed by 936
Abstract
In this study, we use two-dimensional black flake nickel oxide as the sensitive material which was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized sheet-like NiO possessed a large specific surface area, as verified by BET characterization. The as-prepared NiO nanosheets had strong [...] Read more.
In this study, we use two-dimensional black flake nickel oxide as the sensitive material which was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized sheet-like NiO possessed a large specific surface area, as verified by BET characterization. The as-prepared NiO nanosheets had strong absorption in the range of 250–800 nm including UV and visible light. Upon exposure to ppb-level NO2, the presented sensors showed significant responses under light illumination at room temperature. In addition, the light wavelength also had a remarkable effect on the sensing performance in terms of sensitivity, response and recovery kinetics. Furthermore, the sensor showed a low humidity dependence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Improving the Performance of Electrochemical Sensors by Means of Synergy. Combinations of Gold Nanoparticles and Phthalocyanines
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040413 - 22 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Voltammetric sensors chemically modified with combinations of two electrocatalytic materials: tetraoctylammonium bromide capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPNBr) and a sulphur containing zinc phthalocyanine derivative (ZnPcRS) are reported. The electrocatalytic effects in the detection of catechol have been analyzed in sensors [...] Read more.
Voltammetric sensors chemically modified with combinations of two electrocatalytic materials: tetraoctylammonium bromide capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPNBr) and a sulphur containing zinc phthalocyanine derivative (ZnPcRS) are reported. The electrocatalytic effects in the detection of catechol have been analyzed in sensors obtained by direct mixing (AuNPNBr/ZnPcRS) and in sensors modified with an adduct where both components are linked covalently (AuNPNBr-S-ZnPcR). Results demonstrate that the nature of the interaction between both components modifies the electrocatalytic properties. The AuNPNBr/ZnPcRS mixture improves the electron transfer rate of the catechol reduction, with limits of detection of 10−6 M. The covalent adduct AuNPNBr-S-ZnPcR enhances the response rate of the oxidation of the catechol with limits of detection of 10−7 M. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Planar Microstrip Ring Resonator Structure for Gas Sensing and Humidity Sensing Purposes
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040414 - 21 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
A planar microstrip ring resonator structure on alumina was developed. It was covered with a zeolite film. The device was successfully operated at around 8.5 GHz at room temperature as a humidity sensor. In the next step, an additional planar heater will be [...] Read more.
A planar microstrip ring resonator structure on alumina was developed. It was covered with a zeolite film. The device was successfully operated at around 8.5 GHz at room temperature as a humidity sensor. In the next step, an additional planar heater will be included on the reverse side of the resonator structure to allow for testing of gas sensitive materials under sensor conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Lipophilic Gold Grating for SERS Detection of Biological Objects
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040415 - 04 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
We introduce label-free plasmon-active platform based on ordered gold gratings with the covalently modified surface for detection of lipophilic bioobjects. Alkylbenzene groups with different chain length (CH3-, C4H9-, C10H21- and C16H33) [...] Read more.
We introduce label-free plasmon-active platform based on ordered gold gratings with the covalently modified surface for detection of lipophilic bioobjects. Alkylbenzene groups with different chain length (CH3-, C4H9-, C10H21- and C16H33) were grafted spontaneously and electrochemically for improvement of affinity with lipophilic compounds. Modified grating surfaces were characterized by XPS, CVA, wettability, AFM and Raman spectroscopy techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
NAP-XPS Study of Ethanol Adsorption on TiO2 Surfaces and Its Impact on Microwave-Based Gas Sensors Response
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040416 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
This work presents new elements of understanding for the microwave-based gas sensors behavior at room temperature. A TiO2-covered microstrip interdigital capacitor was submitted to various ethanol concentrations and showed a proportional response in the 1–10 GHz microwave range. For each concentration [...] Read more.
This work presents new elements of understanding for the microwave-based gas sensors behavior at room temperature. A TiO2-covered microstrip interdigital capacitor was submitted to various ethanol concentrations and showed a proportional response in the 1–10 GHz microwave range. For each concentration and right after ethanol injection, the sensor response presented a slight overshoot which is often found in gas sensors studies. Near ambient pressure photoemission experiments (NAP-XPS) were conducted to explore the physicochemical causes of this overshoot, and demonstrated the formation of an ethoxide during ethanol adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Tuning of the Humidity-Interference in Gas Sensitive Columnar ZnO Structures
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040417 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Gas microsensors based on columnar zinc oxide structures (rods and needles) with different aspect ratios and wetting properties are developed via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The correlation between their wetting properties and degree of humidity-interference in gas sensing is presented. Gas sensing tests [...] Read more.
