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Proceedings, 2017, Eurosensors 2017

Eurosensors 2017

Paris, France | 3–6 September 2017

Issue Editors:
Jean-Paul Viricelle, CNRS, France
Christophe Pijolat, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines-CNRS, France
Mathilde Rieu, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines-CNRS, France

Number of Papers: 361
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This issue of Proceedings gathers papers presented at EUROSENSORS 2017, the XXXI edition (Paris, France, 3–6 Sept. 2017). It collects contributions concerning 10 topics (theory and modelling; [...] Read more.
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198 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to Eurosensors 2017, Paris, 3–6 September 2017
by Jean-Paul Viricelle and Christophe Pijolat
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1041097 - 21 Nov 2017
Viewed by 2508
Abstract
EUROSENSORS 2017, the XXXI edition of the conference series, was held in PARIS at UIC-P Congress Center close to the Tour Eiffel, from September 3 to 6, 2017 for the third time in France, after Toulouse 1994 and Lyon 2007. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)

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546 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Electromagnetic Characterization and Simulation of a Carbonate Buffer System on a Microwave Biosensor
by Lisa-Marie Wagner, Florian Strasser, Eva Melnik and Martin Brandl
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040276 - 17 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2539
Abstract
In order to develop a fast, sensitive and easy-to-produce biosensor, a high-quality microwave split-ring resonator is going to be developed. In the final sensing device, a blood sample will be placed as a droplet on the sensitive area of the sensor. In case [...] Read more.
In order to develop a fast, sensitive and easy-to-produce biosensor, a high-quality microwave split-ring resonator is going to be developed. In the final sensing device, a blood sample will be placed as a droplet on the sensitive area of the sensor. In case of specific target biomolecules binding a shift in resonance frequency will be induced due to the effective permittivity change. This shift in resonance frequency depends on the concentration of biomolecules and is therefore quantitative. The aim of this work is to find a position for the bio-functionalization that providesa measurable frequency shift when the analyte is added. Different areas are tested experimentally and via simulations. Two buffer solutions are used which have to be characterized in terms of its electromagnetic properties in advance. This preliminary study should pave the way for the measurements in real human samples such as serum or plasma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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538 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Two-Directional Operation of Bistable Latchable Micro Switch Actuated by a Single Electrode
by Lior Medina, Rivka Gilat, Bojan Ilic and Slava Krylov
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040277 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
Curved micromechanical beams are a versatile platform for exploring multistable behavior, with potential applications in mechanical based logic elements and electrical and optical switches. Here we demonstrate bidirectional electrostatic actuation of a bistable, latched, micromechanical beam by the same electrode, which was used [...] Read more.
Curved micromechanical beams are a versatile platform for exploring multistable behavior, with potential applications in mechanical based logic elements and electrical and optical switches. Here we demonstrate bidirectional electrostatic actuation of a bistable, latched, micromechanical beam by the same electrode, which was used for the snap-through switching of the device. The release of the mechanically-latched beam is achieved by pre-loading the structure using a rising voltage applied to the electrode, followed by a sudden decrease of the voltage. This abrupt removal of the loading results in a transient response and dynamic snap-back of the beam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1030 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modelling New Techniques for Improving Separation in Miniature Capillary- and Planar-Based Capillary Electrophoresis Systems
by Adam Lewis and Nick Harris
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040278 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
The capillary/channel length is an important factor in capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems since it is directly related to the amount of separation attainable. In this work we present methods to increase the effective channel length without the need to modify the physical channel [...] Read more.
The capillary/channel length is an important factor in capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems since it is directly related to the amount of separation attainable. In this work we present methods to increase the effective channel length without the need to modify the physical channel length. Using an electrode located close to the capillary surface it is possible to dynamically modify zeta-potential and therefore the electroosmotic flow (EOF). By controlling the EOF, certain ionic species within a sample can be held in a short channel whilst other species migrate along the channel. Alternatively the sample can be transported back and forth along the active channel length until sufficient separation has been attained. CE enables detailed analysis of a sample’s composition and this is of interest to a range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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298 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analytical Model of Double Barrier THz Rectifier
by Fabrizio Palma and Rosario Rao
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040279 - 31 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
The application of the new structure to the complex field of THz receivers requires the availability of an analytical model, reliable and able to highlight the dependence on the parameters of the physical structure. We present a model of the rectification capability of [...] Read more.
The application of the new structure to the complex field of THz receivers requires the availability of an analytical model, reliable and able to highlight the dependence on the parameters of the physical structure. We present a model of the rectification capability of the double barrier Terahertz radiation (THz) detector, a CMOS compatible structurer. The model is based on the hydrodynamic semiconductor equations; solved in the small signal approximation. The model highlights the high frequency dynamics of carriers in the structure; and furnishes new insight on the origin of the self-mixing rectification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1398 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geometrical Optimisation of Diode-Based Calorimetric Thermal Flow Sensors through Multiphysics Finite Element Modelling
by Ethan L. Gardner, Andrea De Luca, Claudio Falco and Florin Udrea
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040280 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
For the first time, 3D multiphysics finite element modelling has been used to optimise the geometry of a calorimetric thermal flow sensor. The model involves and couples three physics domains: electric, thermal and fluid mechanics. The model is validated against experimental data obtained [...] Read more.
For the first time, 3D multiphysics finite element modelling has been used to optimise the geometry of a calorimetric thermal flow sensor. The model involves and couples three physics domains: electric, thermal and fluid mechanics. The model is validated against experimental data obtained from a thermoelectronic flow sensor comprising of a tungsten heating resistor and temperature sensing diodes. Upstream and downstream diodes measure the temperature change caused by the asymmetric thermal profile when gas flow is introduced. The optimum distance between the diodes and the heater is shown along with the advantages of altering heater and membrane geometries, providing the knowledge for application-driven sensor optimisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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626 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modelling Cross Axis Sensitivity in MEMS Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscopes
by Luca Guerinoni, Luca Giuseppe Falorni and Gabriele Gattere
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040281 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
In this paper a Cross Axis evaluation methodology is presented. The Cross Axis Sensitivity value depends on backend testing position tolerances as well as technological features and design properties of the MEMS gyroscope. A numerical model was developed to take into account the [...] Read more.
In this paper a Cross Axis evaluation methodology is presented. The Cross Axis Sensitivity value depends on backend testing position tolerances as well as technological features and design properties of the MEMS gyroscope. A numerical model was developed to take into account the sources of cross axis related to the last two contributions, not considering backend tolerances. Given a specific structure for the AM gyroscope, the asymmetries in the MEMS structure are acknowledged as the main sources for the cross axis. The results of the harmonic FEM simulations were finally compared with real testing data, thus proving the validity of the developed FEM model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1029 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reduction of Electrostatic Control Voltage with a Tri-Electrode Actuator
by Yu Zhou and Cyrus Shafai
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040282 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
We present a new tri-electrode topology for reducing the control voltage for electrostatic actuators. Conventional parallel plate actuators are dual-electrode systems, formed by the MEMS structure and the drive electrode. By placing a perforated intermediate electrode between these elements, a tri-electrode configuration is [...] Read more.
We present a new tri-electrode topology for reducing the control voltage for electrostatic actuators. Conventional parallel plate actuators are dual-electrode systems, formed by the MEMS structure and the drive electrode. By placing a perforated intermediate electrode between these elements, a tri-electrode configuration is formed. This topology enables a low voltage on the intermediate electrode to modulate the electrostatic force on the MEMS device, while the higher voltage on the drive electrode remains fixed. Results presented show that in comparison to conventional parallel plate electrostatic actuators, the intermediate electrode’s modulating voltage can be as low as 20% of normal, while still providing the full actuation stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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621 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Humidity Sensitivity and Coil Design of a High-Precision Eddy-Current Displacement Sensor
by Johan G. Vogel, Vikram Chaturvedi and Stoyan Nihtianov
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040283 - 28 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Unlike capacitive displacement sensors, Eddy-Current Displacement Sensors (ECDSs) possess an inherently low sensitivity to environmental conditions, such as the humidity of the ambient air. By elevating the excitation frequency it is possible to mitigate their major limitations regarding stability and resolution, making them [...] Read more.
Unlike capacitive displacement sensors, Eddy-Current Displacement Sensors (ECDSs) possess an inherently low sensitivity to environmental conditions, such as the humidity of the ambient air. By elevating the excitation frequency it is possible to mitigate their major limitations regarding stability and resolution, making them of interest for high-precision displacement sensing. However, by increasing the excitation frequency, ECDSs become less immune to environmental conditions, due to the inevitable parasitic capacitance of the sensing coil. In this work, we formulate a requirement for the minimum Self-Resonance Frequency (SRF) of the coil, based on the specified humidity variation and the allowable displacement error. This requirement provides an input for the design of the high-precision ECDS probe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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319 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analytical Calculation of Falling Droplets from Cylindrical Capillaries
by Sebastian Hummel, Martin Bogner, Michael Haub, Joachim Sägebarth and Hermann Sandmaier
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040284 - 7 Sep 2017
Viewed by 2055
Abstract
Existing investigations to estimate different properties of falling droplets are based on empirical data or complex mathematical approaches. This paper presents a new simple analytical approach to calculate selected properties of droplets, in particular the volume and frequency of falling droplets, out of [...] Read more.