Gas microsensors based on columnar zinc oxide structures (rods and needles) with different aspect ratios and wetting properties are developed via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The correlation between their wetting properties and degree of humidity-interference in gas sensing is presented. Gas sensing tests of these systems to hydrogen demonstrate noticeable lower humidity-interference for the columnar zinc oxide structures in the form of needles provided of higher hydrophobicity, as opposed to those in the form of rods, suggesting that a tuning of the wetting properties in metal oxides could allow for the humidity-resilient detection of gaseous analytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
ZnO/SnO2 Heterojunctions Sensors with UV-Enhanced Gas-Sensing Properties at Room Temperature
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040418 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
We report herein the efficiency of microwave-assisted synthesis for obtaining ZnO/SnO2 heterostructures for room-temperature gas-sensing applications. The sensing performances of the traditional oxide materials have been found for applications above 200 °C. However, these temperatures were here reduced to room temperature by [...] Read more.
We report herein the efficiency of microwave-assisted synthesis for obtaining ZnO/SnO2 heterostructures for room-temperature gas-sensing applications. The sensing performances of the traditional oxide materials have been found for applications above 200 °C. However, these temperatures were here reduced to room temperature by considering sensing activity photoactivated by UV light, even for ppb ozone (O3) levels. The heterojunctions exhibited a fast response, total reversibility, and selectivity to oxidizing gases, especially O3 gas. This investigation provides an efficient way to obtain heterostructures exhibiting remarkable properties for practical applications as O3 gas sensor devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Development of All-Around SiO2/Al2O3 Gate, Suspended Silicon Nanowire Chemical Field Effect Transistors Si-nw-ChemFET
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040419 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 941
Abstract
We present a sensor platform associated to silicon-nanowire chemical field effect transistors (Si-nw-ChemFET). Innovations concern the use of networks of suspended silicon N+/P/N+ nanowires as conducting channel, the realization by thermal oxidation and Atomic-Layer Deposition (ALD) of a SiO2 [...] Read more.
We present a sensor platform associated to silicon-nanowire chemical field effect transistors (Si-nw-ChemFET). Innovations concern the use of networks of suspended silicon N+/P/N+ nanowires as conducting channel, the realization by thermal oxidation and Atomic-Layer Deposition (ALD) of a SiO2/Al2O3 gate insulator all-around the silicon nanowires, and their final integration into covered SU8-based microfluidic channels. The Si-nw-MOSFET/ChemFET fabrication process and electrical/electrochemical characterizations are presented. The fabrication process did not need an expensive and time-consuming e-beam lithography, but only fast and “low cost” standard photolithography protocols. Such microdevice will provide new opportunities for bio-chemical analysis at the micro/nanoscale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Multimodal Probe Based on ISFET Electrochemical Microsensors for In-Situ Monitoring of Soil Nutrients in Agriculture
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040420 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
We report the design of a silicon chip dedicated to the in-situ monitoring of soil nitrogen cycle in wheat crop. Our study shows that ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) microsensors are suitable for quick on-site or long-term analysis of nutrients measured directly in [...] Read more.
We report the design of a silicon chip dedicated to the in-situ monitoring of soil nitrogen cycle in wheat crop. Our study shows that ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) microsensors are suitable for quick on-site or long-term analysis of nutrients measured directly in soil as opposed to soil extracts analysis. Our pH-ISFET recorded soil pH for six months with results in good accordance with standard sampling method and without any loss of sensitivity. The adaptation of pH-ISFET in pNO3 and pNH4-ISFET allowed, for the first time, the in-situ measurements of natural variations of soil nitrogen contents caused by microorganisms’ activity Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
High Bandwidth Sensor Module for Mobile Robot Applications-Wind Tunnel Characterization
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040421 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 873
Abstract
We have developed a sensor module containing high-bandwidth VOC and gas sensors (including novel acoustic, custom MOX and low-cost NDIR) to evaluate the concentration of gases in a hazardous environment. We report upon the initial characterization of two MOX gas sensors (1 mm [...] Read more.
We have developed a sensor module containing high-bandwidth VOC and gas sensors (including novel acoustic, custom MOX and low-cost NDIR) to evaluate the concentration of gases in a hazardous environment. We report upon the initial characterization of two MOX gas sensors (1 mm × 1 mm) with coatings of Pd/Pt doped SnO2 and pure WO3 inside a wind tunnel to plumes of acetone and ethanol (<10 ppm). The orientation and position of the sensor module in the tunnel was investigated. The unit was tested in a real-world environment with a VOC (propanol); fluctuating sensor responses demonstrated the formation of gas plumes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Method for Determining the Concentration of Unknown Combustible Gas
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040422 - 09 Aug 2017
Viewed by 805
Abstract
It is known that catalytic sensors have different sensitivities to different combustible gases. Usually gas analyzers are calibrated by methane and not suitable for measuring other flammable gases. Correction is needed to get real concentration of other gases. In this paper it is [...] Read more.
It is known that catalytic sensors have different sensitivities to different combustible gases. Usually gas analyzers are calibrated by methane and not suitable for measuring other flammable gases. Correction is needed to get real concentration of other gases. In this paper it is shown that sensor sensitivity to one particular gas alters with sensor temperature and each gas has its own rate of reducing the sensitivity with a further increase of temperature. It allows us to calculate the concentration of unknown flammable gas. Applying this method decreases measurement error from 30–40% to 5–10% for hydrocarbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Ozone Sensors Working at Room Temperature Using Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals Annealed at Low Temperature
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040423 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
We focus on ozone (O3) detection at ambient temperature by Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on Si/SiO2 by spin coating from colloidal solutions as sensitive layers for air quality monitoring. We establish that at room temperature using continuous Ultra-Violet [...] Read more.
We focus on ozone (O3) detection at ambient temperature by Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on Si/SiO2 by spin coating from colloidal solutions as sensitive layers for air quality monitoring. We establish that at room temperature using continuous Ultra-Violet (UV) light irradiation enhances the sensing responses. Three annealing temperatures of ZnO films were performed to compare the sensing properties. These sensors present repeatable responses towards O3 with fast responses for concentrations as low as 35 ppb with processes compatible with most of flexible substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Direct Catalyst Conversion Sensor in Form of a Single Self-Heated Mixed-Potential Device
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040424 - 07 Aug 2017
Viewed by 992
Abstract
Monitoring automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment components is required by law as part of the on-board diagnostics (OBD). For this purpose, a novel sensor device that determines directly the catalyst conversion could be used. It consists of a single, self-heated yttria stabilized ZrO2 [...] Read more.
Monitoring automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment components is required by law as part of the on-board diagnostics (OBD). For this purpose, a novel sensor device that determines directly the catalyst conversion could be used. It consists of a single, self-heated yttria stabilized ZrO2-based disc, separating two gas atmospheres. Two identical mixed-potential electrodes yield a voltage signal by comparing a certain trace gas concentration up- and downstream of the catalyst. Measurements in synthetic gas flow verify the theoretical assumption that this voltage signal only depends on the ratio of both concentrations, respectively on the conversion of the catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Performance Evaluation of Low-Cost BTEX Sensors and Devices within the EURAMET Key-VOCs Project
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040425 - 29 Aug 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
The KEY-VOCs project is a EURAMET joint research project focused on key Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in air. One of its activities is the evaluation of sensors-based measurement systems. In Europe, the monitoring of benzene in ambient air is mandatory as set by [...] Read more.