Existing investigations to estimate different properties of falling droplets are based on empirical data or complex mathematical approaches. This paper presents a new simple analytical approach to calculate selected properties of droplets, in particular the volume and frequency of falling droplets, out of a thin vertical cylindrical capillary. The fluid-reservoir is located above the capillary and provides a constant flow into the droplet. This leads to drop formation times less than one second. The results of the calculation are validated by numerical simulations and experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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2069 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
High Precision Accelerometer with Integrated Thermal Sensor
by Beatrice Bourgeteau-Verlhac, Raphaël Lévy, Pierre Lavenus, Claude Chartier, Vincent Gaudineau and Olivier Le Traon
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040285 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2258
Abstract
This paper investigates the design of a Vibrating Beam Accelerometer (VBA) with a resolution of 50 nano-g combined with an integrated thermal sensor. Despite quartz intrinsic thermal stability, the time delay between vibrating beam’s temperature and package’s temperature gives way to unwanted transient [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the design of a Vibrating Beam Accelerometer (VBA) with a resolution of 50 nano-g combined with an integrated thermal sensor. Despite quartz intrinsic thermal stability, the time delay between vibrating beam’s temperature and package’s temperature gives way to unwanted transient thermal behavior and thus bias instability. The aim of this study is to include a thermal sensor consisting in a torsional resonator directly at the center of the beam. Previous work demonstrated the feasibility of such integration on a tactical class accelerometer but also highlighted limitations like high motional resistance of the torsional resonator. Benefits of the in-situ temperature sensor are investigated thanks to finite element analysis of the accelerometer transient thermal behavior, which shall be compared to measurements on actual cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1673 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Efficient Vertical-Cavity Mid-IR Thermal Radiation to Silicon-Slab Waveguide Coupling Using a Shallow Blazed Grating
by Gerald Pühringer and Bernhard Jakoby
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040286 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
In this work we investigate the coupling of radiation originating from a vertical-cavity enhanced thermal emitter (VERTE) into an optical waveguide, which can, for instance, act as a sensing element. We present full wave modelling results demonstrating highly efficient emitter-to-waveguide diffraction coupling at [...] Read more.
In this work we investigate the coupling of radiation originating from a vertical-cavity enhanced thermal emitter (VERTE) into an optical waveguide, which can, for instance, act as a sensing element. We present full wave modelling results demonstrating highly efficient emitter-to-waveguide diffraction coupling at multiple angles using the previously designed VERTE together with a shallow blazed grating. It is shown that the coherent and dispersive thermal emission of the VERTE concept is well suited to achieve highly efficient and integrated mode coupling in the mid IR region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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5991 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Simulating Rain Droplets Influence on Distance Measurement with a Time-of-Flight Camera Sensor
by Marcus Baumgart, Markus Dielacher, Norbert Druml and Cristina Consani
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040287 - 29 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera sensors measure simultaneously the light intensity and the scene distance on a pixel basis. Environmental effects, like rain droplets between the scene and the ToF camera, have an impact on the distance accuracy of the sensor. Optical raytracing simulations were [...] Read more.
Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera sensors measure simultaneously the light intensity and the scene distance on a pixel basis. Environmental effects, like rain droplets between the scene and the ToF camera, have an impact on the distance accuracy of the sensor. Optical raytracing simulations were performed to study rain influence in detail. The 3D simulation setup comprises all relevant elements including the sensor design, the object/scene geometry and a model for the environmental conditions. Specifically, a setup with small-angle ToF camera optics is investigated and a comparison of the influence of several typical rain intensities is presented. The simulation results serve as an input for developing error-compensation algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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852 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Towards Nanostructured ITO-Based Electrochemical Sensors: Fabrication, Characterization and Functionalization
by Raquel Pruna, Francisco Palacio and Manel López
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040288 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
The need for miniaturized, low-cost and ultrasensitive electrochemical sensors has motivated the search and study of new nanostructured materials. We propose nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as a promising platform due to their good electrical conductivity, transparency to visible wavelengths and high [...] Read more.
The need for miniaturized, low-cost and ultrasensitive electrochemical sensors has motivated the search and study of new nanostructured materials. We propose nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as a promising platform due to their good electrical conductivity, transparency to visible wavelengths and high surface-to-volume ratio. The nanostructured electrodes were fabricated by electron beam evaporation, and electrochemical techniques were used to quantify more than a 40% increase in electrochemical surface area compared to thin ITO films. The electrodes were derivatized with organosilanes and coated with a molecule providing redox activity. Indeed, an increase in detectability of more than 400% was observed with respect to thin films, indicating the potential viability of nanostructured ITO-based electrochemical biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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470 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Toward the Analysis of Mitochondria Isolated from Leukemic Cells with Electrochemically Instrumented Microwell Arrays
by Gabriel Lemercier, Fadhila Sekli-Belaïdi, Suresh Vajrala, Emeline Descamps, Julie Foncy, Stéphane Arbault, Jean-Emmanuel Sarry, Pierre Temple-Boyer and Jérôme Launay
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040289 - 25 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
This work deals with the development of electrochemical transducers for the analysis of the metabolic status of mitochondria isolated from leukemic cells. It proposes the use of ring nanoelectrodes (RNE) integrated into microwell arrays for the simultaneous monitoring of the oxygen (O2 [...] Read more.
This work deals with the development of electrochemical transducers for the analysis of the metabolic status of mitochondria isolated from leukemic cells. It proposes the use of ring nanoelectrodes (RNE) integrated into microwell arrays for the simultaneous monitoring of the oxygen (O2) consumption and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. The sensor enabled the real-time recording of the oxygen consumption of approximately 10,000 isolated mitochondria. Solutions are now proposed to detect H2O2 production and to reduce the number of mitochondria under test, targeting the single mitochondrion analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1430 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods on MEMS Piezoresistive Silicon Microcantilevers for Environmental Monitoring
by Jiushuai Xu, Maik Bertke, Alaaeldin Gad, Feng Yu, Gerry Hamdana, Andrey Bakin and Erwin Peiner
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040290 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3112
Abstract
In this study, a ZnO nanorods (NRs) patterned MEMS piezoresistive silicon micro-cantilever was fabricated as environmental monitor. The fabrication starts from bulk silicon, utilizing photolithography, diffusion, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, Zinc DC-sputtering, and chemical bath deposition (CBD) etc. This sensor [...] Read more.
In this study, a ZnO nanorods (NRs) patterned MEMS piezoresistive silicon micro-cantilever was fabricated as environmental monitor. The fabrication starts from bulk silicon, utilizing photolithography, diffusion, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, Zinc DC-sputtering, and chemical bath deposition (CBD) etc. This sensor shows a humidity sensitivity value of 6.35 ± 0.27 ppm/RH% at 25 °C in the range from 30% RH to 80% RH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1025 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Single-Step CMOS Compatible Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Microchannels Embedded in Silicon
by Marta Kluba, Aslihan Arslan, Ronald Stoute, James Muganda and Ronald Dekker
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040291 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
This paper presents a new method for the CMOS compatible fabrication of microchannels integrated into a silicon substrate. In a single-step DRIE process (Deep Reactive Ion Etching) a network of microchannels with High Aspect Ratio (HAR) up to 10, can be etched in [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new method for the CMOS compatible fabrication of microchannels integrated into a silicon substrate. In a single-step DRIE process (Deep Reactive Ion Etching) a network of microchannels with High Aspect Ratio (HAR) up to 10, can be etched in a silicon substrate through a mesh mask. In the same single etching step, multidimensional microchannels with various dimensions (width, length, and depth) can be obtained by tuning the process and design parameters. These fully embedded structures enable further wafer processing and integration of electronic components like sensors and actuators in wafers with microchannels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1067 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Formation of Crumpled Graphene for Flexible Strain Sensor
by Yinhua Jin, Atul Kulkarni, Hyeong-U Kim, Seokjun Hong and Taesung Kim
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040292 - 21 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Studying the strain of materials on a small scale is very important for applications in strain sensors. Previous studies show that graphene is a promising candidate for strain sensors because of its extraordinary physical and electrical properties. However, these studies were limited to [...] Read more.
Studying the strain of materials on a small scale is very important for applications in strain sensors. Previous studies show that graphene is a promising candidate for strain sensors because of its extraordinary physical and electrical properties. However, these studies were limited to strain applied in a single direction. In this study, flexible strain sensors based on graphene were fabricated and evaluated for strain applied in two directions. For this, the CVD graphene was crumpled with the help of a pre-stretched silicone film. The preliminary results for applied strain in one direction by keeping a fixed strain in the other direction show a significant change in the resistance, up to 20 kΩ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1377 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hierarchically Assembled Titania Based Nanostructures: Innovative and Efficient Strategies for the Synthesis and the Improvement of Sensing Properties
by Vardan Galstyan, Andrea Ponzoni, Iskandar Kholmanov, Elisabetta Comini, Veronica Sberveglieri, Nicola Poli and Giorgio Sberveglieri
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040293 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
We have developed innovative and efficient strategy for the preparation and improvement of sensing performance of well-ordered titania nanotubes. We have synthesized different materials based on titania nanotubes using cost-effective techniques. The morphological and structural analyses of the prepared materials have been carried [...] Read more.
We have developed innovative and efficient strategy for the preparation and improvement of sensing performance of well-ordered titania nanotubes. We have synthesized different materials based on titania nanotubes using cost-effective techniques. The morphological and structural analyses of the prepared materials have been carried out. The sensing properties of the structures have been studied towards NO2. Investigations have shown the functionalization process has crucial effect on sensing properties of titania nanotubes. The obtained results demonstrate that the prepared structures are promising for the potential applications in the area of chemical sensors for the environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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588 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
VO2: A Phase Change Material for Micromechanics
by Nicola Manca, Luca Pellegrino, Teruo Kanki, Warner J. Venstra, Giordano Mattoni, Yoshiyuki Higuchi, Hidekazu Tanaka, Andrea D. Caviglia and Daniele Marré
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040294 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
Micro- and nano-mechanical systems may take advantage from using materials having multiple functional characteristics. VO2 is a compound characterised by a solid state phase transition (SSPT) just above room temperature, consisting in a concurrent metal-insulator transition and a change of lattice symmetry [...] Read more.
Micro- and nano-mechanical systems may take advantage from using materials having multiple functional characteristics. VO2 is a compound characterised by a solid state phase transition (SSPT) just above room temperature, consisting in a concurrent metal-insulator transition and a change of lattice symmetry and parameters. Here, the combination of non-linear electrical response and structural changes is employed to realise a novel high-frequency mechanical actuation scheme, showing direct conversion from DC voltage to mechanical excitation in the MHz range and selective activation of the different mechanical modes of a microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1056 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Silicon Sacrificial Layer Technology for the Production of 3D MEMS (EPyC Process)
by Latifa Louriki, Peter Staffeld, Arnd Kaelberer and Thomas Otto
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040295 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
The EPyC process uses silicon sacrificial layer technology, which makes it possible to generate high volume sacrificial structures of up to 100 microns thickness. The biggest challenge is the rapid and complete removal of the 3D sacrificial structure at the end of the [...] Read more.