The KEY-VOCs project is a EURAMET joint research project focused on key Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in air. One of its activities is the evaluation of sensors-based measurement systems. In Europe, the monitoring of benzene in ambient air is mandatory as set by the European Directive for air quality (AQD) [1]. This Directive states that the reference method of measurement shall consist of active or on-line sampling followed by gas chromatography [2]. These methods are time consuming, expensive to implement and not easily portable prohibiting more local estimation of the population exposure. However, the AQD allows using indicative measurements with higher uncertainty than those of the reference methods. Sensor systems are good candidates for indicative methods with the additional ability of near-to real-time measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Non Invasive Sensor System for the Screening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040426 - 07 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) diagnosis can be confirmed only after the polysomnography (PSG), a non-invasive examination requiring one-night hospitalization. Moreover, up to 45% of people undergone PSG actually are free from OSAS. A non invasive sensor system collecting exhaled breath and giving [...] Read more.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) diagnosis can be confirmed only after the polysomnography (PSG), a non-invasive examination requiring one-night hospitalization. Moreover, up to 45% of people undergone PSG actually are free from OSAS. A non invasive sensor system collecting exhaled breath and giving a fingerprint of its composition should be a valuable mean for the selection of patients amenable to polysomnography (PSG). Here the BIONOTE (a gas sensor array based on Quartz micro balances functionalized with anthocyanins) together with the Pneumopipe (a patented device for exhaled breath collection) have been used in a study including 136 subjects. BIONOTE was able to correctly discriminate controls with respect to diseased individuals and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseased (COPD) against OSAS patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Interaction of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles with Ni2+: Sensing Application
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040427 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
We report on synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) capped with specific thiol suitable to detect heavy metal ions in water. The sensing mechanism is based on a change of an optical properties of the silver colloids, namely the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) when [...] Read more.
We report on synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) capped with specific thiol suitable to detect heavy metal ions in water. The sensing mechanism is based on a change of an optical properties of the silver colloids, namely the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) when small amounts of contaminants are present in solution. We detected a specific sensitivity to nickel ions and we investigated the interaction of the AgNPs with Ni2+ in the concentration range of 0.5–2.0 ppm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
WO3-Doped Indium Oxide Thick Films for Ozone Detection at Low Temperature
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040428 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Ozone, a strong oxidizing gas, has dramatically increased its concentration in the troposphere during the last decades. Since high O3 concentrations are hazardous to human health, the development of effective methods and economic devices to detect this gas is an urgent need. [...] Read more.
Ozone, a strong oxidizing gas, has dramatically increased its concentration in the troposphere during the last decades. Since high O3 concentrations are hazardous to human health, the development of effective methods and economic devices to detect this gas is an urgent need. In this frame, In2O3 is well known as an n-type ozone sensitive and selective material, generally displaying its optimal sensing capability in the temperature range 200–350 °C. To enhance the sensing capability of In2O3 and to decrease its operative temperature, in this work, commercial In2O3 powders were doped with 2.5 wt. % WO3. Pure and doped-In2O3 materials were used to develop sensing devices by screen-printing technology. Resistance measurements were performed in the temperature range 25 °C–150 °C under 200–500 ppb O3. Best results were obtained at 75 °C with sensor’s responses as high as 40 under 200 ppb of ozone.
Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Deposition Rate Influence in O3 Sensing Response of Sputtered ZnO Thin Films
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040429 - 30 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
The study of semiconductor materials applied as chemical gas sensing devices is currently focused on the production of new sensing materials with the best possible properties in terms of detection limits, selectivity, work temperature and response time. Although theoretical models show the great [...] Read more.
The study of semiconductor materials applied as chemical gas sensing devices is currently focused on the production of new sensing materials with the best possible properties in terms of detection limits, selectivity, work temperature and response time. Although theoretical models show the great importance of film morphology on gas detection, a direct relation between structure size/morphology and the gas sensing properties has not been experimentally established. In this work, RF-sputtering deposition technique was used for the synthesis of zinc oxide thin films, and deposition conditions are variated to achieve a remarkable difference in nanostructure size of the material. The electrical resistance variation of the air-exposed films in presence of different ozone concentrations show a strong dependence on the feature size and film morphology, demonstrating the effectiveness of use the parameters of RF sputtering deposition as tunable factors to improve the ZnO sensing properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Textile Based Polypyrrole Chloride Sensor for Agricultural Use
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040430 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
This paper describes the feasibility of developing a novel polypyrrole (PPy) potentiometric sensor. Conductive PPy-based polymers has been grown through a textile scaffold to create a flexible and robust sensing structure that can survive environments such as soil, with the choice of the [...] Read more.
This paper describes the feasibility of developing a novel polypyrrole (PPy) potentiometric sensor. Conductive PPy-based polymers has been grown through a textile scaffold to create a flexible and robust sensing structure that can survive environments such as soil, with the choice of the scaffold materials offering control of the environmental impact. Further work has demonstrated that doped PPy has an electrochemical response that is sensitive to different measurands’ concentration and in this case, we look at chloride response. Various chloride sensors were evaluated in varying concentrations of the potassium chloride test solutions in terms of their chloride ion sensitivity, hydration times and usable lifetime. The best performing sensor has shown a near-Nernstian response between 45–48 mV/decade to chloride ions and at least 2 weeks initial lifetime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Transdermal Alcohol Measurements Using MOX Sensors in Clinical Trials
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040431 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Human metabolism often results in the emission of many VOCs through the skin. Ethanol is one of volatile compounds which are evaporated by perspiration. The aim of our research consists to develop chemical sensors for monitoring ethanol emission after alcohol consumption. The interest [...] Read more.
Human metabolism often results in the emission of many VOCs through the skin. Ethanol is one of volatile compounds which are evaporated by perspiration. The aim of our research consists to develop chemical sensors for monitoring ethanol emission after alcohol consumption. The interest of using chemical sensors is noninvasive measurement and controlling alcohol level in the human body and to make the link between these measurements and that in the blood or in the breath. Recent clinical trials demonstrated the feasibility and relevance of this measurement method. Metal oxide sensors were calibrated in respect of the thermodynamic conditions of the surface of the skin. In this paper we show the first sensor responses by perspiration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Operando Investigations of Differently Prepared In2O3-Gas Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040432 - 29 Aug 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
In this study, the electrical characteristics and surface reactions of three different kinds of In2O3 based gas sensors were investigated under CO exposure in dry and humid air by using DC electrical resistance measurements and Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform [...] Read more.
In this study, the electrical characteristics and surface reactions of three different kinds of In2O3 based gas sensors were investigated under CO exposure in dry and humid air by using DC electrical resistance measurements and Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). For the first time one gains insight into the surface reactions during the exposure to CO and humidity. The sensors show different behavior on the baseline in humidity depending on the material which is due to different kinds of OH-groups. The resistance change under CO and humidity exposure are additive and the molecules compete for the same reaction partner confirmed by the spectroscopy results. Through isotopic exchange experiments, different adsorbates could be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Picomolar Detection of Heavy Ions with Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Functionalized with New Synthetized Anthracene Derivates
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040433 - 07 Aug 2017
Viewed by 980
Abstract
104 MHz-surface acoustic wave sensors have been functionalized with three new anthracenederivatives for the detection of mercury and copper heavy ions: 2,2-bis(4 anthracenylme,thoxy-1,1′-biphenyl(BP-AN), 9-{[4-({[4-(9anthrylmethoxy)phenyl]sulfanyl}methyl)]methyl] anthracene (TDP-AN) and 4-(9-anthrylmethoxy) benzyl [4-(9-anthrylmethoxy) phenyl] sulfone (BPS-AN). Gravimetric results indicate that, compared to TDP-AN and BPS-AN, BP-AN [...] Read more.
104 MHz-surface acoustic wave sensors have been functionalized with three new anthracenederivatives for the detection of mercury and copper heavy ions: 2,2-bis(4 anthracenylme,thoxy-1,1′-biphenyl(BP-AN), 9-{[4-({[4-(9anthrylmethoxy)phenyl]sulfanyl}methyl)]methyl] anthracene (TDP-AN) and 4-(9-anthrylmethoxy) benzyl [4-(9-anthrylmethoxy) phenyl] sulfone (BPS-AN). Gravimetric results indicate that, compared to TDP-AN and BPS-AN, BP-AN based chemsensor has the highest affinitytowards the two investigated ions.The corresponding sensitivities were of order of 3.67 × 108 °/M and 2.24 × 108 °/M for Hg2+ and Cu2+ respectively. The limit of detection of the BP-AN-SAW chemsensor, of order of 1 pM, is one of the lowest values ever reported in the literature. Experimental results were supported by quantum chemical calculations, based on the density functional theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Acetone Detection by Chemical Sensors Based on Tungsten and Titanium Oxide Nanowires
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040434 - 21 Aug 2017
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Tungsten and titanium oxide (WO3/Ti) nanowires (NWs) were grown by thermal oxidation of a tungsten and titanium alloy (WTi) metallic layer deposited on 2 × 2 mm2 alumina substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. Thermal oxidation was carried out in a [...] Read more.