The EPyC process uses silicon sacrificial layer technology, which makes it possible to generate high volume sacrificial structures of up to 100 microns thickness. The biggest challenge is the rapid and complete removal of the 3D sacrificial structure at the end of the process. This paper examines and compares in detail two silicon dry etching methods to optimize a new silicon etching process for successful EPyC manufacturing Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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814 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Multilayer Micromechanics Process with Thick Functional Layers (EPyC40)
by Latifa Louriki, Peter Staffeld, Arnd Kaelberer and Thomas Otto
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040296 - 17 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2026
Abstract
The EPyC process (Epi-Poly-Cycle) (by Robert Bosch GmbH) opens up unique opportunities for manufacturing complex 3D MEMS structures having high effectiveness in small space. EPyC40 is an EPyC process with up to 40 μm thick polysilicon layers and sacrificial silicon technique. For successful [...] Read more.
The EPyC process (Epi-Poly-Cycle) (by Robert Bosch GmbH) opens up unique opportunities for manufacturing complex 3D MEMS structures having high effectiveness in small space. EPyC40 is an EPyC process with up to 40 μm thick polysilicon layers and sacrificial silicon technique. For successful manufacturing a 40 μm EPyC the epitaxial polysilicon layer must be electrically and mechanically optimized. A vertical deep trench patterns the functional and sacrificial areas. A passivation must be deposited homogeneously and has to be tight and robust towards silicon-etching gases. For more than one cycle it is necessary to tailor the layer stress of the epitaxial polysilicon and the wafer-bow. The full process for stacking up 5 EPyC cycles with two 40 μm epitaxial polysilicon layers was investigated in detail. A true 3D MEMS device providing high z deflection by use of a vertical comb drive with 40 μm electrodes was built up successfully to prove the feasibility of the EPyC process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1330 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Porous Silicon Carbide for MEMS
by Markus Leitgeb, Christopher Zellner, Georg Pfusterschmied, Michael Schneider and Ulrich Schmid
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040297 - 30 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Metal assisted photochemical etching (MAPCE) of 4H Silicon Carbide (SiC) was utilized to generate locally defined porous areas on single crystalline substrates. Therefore, Platinum (Pt) was sputter deposited on 4H-SiC substrates and patterned with photolithography and lift off. Etching was performed by immersing [...] Read more.
Metal assisted photochemical etching (MAPCE) of 4H Silicon Carbide (SiC) was utilized to generate locally defined porous areas on single crystalline substrates. Therefore, Platinum (Pt) was sputter deposited on 4H-SiC substrates and patterned with photolithography and lift off. Etching was performed by immersing the Pt coated samples into an etching solution containing sodium persulphate and hydrofluoric acid. UV light irradiation was necessary for charge carrier generation while the Pt served as local cathode. The generated porous areas can be used for the generation of integrated cavities in the single crystalline SiC substrates when covered with a chemical vapor deposited thin film of poly-crystalline SiC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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593 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Integration of Silica Aerogels in Microfluidic Chips
by Sina Reede, Frank Bunge and Michael J. Vellekoop
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040298 - 9 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
This paper reports a method to integrate silica aerogels monolithically in microfluidic chips. Silica Aerogel is a highly porous bulk material. The gel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate by a sol-gel process. Polyethylene glycol and an extended aging period were used to strengthen [...] Read more.
This paper reports a method to integrate silica aerogels monolithically in microfluidic chips. Silica Aerogel is a highly porous bulk material. The gel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate by a sol-gel process. Polyethylene glycol and an extended aging period were used to strengthen the matrix minimizing gel shrinkage. This technique allows alcogel structures with high strength and stiffness that withstand high pressure during the subcritical drying process. Hexamethyldisilazane provides for hydrophobizing and prevents the formation of siloxane bonds during the drying process. The resulting transparent aerogels reach porosities of 85%, pore diameters around 50 nm and contact angles of 136°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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604 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Simple Method to Allow Parylene-C Coatings on Gold Substrates
by Sander van den Driesche, Christian Habben, Andre Bödecker, Walter Lang and Michael J. Vellekoop
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040299 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3047
Abstract
Parylene-C, a biocompatible coating material, does not adhere well to metals. This is problematic especially for biomedical devices containing gold structures. In this contribution, we present a simple method to adhere Parylene-C to gold-coated substrates based on thiol-based adhesion promoters. The effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Parylene-C, a biocompatible coating material, does not adhere well to metals. This is problematic especially for biomedical devices containing gold structures. In this contribution, we present a simple method to adhere Parylene-C to gold-coated substrates based on thiol-based adhesion promoters. The effectiveness of the adhesion promoters has been demonstrated by pull-tests on autoclaved Parylene-C coated gold-substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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871 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Driving and Sensing M/NEMS Flexural Vibration Using Dielectric Transduction
by Cécile Fuinel, Fabrice Mathieu and Bernard Legrand
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040300 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1549
Abstract
We show that nanometer-scale dielectric thin films can act as efficient electromechanical transducers to simultaneously drive and sense the vibration of the first flexural mode of micro/nano-cantilevers. Here, 16 μm-long, 5 μm-wide and 350 nm-thick cantilevers are actuated by a 15 nm-thick silicon [...] Read more.
We show that nanometer-scale dielectric thin films can act as efficient electromechanical transducers to simultaneously drive and sense the vibration of the first flexural mode of micro/nano-cantilevers. Here, 16 μm-long, 5 μm-wide and 350 nm-thick cantilevers are actuated by a 15 nm-thick silicon nitride layer, and electrically detected by charge measurement at megahertz frequencies. The displacement was also checked by optical interferometry, and the electromechanical transduction efficiency is extracted and compared to an analytical modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1474 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Electrostatically Actuated Membranes of Cross-Linked Gold Nanoparticles: Novel Concepts for Electromechanical Gas Sensors
by Hendrik Schlicke, Sophia C. Bittinger, Malte Behrens, Mazlum Yesilmen, Hauke Hartmann, Clemens J. Schröter, Gregor T. Dahl and Tobias Vossmeyer
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040301 - 29 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
We report the preparation of freestanding membranes of cross-linked gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and demonstrate their application as electromechanical sensors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). First, we show that the fundamental vibrational mode frequency of electrostatically excited GNP-membranes shifts significantly when exposing them to [...] Read more.
We report the preparation of freestanding membranes of cross-linked gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and demonstrate their application as electromechanical sensors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). First, we show that the fundamental vibrational mode frequency of electrostatically excited GNP-membranes shifts significantly when exposing them to solvent vapors. We attribute this effect mainly to the reduction of the membranes’ pre-stress. Second, the relief in pre-stress upon analyte sorption can also be detected via quasi-static actuation of the membranes. In this case, the increase of the deflection amplitudes at constant bias voltages can be measured as the sensor signal and correlated to the analyte’s concentration. Additionally, we propose a facile route to the fabrication of such hybrid MEMS/NEMS sensors using layer-by-layer spin-coating and contact printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1609 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Microfabrication of Embedding a Flexible Parylene-Based Microelectrode Array within Body-on-a-Chip
by Tatsuya Omaki, Yoshikazu Hirai, Ken-ichiro Kamei, Toshiyuki Tsuchiya and Osamu Tabata
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040302 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
To study drug response on human heart cells and predict drug induced cardiotoxicity, a microfluidic cell culture device with an integrated microelectrode array (MEA) is a promising approach. Here we integrate flexible MEA into microengineered and microfluidic in vitro human models, known as [...] Read more.
To study drug response on human heart cells and predict drug induced cardiotoxicity, a microfluidic cell culture device with an integrated microelectrode array (MEA) is a promising approach. Here we integrate flexible MEA into microengineered and microfluidic in vitro human models, known as “Body-on-a-Chip”, during its fabrication. In this work, Au electrodes are covered by two layers of parylene C films, and then embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, resulting in an easy-to-integrate process and compatible with soft-lithography. For a proof of fabrication concept, the impedance of individual electrode-electrolyte interfaces are measured to show a potential for network electrophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1432 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cu Thin Film Polyimide Heater for Nerve-Net Tactile Sensor
by Yusuke Suganuma, Minoru Sasaki, Takahiro Nakayama, Masanori Muroyama and Yutaka Nonomura
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040303 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Tactile sensing is required for assistant robots. A new stacked sensor head was proposed which detects forces and thermal sensations with a nerve-net LSI chip. To measure temperatures and heat flows, the sensor head required a thin and small heater to heat up [...] Read more.
Tactile sensing is required for assistant robots. A new stacked sensor head was proposed which detects forces and thermal sensations with a nerve-net LSI chip. To measure temperatures and heat flows, the sensor head required a thin and small heater to heat up the sensor head. The features of the polyimide heater are compact, low heat capacity, low power consumption and ease of attaching it to the LSI chip. The polyimide heater consisted of Au 10 nm/Cu 200 nm/Cr 20 nm thickness layers on a polyimide film. The surface of the sensor head heated up to 60 °C by the polyimide heater with 0.3 W. By the Cu thin film polyimide heater, the small stacked sensor head with the nerve-net LSI chip is enable to detect forces, temperatures, and heat flows, simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1392 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fabrication of Sharp Tip-Separable Microneedle Device for Trans-Dermal Drug Delivery Systems
by Yuki Nabekura, Hitoshi Fukuyu, Yoshihiro Hasegawa and Mitsuhiro Shikida
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040304 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
An alignment mechanism for producing a sharp tip-separable microneedle device for trans-dermal drug delivery systems has been developed. The needle and base parts were placed on a mechanical precision motion stage to align their central axes. The overlapping region between them in the [...] Read more.
An alignment mechanism for producing a sharp tip-separable microneedle device for trans-dermal drug delivery systems has been developed. The needle and base parts were placed on a mechanical precision motion stage to align their central axes. The overlapping region between them in the height direction was controlled by inserting a thickness gauge between them. A 400-μm-high sharp tip-separable microneedle device was successfully produced by using the developed alignment mechanism with an accuracy of less than 19 μm. We also demonstrated that it can be used to produce an arrayed tip-separable microneedle device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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309 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Scandium Aluminium Nitride-Based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators
by Michael Schneider, Mario DeMiguel-Ramos, Andrew J. Flewitt, Enrique Iborra and Ulrich Schmid
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040305 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4291
Abstract
Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR) are promising candidates to replace surface acoustic wave devices as filters or delay lines, but also offer exciting opportunities as biological or gas sensors. In this work, solidly mounted FBARs were manufactured by substituting commonly used pure aluminium [...] Read more.
Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR) are promising candidates to replace surface acoustic wave devices as filters or delay lines, but also offer exciting opportunities as biological or gas sensors. In this work, solidly mounted FBARs were manufactured by substituting commonly used pure aluminium nitride (AlN) by scandium doped aluminium nitride (ScAlN) thin films as the piezoelectric layer. The ScAlN-based resonators feature a significant improvement of the electromechanical coupling factor from ~3% to ~12% compared to the pure AlN, while the decreased stiffness of ScAlN results in a decrease of the quality factor from ~300 to ~100 due to increased damping losses in the piezoelectric material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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523 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Segmented Control of Electrostatically Actuated Bimorph Beams
by Kullen Waggoner, Robert Lake, Lavern Starman and John Walton
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040306 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
This research focused on improving the control and sensing of electrostatically actuated, large deflection bimorph beams for optical beam steering. Current iterations of designs utilize a ‘zipper’ beam and have demonstrated large deflection angles. However, with these devices precise control and deflection measurements [...] Read more.
This research focused on improving the control and sensing of electrostatically actuated, large deflection bimorph beams for optical beam steering. Current iterations of designs utilize a ‘zipper’ beam and have demonstrated large deflection angles. However, with these devices precise control and deflection measurements can be difficult to achieve. Through using segmented bias channels of doped polysilicon, modeling shows it is possible to control and measure different segments of the actuation arm, thus controlling the amount of tip, tilt, or piston deflection. This paper discusses current and future designs, along with test procedures and modeling results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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408 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Novel Method for Adhesion between PI-PDMS Using Butyl Rubber for Large Area Flexible Body Patches
by Shivani Joshi, Rishab Bagani, Lucas Beckers and Ronald Dekker
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040307 - 7 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
This paper reports the use of rubber—Polybutadiene as an intermediate adhesive layer for improving the adhesion between polyimide (PI) and silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which is required for a reliable fabrication of flexible/stretchable body patches for various applications. The adhesive bond initiated by the [...] Read more.
This paper reports the use of rubber—Polybutadiene as an intermediate adhesive layer for improving the adhesion between polyimide (PI) and silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which is required for a reliable fabrication of flexible/stretchable body patches for various applications. The adhesive bond initiated by the butyl rubber (BR), apart from being extremely strong, is also chemically resistant and mechanically stable as compared to the state of the art processes of improving adhesion between PI and Silicone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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926 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Incorporation of ZnO Nanostructures in MIS Architecture through Chemical Routes
by Rubén J. Aranda García, A. Escobedo Morales, J. Carrillo López, M. Dominguez Jimenez, N. Carlos Ramírez and José Alberto Luna López
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040308 - 18 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Because it’s physical properties, ZnO is considered a potential semiconductor compound for fabricating electronic and optoelectronic functional devices. In this regard, several growth techniques have been developed in order to meet the requirements of commercial devices based in this material. On the pathway [...] Read more.
Because it’s physical properties, ZnO is considered a potential semiconductor compound for fabricating electronic and optoelectronic functional devices. In this regard, several growth techniques have been developed in order to meet the requirements of commercial devices based in this material. On the pathway for improving the performance of the current devices, low-dimensional ZnO structures seem a promising alternative. Here, we report the process to obtain a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure based on ZnO nanostructures grown on the surface of an anodized aluminum substrate (Al2O3/Al) by chemical routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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583 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Nanofabrication of Vertically Aligned 3D GaN Nanowire Arrays with Sub-50 nm Feature Sizes Using Nanosphere Lift-off Lithography
by Tony Granz, Shinta Mariana, Gerry Hamdana, Feng Yu, Muhammad Fahlesa Fatahilah, Irene Manglano Clavero, Prabowo Puranto, Zhi Li, Uwe Brand, Joan Daniel Prades, Erwin Peiner, Andreas Waag and Hutomo Suryo Wasisto
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040309 - 8 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Vertically aligned 3D gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire arrays with sub-50 nm feature sizes were fabricated using a nanosphere lift-off lithography (NSLL) technique combined with hybrid top-down etching steps (i.e., inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching (ICP-DRIE) and wet chemical etching). Owing to [...] Read more.
Vertically aligned 3D gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire arrays with sub-50 nm feature sizes were fabricated using a nanosphere lift-off lithography (NSLL) technique combined with hybrid top-down etching steps (i.e., inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching (ICP-DRIE) and wet chemical etching). Owing to the well-controlled chemical surface treatment prior to the nanobead deposition and etching process, vertical GaN nanowire arrays with diameter of ~35 nm, pitch of ~350 nm, and aspect ratio of >10 could be realized using 500 nm polystyrene nanobead (PN) masks. This work has demonstrated a feasibility of using NSLL as an alternative for other sophisticated but expensive nanolithography methods to manufacture low-cost but highly ordered 3D GaN nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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451 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thermal Stability of Micro-Structured PDMS Piezo-Electrets under Various Polymeric Reticulation Ratios for Sensor Applications
by Achraf Kachroudi, Skandar Basrour and Alain Sylvestre
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040310 - 21 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1865
Abstract
The effect of the polymeric reticulation on the thermal stability of the piezoelectricity of a micro-structured PDMS piezo-electret was investigated. This new family of flexible piezoelectric materials with very low Young’s modulus is used for wearable sensors and energy harvester devices. The best [...] Read more.
The effect of the polymeric reticulation on the thermal stability of the piezoelectricity of a micro-structured PDMS piezo-electret was investigated. This new family of flexible piezoelectric materials with very low Young’s modulus is used for wearable sensors and energy harvester devices. The best thermal stability was obtained for the piezo-electret material made from the ratio 1:10 between the prepolymer and the crosslinking agent with a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 350 pC/N. The highest piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 750 pC/N was obtained for the ratio 1:20, but the piezoelectricity was lost at 45 °C by thermally stimulated discharge Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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691 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thermoelectric Measurement of a Single, TiO2-Catalyzed Bi2Te3 Nanowire
by S. Hoda Moosavi, Danny Kojda, Maximilian Kockert, Piet Schoenherr, Thorsten Hesjedal, Saskia F. Fischer, Michael Kroener and Peter Woias
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040311 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
We report on the functionality of our Thermoelectric Nanowire Characterization Platform (TNCP). As a proof of concept of our design, we present a set of experimental results obtained from the characterization of a single Bi2Te3 nanowire, allowing for the determination [...] Read more.
We report on the functionality of our Thermoelectric Nanowire Characterization Platform (TNCP). As a proof of concept of our design, we present a set of experimental results obtained from the characterization of a single Bi2Te3 nanowire, allowing for the determination of the nanowire’s electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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762 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
On the Development of Label-Free DNA Sensor Using Silicon Nanonet Field-Effect Transistors
by Thi Thu Thuy Nguyen, Maxime Legallais, Fanny Morisot, Thibauld Cazimajou, Mireille Mouis, Bassem Salem, Valérie Stambouli and Céline Ternon
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040312 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
In this paper, the process and electrical characteristics of DNA sensor devices based on silicon nanonet (SiNN) field-effect transistors are reported. The SiNN, another name of randomly oriented Si nanowires network, was successfully integrated into transistor as p-type channel using standard microelectronic technology. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the process and electrical characteristics of DNA sensor devices based on silicon nanonet (SiNN) field-effect transistors are reported. The SiNN, another name of randomly oriented Si nanowires network, was successfully integrated into transistor as p-type channel using standard microelectronic technology. The SiNN-based transistors exhibit a high initial ON-state current (5.10−8 A) and homogeneous electrical characteristics. For DNA detection, a new and eco-friendly functionalization process based on glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPS) was performed which enables the covalent grafting of DNA probes on SiNN. This hybridization leads to a significant decrease of ON-state current of device. Additionally, it is observed that SiNN devices reveal reproductive current response to DNA detection. We demonstrate, for the first time, the successful integration of SiNN into sensor for electrical label-free DNA detection at low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1756 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Particle Separation with Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD): The Anisotropy Effect
by Eloise Pariset, Jean Berthier, Catherine Pudda, Fabrice Navarro, Béatrice Icard and Vincent Agache
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040313 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3015
Abstract
Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a passive and label-free microfluidic separation technique with a strong potential for biological sample preparation purposes. Numerical and experimental models have been proposed so far to predict the particle behavior in DLD channels. However, they do not take [...] Read more.
Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a passive and label-free microfluidic separation technique with a strong potential for biological sample preparation purposes. Numerical and experimental models have been proposed so far to predict the particle behavior in DLD channels. However, they do not take into account the influence of the pillar anisotropy that induces a secondary pressure gradient in the direction perpendicular to the main flow. The influence of the pillar geometry on the anisotropy magnitude is presented. We show that anisotropy impacts the trajectory of particles in DLD devices and should be included in predictive models for the critical diameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1009 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ionogel—Based Composite Material for CO2 Sensing Deposited on a Chemiresistive Transducer
by Bora Ersoez, Marie-Luise Bauersfeld and Jürgen Wöllenstein
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040314 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
A novel miniaturized carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor based on an IDE transducer is described and characterized. The CO2 sensor based on different semiconducting metal oxide and ionogel composites films deposited by ink-jet printing. The sensor is operated as a simple [...] Read more.