Tungsten and titanium oxide (WO3/Ti) nanowires (NWs) were grown by thermal oxidation of a tungsten and titanium alloy (WTi) metallic layer deposited on 2 × 2 mm2 alumina substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. Thermal oxidation was carried out in a custom evaporator chamber. Several parameters were controlled to achieve the optimal growth conditions. Morphological and structural analysis were performed on samples by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and RAMAN spectroscopy, respectively. Nanowires, grown directly on the final transducer, were tested towards different gaseous species in a wide range of working temperatures. In this work, results obtained in presence of acetone are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Impedimetric Biosensor to Enable Fast Evaluation of Gaseous Sterilization Processes
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040435 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Sterilization of packages prior to product filling is a key step in aseptic filling machines. Chemical sterilization is one of the main conventional techniques in many packaging industries. To monitor the effect of sterilization on test microorganisms (Bacillus atrophaeus spores), an impedimetric [...] Read more.
Sterilization of packages prior to product filling is a key step in aseptic filling machines. Chemical sterilization is one of the main conventional techniques in many packaging industries. To monitor the effect of sterilization on test microorganisms (Bacillus atrophaeus spores), an impedimetric sensor approach was developed based on a planar interdigitated electrode (IDE) design. In this work, sensor measurements were conducted to prove sensor functionality at different hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Investigation of Behavior Stability of Activated Polyaniline Films for Gas Measurements
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040436 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Synthesis conditions of doped polyaniline films and testing procedure affect markedly the sensor behavior and stability of them. The sensor based on such film consists of a dielectric substrate with system of metallic interdigitated electrodes on its surface. The films were deposited on [...] Read more.
Synthesis conditions of doped polyaniline films and testing procedure affect markedly the sensor behavior and stability of them. The sensor based on such film consists of a dielectric substrate with system of metallic interdigitated electrodes on its surface. The films were deposited on system of metallic interdigitated electrodes by electrochemical synthesis from solutions of aniline with different polyoxometalates and acids. Activating additives into films were tungsten containing polyoxometalates of the eighteen series. Polyoxometalates as multielectron oxidants can alter noticeably the sensor properties of polyaniline if introduced into a conductive polymer film. Morphology of the layers surface and the infrared spectra were explored. Investigations of the behavior of polyoxometalate-polyaniline films at different temperatures, air humidity and testing procedures in clean air and in air containing ammonia were fulfilled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Gas Sensing Approaches Based on WO3 Nanowire-Back Gated Devices
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040437 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
This paper present a new design and configuration of metal oxide gas sensor based on back-gated device that can operate at low temperature. Gold electrodes patterned onto an oxidized, heavily doped, p-type silicon substrate were designed and fabricated at a wafer level. [...] Read more.
This paper present a new design and configuration of metal oxide gas sensor based on back-gated device that can operate at low temperature. Gold electrodes patterned onto an oxidized, heavily doped, p-type silicon substrate were designed and fabricated at a wafer level. The Au—electrodes were used as source—drain metal contacts and a third gate electrode was connected from the backside of the substrate. Tungsten oxide nanowires decorated with Pt-nanoparticles were directly grown employing aerosol assisted-CVD (AA-CVD) on top of the electrode area. Gas sensing properties of the back-gated device in the presence of air and hydrogen gas reveals characteristic response modulated by the applied gate potential at room temperature. It was found that the IDS-VGS plot illustrates characteristic field effect transistor with an inherent adsorptive surface electron transfer of the nanowires accompanied with the applied gate potential induced charge transfer. These counter-acting mechanisms might persuade for the application of back-gated device as a promising n-channel metal oxide gas sensor operating at low temperature or even room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Cobalt or Silver Doped WO3 Nanowires Deposited by a Two-Step AACVD for Gas Sensing Applications
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040438 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
A two-step procedure was implemented to obtain tungsten oxide nanowires (WO3) doped with cobalt or silver oxide nanoparticles from metal-organic precursors, W(CO)6, Co(acac)2 and Ag(acac)2. In the first step, nanowires were grown at 400 °C using [...] Read more.
A two-step procedure was implemented to obtain tungsten oxide nanowires (WO3) doped with cobalt or silver oxide nanoparticles from metal-organic precursors, W(CO)6, Co(acac)2 and Ag(acac)2. In the first step, nanowires were grown at 400 °C using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition system (AA-CVD) and subsequently annealed at 500 °C for 2 h. In the second step, metal loading (at different doping levels) of the nanowires using the same system. These hybrid nanomaterials were grown on top of commercial alumina substrates that comprised interdigitated electrodes. The response of these nanomaterials toward H2S and H2 is investigated and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Chemical Gas Sensor Based on a Flexible Capacitive Microwave Transducer Associated with a Sensitive Carbon Composite Polymer Film
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040439 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
This communication presents results on the feasibility of an inkjet printed chemical gas sensor suitable for a real time multi-sensing platform. The prototype targets volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ethanol vapor to monitor environmental pollution. The designed and ink-jet printed microwave sensor [...] Read more.