A novel miniaturized carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor based on an IDE transducer is described and characterized. The CO2 sensor based on different semiconducting metal oxide and ionogel composites films deposited by ink-jet printing. The sensor is operated as a simple chemiresistor. The sensors were investigated under trace gas exposure (CO2, NO2, CO and humidity). The CO2 sensitivity is found to be exceptionally high and the sensing mechanism is supposed to be entirely different compared to those of the components of the composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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608 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Protuberant Electrode Structures for New Retinal Implants
by Pedro González Losada, Lionel Rousseau, Marjorie Grzeskowiak, Julie Degardin, Sarah Berhanu, Elisabeth Dubus, Serge Picaud and Gaëlle Lissorgues
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040315 - 9 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Focal stimulation of neural tissue is a challenge in retinal prosthetic devices in which the aim is to improve the spatial resolution of the stimulation and therefore increase the electrode density of the prosthetic devices. Our work intends to create a new implant [...] Read more.
Focal stimulation of neural tissue is a challenge in retinal prosthetic devices in which the aim is to improve the spatial resolution of the stimulation and therefore increase the electrode density of the prosthetic devices. Our work intends to create a new implant able to enhance the focalisation of the stimulation signal through protuberant electrodes. These electrodes are micro fabricated on a soft polyimide substrate using classical metal electrodeposition techniques. Before proceeding with fabrication a FEM model of the electrode’s current density was done to select the best-performing structures and geometries in terms of local stimulation. Based on these models, several prototypes were fabricated and implanted in vivo into a rat’s eye to verify the adaptation to the retina tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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814 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Aerosol Jet Printing of Miniaturized, Low Power Flexible Micro-Hotplates
by Saleem Khan, Tran Phong Nguyen, Laurent Thiery, Pascal Vairac and Danick Briand
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040316 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
We report on printed flexible micro-hotplates operating at high temperature at lower power consμmption than ever reported using aerosol jet printing of fine metallic conductor features. Efficient heating (i.e., 40 mW at 325 °C) was produced by reducing the effective heating area and [...] Read more.
We report on printed flexible micro-hotplates operating at high temperature at lower power consμmption than ever reported using aerosol jet printing of fine metallic conductor features. Efficient heating (i.e., 40 mW at 325 °C) was produced by reducing the effective heating area and substrates thickness. Gold (Au) nanoparticles solution was used for printing micro-hotplates of two different sizes, i.e., 500 × 500 μm2 and 300 × 300 μm2, on 50 μm- and 13 μm-thick PI substrates, respectively. Comsol simulations were used to optimize the thermal design of micro-hotplates. Their power consμmption at 325 °C was of 54 mW for the large hotplate and of 40 mW for the smaller design. These results validate the simple manufacturing of high temperature and power efficient flexible micro-hotplates for applications such as in portable gas and chemical sensors, thermal metrology, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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479 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Repeated Temperature and Humidity Stability of SERS-active Periodical Silver Nanostructure
by Oleksiy Lyutakov, Y. Kalachyova and V. Svorcik
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040317 - 8 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
In this work the effect of physical aging on the plasmonic properties of surface plasmon-polariton supported silver grating was studied. As physical treatment the periodical variation of external temperature, humidity and their combination was applied. It was previously expected, that the physical aging [...] Read more.
In this work the effect of physical aging on the plasmonic properties of surface plasmon-polariton supported silver grating was studied. As physical treatment the periodical variation of external temperature, humidity and their combination was applied. It was previously expected, that the physical aging will results in the silver oxidation, redistribution, and potential worse of plasmonic properties. The oxidation processes were studied using the XPS technique, the changes of surface morphology were examined by AFM, and finally, the shift of plasmonic efficiency was checked using the SERS test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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2076 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Layer by Layer Deposition of Colloidal SnO2 Nano Particles
by Haitao Gao, Xuemeng Lyu, Jürgen Wöllenstein and Stefan Palzer
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040318 - 22 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2257
Abstract
The gas sensing properties of functional metal oxide layers depend on multitude parameters, including vacancy concentration, layer morphology and thickness, size and shape of the nano/microstructure, and porosity. Using colloidal tin oxide inks we demonstrate a layer by layer deposition technique to control [...] Read more.
The gas sensing properties of functional metal oxide layers depend on multitude parameters, including vacancy concentration, layer morphology and thickness, size and shape of the nano/microstructure, and porosity. Using colloidal tin oxide inks we demonstrate a layer by layer deposition technique to control the thickness and composition of gas sensitive layers. To do this we combine inkjet-printing with colloidal suspensions of SnO2 particles to provide a scalable method to interface microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with nano particles. The approach may pave the way towards an industry ready integration technique to incorporate gas sensitive quantum dots or hybrid nanomaterials in arbitrary sensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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265 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Near Infrared Plasmonic Gas Sensing with Doped Metal Oxide Nanocrystals
by Marco Sturaro, Enrico Della Gaspera, Carlo Cantalini, Massimo Guglielmi and Alessandro Martucci
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040319 - 5 Sep 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the application of ZnO doped with gallium (GZO), aluminum (AZO) and germanium (GeZO) nanocrystals as novel plasmonic and chemiresistive sensors for the detection of hazardous gases including hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). GZO, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate the application of ZnO doped with gallium (GZO), aluminum (AZO) and germanium (GeZO) nanocrystals as novel plasmonic and chemiresistive sensors for the detection of hazardous gases including hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). GZO, AZO and GeZO nanocrystals are obtained by non-aqueous colloidal heat-up synthesis with high transparency in the visible range and strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the near IR range, tunable with dopant concentration (up to 20% mol nominal). Thanks to the strong sensitivity of the LSPR to chemical and electrical changes occurring at the surface of the nanocrystals, such optical features can be used to detect the presence of toxic gases. By monitoring the changes in the dopant-induced plasmon resonance in the near infrared, we demonstrate that GZO, AZO and GeZO thin films prepared depositing an assembly of highly doped ZnO colloids are able to optically detect both oxidizing and reducing gases at mild (<100 °C) operating temperatures. Combined optical and electrical measurements show that the dopants within ZnO nanocrystals enhance the gas sensing response compared to undoped ZnO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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735 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optical and Morphological Analysis of c-Si/PSi and c-Si/PSi/MWCNT/SiOx Heterostructures
by Natanael Victoriano Huerta, José Alberto Luna López, Jose David Alvaro Hernández de la Luz, Estela Gómez Barojas and Miguel Angel Domínguez Jimenez
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040320 - 9 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1672
Abstract
In the present work, the optical and morphological properties of Porous Silicon (PSi) in the c-Si-n/PSi and c-Si-n/SiP-n/MWCNT/SiOx structures are studied and analyzed. The PSi layer is grown on n-type c-Si (<0.005 Ω·cm <100>) by electrochemical anodization using different currents as: 10, [...] Read more.
In the present work, the optical and morphological properties of Porous Silicon (PSi) in the c-Si-n/PSi and c-Si-n/SiP-n/MWCNT/SiOx structures are studied and analyzed. The PSi layer is grown on n-type c-Si (<0.005 Ω·cm <100>) by electrochemical anodization using different currents as: 10, 50 and 100 mA. The etching solution used was C2H6O:HF:C3H8O3 in a proportion of 6:3:1 by volume, respectively. The deposition of multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the PSi was done by spin coating, and later the surface was passivated by thermal oxidation. The porosity and thickness were obtained by gravimetry. UV-VIS spectroscopy and photoluminescence were used to obtain the optical properties and SEM was used to analyze the morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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629 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Gas Sensors Based on Individual (Ga, In)2O3 Nanowires
by Elena López-Aymerich, Guillem Domènech-Gil, Mauricio Moreno-Sereno, Joan Daniel Prades, Paolo Pellegrino, Sven Barth and Albert Romano-Rodriguez
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040321 - 21 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
In this work the growth and characterisation of (Ga, In)2O3 NWs inside a CVD furnace using different mixtures of Ga2O3 and In2O3 is reported. The NWs have been characterised by SEM, XRD and TEM, [...] Read more.
In this work the growth and characterisation of (Ga, In)2O3 NWs inside a CVD furnace using different mixtures of Ga2O3 and In2O3 is reported. The NWs have been characterised by SEM, XRD and TEM, proving their cubic crystalline nature similar to In2O3 and the degree of incorporation of Ga in this lattice. Furthermore, gas nanosensors based on single NWs have been fabricated and measured, demonstrating the sensing properties of the synthesized material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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594 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Eni Carbon Silicates: Innovative Hybrid Materials for Room-Temperature Gas Sensing
by Barbara Fabbri, Lucia Bonoldi, Vincenzo Guidi, Giuseppe Cruciani, Davide Casotti, Cesare Malagù, Giuseppe Bellussi, Roberto Millini, Luciano Montanari, Angela Carati, Caterina Rizzo, Erica Montanari and Stefano Zanardi
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040322 - 30 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2119
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to satisfy both materials and technological sciences, on the one hand implementing innovative hybrid materials referred to as ECS (Eni Carbon Silicate) in gas sensors manufacturing, and on the other hand verifying their possible operation at room [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to satisfy both materials and technological sciences, on the one hand implementing innovative hybrid materials referred to as ECS (Eni Carbon Silicate) in gas sensors manufacturing, and on the other hand verifying their possible operation at room temperature as a technological progress. The ECS-14 and ECS-13 phases were employed as functional materials for films deposited by drop coating onto alumina substrates. Room-temperature gas tests were performed to study their potential sensing properties. In humidity conditions, the ECS-14 based sensor showed outstanding performance and a complete calibration vs. moisture concentration was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1084 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Laser Interferometry for Broad Area SPR-Grating Couplers in Chemical Applications
by Mauricio Moreno-Sereno, Noemi Pérez, Guillem Domenech-Gil, Laura Parellada-Monreal, Miguel Martínez-Calderón, Mikel Gómez-Aranzadi, Nasser Darwish, Gemma G. Mandayo and Albert Romano-Rodriguez
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040323 - 28 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1908
Abstract
In this work, the fabrication of a SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance)-grating coupler using Laser Interference Lithography (LIL) has been investigated, giving rise to large area diffraction gratings on a 100 nm-thick gold film. The period of the diffraction grating is Λ = 500 [...] Read more.
In this work, the fabrication of a SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance)-grating coupler using Laser Interference Lithography (LIL) has been investigated, giving rise to large area diffraction gratings on a 100 nm-thick gold film. The period of the diffraction grating is Λ = 500 nm. The SPR sensor has been tested towards several liquids showing a maximum sensitivity of S = 390 nm/RIU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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893 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
MEMS Sensors Based on Very Thin LTCC
by Alexey A. Vasiliev, Anton V. Nisan, Gleb N. Potapov, Nikolay N. Samotaev, Konstantin Yu. Oblov and Anastasia V. Ivanova
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040324 - 16 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2094
Abstract
The application of thin LTCC is a very interesting and promising approach to the fabrication of ceramic MEMS gas sensors. The attempts to use this material were restricted till now by the thickness of commercial material (>50 μm). In this work, we found [...] Read more.
The application of thin LTCC is a very interesting and promising approach to the fabrication of ceramic MEMS gas sensors. The attempts to use this material were restricted till now by the thickness of commercial material (>50 μm). In this work, we found a possibility to fabricate thin LTCC membranes (20–30 μm) stretched on a frame made of 100 μm thick LTCC. Aerosol jet printed Pt microheater and laser cutting of the membrane gave a cantilever shaped microhotplate with hot spot of about 300 × 300 μm. Power consumption of the heater is ~150 mW at 450 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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556 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
DNA-Origami-Aided Lithography for Sub-10 Nanometer Pattern Printing
by Isaac Gállego, Brendan Manning, Joan Daniel Prades, Mònica Mir, Josep Samitier and Ramon Eritja
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040325 - 8 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 8934
Abstract
We report the first DNA-based origami technique that can print addressable patterns on surfaces with sub-10 nm resolution. Specifically, we have used a two-dimensional DNA origami as a template (DNA origami stamp) to transfer DNA with pre-programmed patterns (DNA ink) on gold surfaces. [...] Read more.
We report the first DNA-based origami technique that can print addressable patterns on surfaces with sub-10 nm resolution. Specifically, we have used a two-dimensional DNA origami as a template (DNA origami stamp) to transfer DNA with pre-programmed patterns (DNA ink) on gold surfaces. The DNA ink is composed of thiol-modified staple strands incorporated at specific positions of the DNA origami stamp to create patterns upon thiol-gold bond formation on the surface (DNA ink). The DNA pattern formed is composed of unique oligonucleotide sequences, each of which is individually addressable. As a proof-of-concept, we created a linear pattern of oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles complementary to the DNA ink pattern. We have developed an in silico model to identify key elements in the formation of our DNA origami-driven lithography and nanoparticle patterning as well as simulate more complex nanoparticle patterns on surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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411 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fabrication of Hybrid Microfluidic System on Transparent Substrates for Electrochemical Applications
by E. Holczer, O. Hakkel and P. Fürjes
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040326 - 8 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1440
Abstract
In this work the critical aspects of the process sequence developed for fabrication of hybrid polymer microfluidic systems integrating metal electrode pattern and precisely aligned microfluidic structure are discussed in details. Glass and polycarbonate were considered as primary transparent substrate materials for metal [...] Read more.
In this work the critical aspects of the process sequence developed for fabrication of hybrid polymer microfluidic systems integrating metal electrode pattern and precisely aligned microfluidic structure are discussed in details. Glass and polycarbonate were considered as primary transparent substrate materials for metal (Au, Pt) electrode deposition and the microchannels were formed in multi-layered SU-8 negative photoresist. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layer was proposed as cover layer to ensure proper sealing and sample inlet formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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358 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterization and Ammonia Sensing Properties of 2D SnS2/SnO2−x Flakes-Based Films
by S. G. Leonardi, W. Wlodarski, S. Ippolito, Y. Li, A. Wisitsoraat, N. Donato and G. Neri
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040327 - 9 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Hybrid SnS2-SnO2−x flaked nanostructures were obtained from 2D-SnS2 flakes deposited as a thin sensing film onto a conductometric transducing platform and annealed in air. The formation of 2D-SnS2/SnO2−x mixed phases and the materials morphologies were investigated [...] Read more.
Hybrid SnS2-SnO2−x flaked nanostructures were obtained from 2D-SnS2 flakes deposited as a thin sensing film onto a conductometric transducing platform and annealed in air. The formation of 2D-SnS2/SnO2−x mixed phases and the materials morphologies were investigated by in situ Micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX analysis. As annealing temperature of the sensitive film increases, the response towards ammonia increases showing a maximum at 250 °C. This behavior can be explained on the basis of the morphological modification and the formation of mixed phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Fabrication Tolerance Sensitivity in Large-Area Mid-Infrared Metamaterial Absorbers
by Mohammadamir Ghaderi, Ehsan Karimi, N. Pelin Ayerden and Reinoud F. Wolffenbuttel
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040328 - 8 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Metamaterial absorbers are photonic structures composed of an array of sub-wavelength metallic patterns. Results in literature are usually based on structures of nominal dimensions, despite the significant effect of fabrication tolerances on performance. This research aims to identify the main sources of uncertainty [...] Read more.
Metamaterial absorbers are photonic structures composed of an array of sub-wavelength metallic patterns. Results in literature are usually based on structures of nominal dimensions, despite the significant effect of fabrication tolerances on performance. This research aims to identify the main sources of uncertainty and to investigate their effect, notably that of an irregular surface quality (i.e., roughness) of the thin metallic layer and the lithography related variations in size and shape. The effect of the shape and positioning of the resonance peak was investigated and validated using mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers. This sensitivity analysis is essential to the batch fabrication of metamaterial absorbers for MEMS applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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267 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Novell Hall Magnetometer Using Dynamic Offset Cancellation
by Siya Lozanova, Svetoslav Noykov, L. Altunyan, A. Ivanov and Chavdar Roumenin
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040329 - 9 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
A novel Hall magnetometer using dynamic offset cancellation principle is presented. It consists from a single triangular silicon plate with three contacts and interface electronics. The proposed dynamic offset-cancelling measurement cycle includes three states. During each state, an external circuit is switched to [...] Read more.
A novel Hall magnetometer using dynamic offset cancellation principle is presented. It consists from a single triangular silicon plate with three contacts and interface electronics. The proposed dynamic offset-cancelling measurement cycle includes three states. During each state, an external circuit is switched to the plate contacts in a certain way. This way, the direction of current flow through the Hall plate is changed from phase to phase. At the same time, the output voltage is measured. After averaging the obtained three voltages per a measurement cycle, the offset voltage cancelled and this way the offset-free Hall voltage is obtained. The obtained offset reduction factor is very promising, reaching 120–130. The Hall device sensitivity is about 25 V/AT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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640 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Angle Measurement and 3D Magnetic Field Sensing Using Circular Hall Microsensor
by S. Lozanova, S. Noykov, A. Ivanov and C. Roumenin
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040330 - 8 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1569
Abstract
A new three-axis magnetometer for both 3-D magnetic field sensing and contactless in-plane 360° absolute angle encoding has been developed. The magnetometer is based on the Hall effect and consists of a circular in-plane sensitive CMOS Hall-effect microsensor, biasing and signal conditioning circuits. [...] Read more.
A new three-axis magnetometer for both 3-D magnetic field sensing and contactless in-plane 360° absolute angle encoding has been developed. The magnetometer is based on the Hall effect and consists of a circular in-plane sensitive CMOS Hall-effect microsensor, biasing and signal conditioning circuits. The sensing device contains a narrow n-well ring with a chain of contacts positioned radial on the ring. The signal conditioning circuit gives two output analogue signals: a voltage Vz, proportional to the magnetic field component Bz, and a sine wave function Vxy(t). The magnitude of the in-plane magnetic field B(x,y) is directly proportional to the sine amplitude and the phase Ψ corresponds to the angle between the applied in-plane magnetic field and a reference direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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821 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Monitoring the Etching Process in LPFGs towards Development of Highly Sensitive Sensors
by Ignacio Del Villar, Jose Luis Cruz, Abian Bentor Socorro, Silvia Diaz, Jesus Maria Corres, Francisco Javier Arregui and Ignacio Raul Matias
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040331 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
In this work, the monitoring of the etching process up to a diameter of 30 µm of two LPFG structures has been compared, one of them had initially 125 µm, whereas the second one had 80 µm. By tracking the wavelength shift of [...] Read more.
In this work, the monitoring of the etching process up to a diameter of 30 µm of two LPFG structures has been compared, one of them had initially 125 µm, whereas the second one had 80 µm. By tracking the wavelength shift of the resonance bands during the etching process it is possible to check the quality of etching process (the 80 µm fibre performs better than de 125 µm fibre), and to stop for a specific cladding mode coupling, which permits to obtain an improved sensitivity compared to the initial structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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804 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Absorption Based Characterization Method for Fluid Properties Using Electrowetting-on-Dielectric Forces: Modeling and Fabrication
by Andreas Tröls and Bernhard Jakoby
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040332 - 11 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1606
Abstract
Electrowetting-on-Dielectrics (EWOD) can be used to build a device, where a polar fluid droplet gets actuated between two EWOD electrodes. In our setup, each electrode is located between a laser diode and an oppositely arranged photo diode. In that manner, the presence of [...] Read more.
Electrowetting-on-Dielectrics (EWOD) can be used to build a device, where a polar fluid droplet gets actuated between two EWOD electrodes. In our setup, each electrode is located between a laser diode and an oppositely arranged photo diode. In that manner, the presence of a fluid droplet located above one certain electrode can be optically detected by means of this transmission setup. The droplet’s viscosity dependent switching time, i.e., the time it takes to move the droplet between these two electrodes can be obtained by a time difference measurement of both transmission signals. CFD simulations of the switching time, which depends on the droplet’s viscosity, and furthermore absorption simulations according to the Beer Lambert law have been carried out with DI water as a sample fluid. A low-cost and rapid fabrication method of the so called absorption EWOD (aEWOD) switch is reported and the fabricated EWOD stack is characterized with the aid of surface profilometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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857 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Etched and Nanocoated SMS Fiber Sensor for Detection of Salinity Concentration
by Y. Cardona-Maya, Ignacio Del Villar, Abian Bentor Socorro, Jesus Maria Corres, Francisco Javier Arregui and J. F. Botero-Cadavid
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040333 - 25 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
An optical fibre refractometer has been developed by etching and deposition of a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) on a single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) fibre structure. The interference between modes in this structure is sensitive to the refractive index changes of the surrounding [...] Read more.