This communication presents results on the feasibility of an inkjet printed chemical gas sensor suitable for a real time multi-sensing platform. The prototype targets volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ethanol vapor to monitor environmental pollution. The designed and ink-jet printed microwave sensor is presented. Preliminary results have shown the influence of ethanol vapor on the electrical properties of the sensor at microwave frequency range. The sensor’s sensitivity to ethanol vapor has been estimated to −2.48 kHz/ppm. The final aim of this work is to develop a low cost sensor for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Detection of Mercury Vapor in Air by Differential Heat Dissipation Measurements
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040440 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
In this work, a novel approach for the detection of mercury vapor in air is presented using differential heat dissipation measurements. Therefore, the temperature difference between an amalgamated and a non-exposed gold film is recorded, while heating both films with identical electrical power. [...] Read more.
In this work, a novel approach for the detection of mercury vapor in air is presented using differential heat dissipation measurements. Therefore, the temperature difference between an amalgamated and a non-exposed gold film is recorded, while heating both films with identical electrical power. As the amalgam layer lowers the heat dissipation, the amalgamated gold film reaches higher temperatures compared to the non-exposed gold film. Preliminary experiments show a clear dependence of the measured temperature difference on the mercury vapor concentration and the exposition time. Thus, a detection of mercury vapor is generally possible using differential heat dissipation measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Submersible Dielectric Probe for In Situ Monitoring of Suspensions and Its Application to Activated Sludge in Waste Water Treatment Plant
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040441 - 08 Aug 2017
Viewed by 721
Abstract
We have developed a useful dielectric probe that allows real-time and in situ characterization of suspensions in the 0.4 to 10 MHz frequency range. It has been successfully tested throughout several weeks to monitor activated sludge of a waste water treatment plant. In [...] Read more.
We have developed a useful dielectric probe that allows real-time and in situ characterization of suspensions in the 0.4 to 10 MHz frequency range. It has been successfully tested throughout several weeks to monitor activated sludge of a waste water treatment plant. In this paper the results are compared with those obtained in parallel using both static or flow classic dielectric cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Tin Dioxide-Graphene Based Chemi-Device for NO2 Detection in the Sub ppm Range
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040442 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Chemical nanodevices based on tin dioxide, graphene and a mixture of both materials were developed and characterized for NO2 detection at low concentrations. The chemiresistors were prepared by both electrospinning and drop casting. The films morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
Chemical nanodevices based on tin dioxide, graphene and a mixture of both materials were developed and characterized for NO2 detection at low concentrations. The chemiresistors were prepared by both electrospinning and drop casting. The films morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The devices response to sub-ppm NO2 concentrations was measured from room temperature up to 300 °C. An improvement in the performance in terms of sensitivity and response time, as well as higher responses at room temperature, was obtained when a mixture of these materials is used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Electron Capture Detector with Non-Radioactive Electron Source
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040443 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Gas chromatographs equipped with electron capture detectors (ECD) are widely used for the analysis of electron affine substances. Achieving limits of detection in the low pptv-range, electron capture detectors are the most sensitive detectors available for such compounds. Based on their [...] Read more.
Gas chromatographs equipped with electron capture detectors (ECD) are widely used for the analysis of electron affine substances. Achieving limits of detection in the low pptv-range, electron capture detectors are the most sensitive detectors available for such compounds. Based on their operating principle, they require free electrons at atmospheric pressure, which are usually generated by using a β--decay. However, the use of radioactive materials leads to regulatory restrictions regarding purchase, operation and disposal. Here, we present a new electron capture detector using a non-radioactive electron source, which is not subject to these limitations and offers further advantages such as adjustable and higher electron densities and energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors for the Detection of Hazardous Compounds in Indoor Air
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040444 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
In this work, the authors show the capabilities of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices coupled with various absorbents to probe the properties of gas sensitive materials for the manufacturing of hazardous gas sensors. The great capabilities of cobalt corroles for the trapping of [...] Read more.