An optical fibre refractometer has been developed by etching and deposition of a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) on a single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) fibre structure. The interference between modes in this structure is sensitive to the refractive index changes of the surrounding medium, achieving sensitivities of up to 7000 nm/RIU in the 1.333–1.338 RIU range. A salinity sensor has been implemented as a practical application of this proposed structure. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis and tracking of an interference dip were used to monitor the interference between modes obtaining sensitivities of 0.99 nm/PSU and 0.025 rad/PSU, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1283 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Low-Power Heating Platform for the Characterization and Calibration of Scanning Thermal Probes
by Danick Briand, Tran Phong Nguyen, Etienne Lemaire, L. Thiery and P. Vairac
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040334 - 25 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2068
Abstract
We report on a micro-hotplate technology platform optimized for the calibration of Scanning Thermal Microscopy probes (SThM) used in surface temperature measurement mode. The three chips designed include the same heating area with a calibration area of 10 × 10 µm2 where [...] Read more.
We report on a micro-hotplate technology platform optimized for the calibration of Scanning Thermal Microscopy probes (SThM) used in surface temperature measurement mode. The three chips designed include the same heating area with a calibration area of 10 × 10 µm2 where the SThM probes can land. The 1st design allows to study the influence of the nature of the material on the SThM probes thermal contact resistance. The 2nd design includes a resistive temperature sensor (RTD) integrated on the contact area, which is dedicated to evaluate the capability of a probe to measure a surface temperature. The 3rd design has a contact area made of a suspended platinum membrane for coupling SThM probes with optical thermal measurements. The thermal response of a thermocouple (TC) SThM probe was extracted demonstrating the relevance of these chips for SThM probes characterization and calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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799 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Direct Piezoelectric Coefficient Measurements of PVDF and PLLA under Controlled Strain and Stress
by Francois Bernard, Leticia Gimeno, Bernard Viala, Boris Gusarov and Orphee Cugat
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040335 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3389
Abstract
Open-circuit direct piezoelectric coefficients g31 of bi-axially stretched PVDF and chiral PLLA are reported. This measure is decisive for sensor, generator and energy harvesting applications. We use an in-situ method with contactless voltage measurement during a conventional tensile-test, greatly improving measurement precision [...] Read more.
Open-circuit direct piezoelectric coefficients g31 of bi-axially stretched PVDF and chiral PLLA are reported. This measure is decisive for sensor, generator and energy harvesting applications. We use an in-situ method with contactless voltage measurement during a conventional tensile-test, greatly improving measurement precision (error less than 10%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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735 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Transparent Glass/SU8-Based Microfluidic Device with on-Channel Electrical Sensors
by Mohammadmahdi Talebi, Keith Cobry, Ananya Sengupta and Peter Woias
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040336 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
This paper presents a transparent microfluidic chip designed for continuous-flow photochemistry applications with integrated electrical sensing. The transparent chip design allows for microscale photochemistry, and permits direct, real-time visual/electrical observation. The microchip uses optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes for reagent and [...] Read more.
This paper presents a transparent microfluidic chip designed for continuous-flow photochemistry applications with integrated electrical sensing. The transparent chip design allows for microscale photochemistry, and permits direct, real-time visual/electrical observation. The microchip uses optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes for reagent and phase tracking. High-speed videography was performed to validate the electrical measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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2146 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Monolithic Three-Axis Accelerometer with Wafer-Level Package by CMOS MEMS Process
by S. H. Tseng, C. Y. Yeh, A. Y. Chang, Y. J. Wang, P. C. Chen, H. H. Tsai and Y. Z. Juang
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040337 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
This paper presents a monolithic three-axis accelerometer with wafer-level package by CMOS MEMS process. The compositions of the microstructure are selected from CMOS layers in order to suppress the in-plane and out-of-plane bending deflection caused by the residual stresses in multiple layers. A [...] Read more.
This paper presents a monolithic three-axis accelerometer with wafer-level package by CMOS MEMS process. The compositions of the microstructure are selected from CMOS layers in order to suppress the in-plane and out-of-plane bending deflection caused by the residual stresses in multiple layers. A switched-capacitor sensing circuit with a trimming mechanism is used to amplify the capacitive signal, and decrease the output dc offset voltage to ensure the desired output voltage swing. The CMOS MEMS wafer is capped with a silicon wafer using a polymer-based material. The measured sensitivities with and without a wafer-level package range from 113 mV/G to 124 mV/G for the in-plane (x-axis, y-axis) accelerometer, and from 50 mV/G to 53 mV/G for the z-axis accelerometer, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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661 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Linear-Logarithmic CMOS Image Sensor with Reduced FPN Using Photogate and Cascode MOSFET
by Myunghan Bae, Byung-Soo Choi, Sang-Hwan Kim, Jimin Lee, Chang-Woo Oh, Pyung Choi and Jang-Kyoo Shin
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040338 - 18 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2162
Abstract
We propose a linear-logarithmic CMOS image sensor with reduced fixed pattern noise (FPN). The proposed linear-logarithmic pixel based on a conventional 3-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) structure has additional circuits in which a photogate and a cascade MOSFET are integrated with the pixel [...] Read more.
We propose a linear-logarithmic CMOS image sensor with reduced fixed pattern noise (FPN). The proposed linear-logarithmic pixel based on a conventional 3-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) structure has additional circuits in which a photogate and a cascade MOSFET are integrated with the pixel structure in conjunction with the photodiode. To improve FPN, we applied the PMOSFET hard reset method as a reset transistor instead of NMOSFET reset normally used in APS. The proposed pixel has been designed and fabricated using 0.18-μm 1-poly 6-metal standard CMOS process. A 120 × 240 pixel array of test chip was divided into 2 different subsections with 60 × 240 sub-arrays, so that the proposed linear-logarithmic pixel with reduced FPN could be compared with the conventional linear-logarithmic pixel. We confirmed a reduction of pixel response variation which affected image quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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279 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Resin Flow Monitoring in Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Composite
by Maryam Kahali Moghaddam, Arne Breede, Adli Dimassi and Walter Lang
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040339 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Using piezoresistive pressure sensors and in-situ measurement of pressure gradient, the infusion of resin in fiber reinforced composite can be optimized. The optimization of resin flow in Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI) is necessary to produce high-quality fibre-reinforced composites. To control the resin [...] Read more.
Using piezoresistive pressure sensors and in-situ measurement of pressure gradient, the infusion of resin in fiber reinforced composite can be optimized. The optimization of resin flow in Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI) is necessary to produce high-quality fibre-reinforced composites. To control the resin infusion process, piezoresistive pressure sensors are embedded to detect the resin flow and resin pressure in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). The measured pressure validates the accuracy of analytical calculations, based on Darcy’s law in a porous medium. The sensors are of small size and therefore do not affect the natural flow of the resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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676 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Combined Temperature and Stress Sensor in 0.18 μm CMOS Technology
by Samuel Huber, Samuel François and Oliver Paul
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040340 - 8 Aug 2017
Viewed by 2697
Abstract
This paper presents a solution for on-chip temperature and mechanical stress measurement in CMOS integrated circuits. Thereby both temperature and stress sensors are realized as resistive Wheatstone bridges. By design, both sensors show outputs affected by non-linearities and parasitic cross-sensitivities. The novelty presented [...] Read more.
This paper presents a solution for on-chip temperature and mechanical stress measurement in CMOS integrated circuits. Thereby both temperature and stress sensors are realized as resistive Wheatstone bridges. By design, both sensors show outputs affected by non-linearities and parasitic cross-sensitivities. The novelty presented in this work is to combine both non-ideal sensor outputs by applying a two-dimensional Newton-Raphson method to extract the actual values of temperature and mechanical stress which were obtained with errors of less than 0.5 K and 0.5 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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334 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Harsh Environmental Surface Acoustic Wave Temperature Sensor Based on Pure and Scandium doped Aluminum Nitride on Sapphire
by Manuel Gillinger, Theresia Knobloch, Michael Schneider and Ulrich Schmid
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040341 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as low power MEMS temperature sensors using reactive sputter deposited aluminum nitride (AlN) and scandium doped aluminum nitride (AlScN) as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates. In detail, devices with a wavelength of [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as low power MEMS temperature sensors using reactive sputter deposited aluminum nitride (AlN) and scandium doped aluminum nitride (AlScN) as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates. In detail, devices with a wavelength of 16 μm are fabricated with both AlN and AlScN films having a resonance frequency at room temperature of ~354 MHz and ~349 MHz, respectively. The samples are placed in a furnace and measured in argon atmosphere up to 800 °C. The temperature dependency on the frequency shows for both materials a linear decrease up to the maximum measured temperature level resulting in constant temperature coefficients of −27.62 kHz/°C and −27.81 kHz/°C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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821 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
MEMS Capacitive Microphone with Dual-Anchored Membrane
by Chang Han Je, Ju Hyun Jeon, Sung Q. Lee and Woo Seok Yang
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040342 - 9 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
In this paper, we proposed a MEMS capacitive microphone with a dual-anchored membrane. The proposed dual anchor could minimize the deviation of operating characteristics of the membrane according to the fabrication process variation. The membrane is connected and fixed to the back plate [...] Read more.
In this paper, we proposed a MEMS capacitive microphone with a dual-anchored membrane. The proposed dual anchor could minimize the deviation of operating characteristics of the membrane according to the fabrication process variation. The membrane is connected and fixed to the back plate insulating silicon nitride structures instead to the sacrificial bottom insulating oxide layer so that its effective size and boundary conditions are not changed according to the process variation. The proposed dual-anchored MEMS microphone is fabricated by the conventional fabrication process without no additional process and mask. It has a sensing membrane of 500 μm diameter, an air gap of 2.0 μm and 12 dual anchors of 15 μm diameter. The resonant frequency and the pull-in voltage of the fabricated device is 36.3 ± 1.3 kHz and 6.55 ± 0.20 V, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
MEMS Inertial Switch for Military Applications
by Hyo-Nam Lee, Seung-Gyo Jang, Sungryeol Lee, Jeong-Sun Lee and Young-Suk Hwang
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040343 - 9 Aug 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
We developed a MEMS inertial switch (hereafter, the switch) for an ignition system of missiles. The developed switch consists of four folded beams and a plate suspended by the beams, analogous to a well-known spring-mass system. The plate and four beams compose a [...] Read more.