In this work, the authors show the capabilities of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices coupled with various absorbents to probe the properties of gas sensitive materials for the manufacturing of hazardous gas sensors. The great capabilities of cobalt corroles for the trapping of carbon monoxide (CO) were exploited to produce selective sensors. These corroles were deposited on SAW delay lines surfaces and then exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) in standard conditions. Concentrations of a few hundreds of ppb were measured emphasizing the interest of such sensors for the detection of CO. Another type of sensitive layers exhibiting specific porosity adapted to the trapping of formaldehyde (CH2O) were deposited on similar delay lines. A detection threshold of 140 ppb was shown. These encouraging results pave the way for the development of a functionalized SAW sensors network for multi-gas detection in indoor air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Low Temperature CVD Grown Graphene for Highly Selective Gas Sensors Working under Ambient Conditions
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040445 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
In this paper we report on gas sensors based on graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition at 850 °C. Mo was used as catalyst for graphene nucleation. Resistors were directly designed on pre-patterned Mo using the transfer-free process we recently developed, thus avoiding [...] Read more.
In this paper we report on gas sensors based on graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition at 850 °C. Mo was used as catalyst for graphene nucleation. Resistors were directly designed on pre-patterned Mo using the transfer-free process we recently developed, thus avoiding films damage during the transfer to the target substrate. Devices operating at room temperature and relative humidity set at 50% were tested towards NO2. The sensors resulted to be highly specific towards NO2 and showed current variation up to 6%. The performances were compared with those of gas sensors based on graphene grown at 980 °C, which represents the usual growth temperature for such material. The findings show that by lowering the graphene growth temperature and consequently the energy consumptions the sensing benefits of these devices are still preserved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Influence of Electrical Modes on Radiation Sensitivity of Hydrogen Sensors Based on Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si Structures
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040446 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The influence of the circuit’s electric modes on the radiation sensitivity of hydrogen sensors based on the metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor with structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si (MISFET) was investigated. There were measured the hydrogen responses of output voltages V of [...] Read more.
The influence of the circuit’s electric modes on the radiation sensitivity of hydrogen sensors based on the metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor with structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si (MISFET) was investigated. There were measured the hydrogen responses of output voltages V of the MISFET-based circuits at different gate voltages before and after the electron irradiations. The voltages V as functions of hydrogen concentration C were determined for different ionizing doses D. Models of influence of the electric modes on the radiation sensitivity of sensors were based on experimental dependencies of V(C, D). The recommendations for the optimal choice of MISFET-based circuit’s electric modes were formulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
A Gas Sensor Device for Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Detection
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040447 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Sensors for monitoring oxygen and carbon dioxide are crucial as investigational devices in many different research fields, including environmental, biomedical and industrial. They must be easily configurable, fast responding, and with good reproducibility and sensitivity. The state of art reports different sensing and [...] Read more.
Sensors for monitoring oxygen and carbon dioxide are crucial as investigational devices in many different research fields, including environmental, biomedical and industrial. They must be easily configurable, fast responding, and with good reproducibility and sensitivity. The state of art reports different sensing and transducing strategies: electrochemical, optical, conductometric etc., based on specific chemically interactive materials. In this work, a multisensor system based on electrochemical sensors acting via a liquid medium and controlled by a dedicated low-noise electronic interface is equipped with an elaboration unit able in extracting/storing a committed model for oxygen and carbon dioxide detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Study of Poly(3-hexyltiophene) Polymer Sensing Properties in Nerve Agent Simulant (DMMP) Detection
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040448 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
In the present work we report the use of regioregular poly(3-hexyltiophene) polymer (RR-P3HT) as a resistive sensor for the detection of chemical nerve agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The electrical response to DMMP vapour of RR-P3HT film deposited on ceramic (Al2O [...] Read more.
In the present work we report the use of regioregular poly(3-hexyltiophene) polymer (RR-P3HT) as a resistive sensor for the detection of chemical nerve agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The electrical response to DMMP vapour of RR-P3HT film deposited on ceramic (Al2O3) substrate in the room temperature was investigated. Results show that studied material is sensitive to DMMP trace amounts and selective against acetone and methanol. It also exhibits fast response and recovery times, repeatability and short-term stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
Open AccessProceedings
Gas Sensing Properties of MoO3
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