We developed a MEMS inertial switch (hereafter, the switch) for an ignition system of missiles. The developed switch consists of four folded beams and a plate suspended by the beams, analogous to a well-known spring-mass system. The plate and four beams compose a single body, which is made from single crystalline silicon wafers by deep reactive ion etching techniques. This process gives high thermal stability and stress-free structure. The switching, either open or close a conductive path, is achieved by the movement of the plate suspended with four folded beams when the acceleration exceeds a predetermined threshold. With a spinning-rate table, the function of the switch was tested at various revolution speeds. The test results are compared with the calculation results by our analytical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
CMOS Technology Integrated Terahertz Rectifier
by Rosario Rao, Giovanni De Amicis, Andrea Del Monte and Fabrizio Palma
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040344 - 22 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
We present new developments of CMOS compatible direct conversion terahertz detector operating at room temperature. The rectenna consists of an integrated antenna, realized on the surface of the integrated circuit and connected to a nanometric metallic whisker at one of its edges. The [...] Read more.
We present new developments of CMOS compatible direct conversion terahertz detector operating at room temperature. The rectenna consists of an integrated antenna, realized on the surface of the integrated circuit and connected to a nanometric metallic whisker at one of its edges. The rectifying device can be obtained introducing just minor modifications of the charge storage well in conventional CMOS active pixel image sensor devices, making the proposed solution easy to integrate with existing imaging systems. In the paper we present technological developments of the rectifier structure, realized with minor changes from a standard 0.15 µm technology node. We also present the study of a patch antenna which can be directly integrated on the chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Cricket Inspired High Efficiency MEMS Speakers
by Meera Garud, Vamsy Godthi, Jayaprakash Reddy, Ajay Dangi and Rudra Pratap
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040345 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
We report on the realization of a biomimetic MEMS speaker inspired by field crickets. This speaker is at least five times thinner and four times more efficient than the current dynamic speakers used in portable electronics. We present results of the acoustic characterization [...] Read more.
We report on the realization of a biomimetic MEMS speaker inspired by field crickets. This speaker is at least five times thinner and four times more efficient than the current dynamic speakers used in portable electronics. We present results of the acoustic characterization of a single MEMS speaker. Computational extrapolation of the results suggests that an array of such thin speakers will be highly efficient compared to the existing speakers of equal area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
A Comb-Based Capacitive MEMS Microphone with High Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Modeling and Noise-Level Analysis
by Sebastian Anzinger, Johannes Manz, Alfons Dehe and Gabriele Schrag
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040346 - 8 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2792
Abstract
We present a physics-based system-level model for optimizing a novel comb-based capacitive MEMS microphone towards high signal-to-noise ratios. The model includes non-linear coupling effects between the electrodes as well as the physical dependencies on relevant design parameters, thus enabling predictive statements w.r.t. the [...] Read more.
We present a physics-based system-level model for optimizing a novel comb-based capacitive MEMS microphone towards high signal-to-noise ratios. The model includes non-linear coupling effects between the electrodes as well as the physical dependencies on relevant design parameters, thus enabling predictive statements w.r.t. the device performance. It is calibrated and validated by finite element simulations and laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of first prototypes. Being formulated as a generalized Kirchhoffian network, it can be implemented in a standard circuit simulation tool. The predicted signal-to-noise ratio of this concept reaches up to 78 dB(A), which significantly exceeds state-of-the-art devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
1 Million-Q Optomechanical Microdisk Resonators with Very Large Scale Integration
by Maxime Hermouet, Louise Banniard, Marc Sansa, Alexandre Fafin, Marc Gely, Sébastien Pauliac, Pierre Brianceau, Jacques-Alexandre Dallery, Pierre Etienne Allain, Eduardo Gil Santos, Ivan Favero, Thomas Alava, Guillaume Jourdan and Sébastien Hentz
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040347 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Cavity optomechanics have become a promising route towards the development of ultrasensitive sensors for a wide range of applications including mass, chemical and biological sensing. We demonstrate the potential of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) with state-of-the-art low-loss performance silicon optomechanical microdisks for [...] Read more.
Cavity optomechanics have become a promising route towards the development of ultrasensitive sensors for a wide range of applications including mass, chemical and biological sensing. We demonstrate the potential of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) with state-of-the-art low-loss performance silicon optomechanical microdisks for real-world applications. We report microdisks exhibiting optical Whispering Gallery Modes (WGM) with 1 million quality factors. These high-Q microdisks allow their Brownian motion to be resolved at few 100 MHz in ambient air. Such performance shows our VLSI process is a viable approach for the next generation of high-end sensors operating in vacuum, gas or liquid phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Characterization of Acoustic Sources by Optical Feedback Interferometry
by Fernando Urgiles, Julien Perchoux and Thierry Bosch
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040348 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Sound can be described as the propagation of pressure variations in compressible media that involves compression and expansion and induces a change in the density of the medium. This change in acoustic pressure as it induces a change of the refractive index can [...] Read more.
Sound can be described as the propagation of pressure variations in compressible media that involves compression and expansion and induces a change in the density of the medium. This change in acoustic pressure as it induces a change of the refractive index can be measured by optical methods, the most recent being the optical feedback interferometry. With this technique, a laser diode is beaming on a reflective surface thus creating a cavity where the acoustic wave propagates. This paper presents anovel experimental technique to measure radiation pattern of acoustic sources based on optical feedback interferometry in a laser diode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Analysis on Chattering Phenomena by the Tilt of the Proof Mass in MEMS Switch
by Jung-Min Hwang, Jeongki Hwang, Daeho Ryu, Seung-Gyo Jang and Yong-Kweon Kim
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040349 - 29 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1685
Abstract
This paper reports an analysis on the relationship between the tilt of the proof mass in MEMS switch and the chattering phenomena. Low-g MEMS acceleration switch developed by Kim’s group was modelled in 2D and displacements of each end of the proof mass [...] Read more.
This paper reports an analysis on the relationship between the tilt of the proof mass in MEMS switch and the chattering phenomena. Low-g MEMS acceleration switch developed by Kim’s group was modelled in 2D and displacements of each end of the proof mass were analysed using RK 4th method. Some elementary assumptions were made to ease the modelling and analysis. The chattering time of the MEMS switch gets longer as the tilt of the proof mass increases. The reason is that the elongated travel distance of one end of proof mass increases the impact velocity and lengthens the bouncing back time. From the results, we found that the chattering phenomena can last very long even if the tilt of the proof mass is very small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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536 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Torsional Moving Electric Field Sensor with Modulated Sensitivity and without Reference Ground
by Sampath Liyanage, Cyrus Shafai, Tao Chen and Athula Rajapakse
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040350 - 8 Aug 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
A MEMS electric field sensor is presented with wide measurement resolution and adjustable sensitivity. The sense membrane is mounted using torsional springs and employs opposite biased electrodes on its surface, causing rotation in presence of an electric field, enabling operation without reference ground. [...] Read more.
A MEMS electric field sensor is presented with wide measurement resolution and adjustable sensitivity. The sense membrane is mounted using torsional springs and employs opposite biased electrodes on its surface, causing rotation in presence of an electric field, enabling operation without reference ground. Control of electrode bias enables adjustable linear measurement range from V/m to MV/m. Compared to earlier works with vertical moving sense membranes, higher sensitivity is achieved for the same bias voltage. Employing on-board electronics to enable independent resonant operation, a noise limited resolution of 3 V/m was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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801 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Large Tilt Angle Lorentz Force Actuated Micro-Mirror with 3 DOF for Optical Applications
by Elnaz Afsharipour, Byoungyoul Park and Cyrus Shafai
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040351 - 8 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
A versatile MEMS micro-mirror for optical platforms is presented, that operates using Lorentz force for actuation, resulting in low voltage operation. While maintaining below 20 mA drive current, this mirror has a tilting angle of over 50° and 20° around two diagonal axes [...] Read more.
A versatile MEMS micro-mirror for optical platforms is presented, that operates using Lorentz force for actuation, resulting in low voltage operation. While maintaining below 20 mA drive current, this mirror has a tilting angle of over 50° and 20° around two diagonal axes and a linear motion of 1.5 mm in vertical axis. Compared to other works, it has larger angle of rotation and additional out of plane linear motion. The temperature rise on the mirror is kept bellow 25 °C to avoid thermal expansion of the support flexures and curvature of the mirror. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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933 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Steady-State and Transient Response of a Micromechanical Broadband Shoaling Amplifier
by Michelle Müller, Verena Maiwald, Cosmin Roman and Christofer Hierold
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040352 - 7 Sep 2017
Viewed by 1902
Abstract
An in-plane MEMS broadband shoaling motion amplitude amplifier based on a coupled mass-spring system is presented. It is shown how the amplification amplitude can be traded for the operational bandwidth by design. Three devices with different numbers of masses (three, five and seven), [...] Read more.
An in-plane MEMS broadband shoaling motion amplitude amplifier based on a coupled mass-spring system is presented. It is shown how the amplification amplitude can be traded for the operational bandwidth by design. Three devices with different numbers of masses (three, five and seven), but all of them with the same total mass, were fabricated in silicon. The achieved baseline-amplification × bandwidth product ranges from 18.0 dB × 11.5 kHz for the seven mass device to 27.7 dB × 3.9 kHz for the three mass device. Transient recordings show amplification along the mass-spring-chain. The response time to reach the baseline amplification was found to be in the order of 10−4 s. This passive device can be used for ultra-low power structural and environmental monitoring (e.g., bridges, pipelines or rock-faces). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1080 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Electromagnetically-Driven Piezoresistively Sensed CMOS MEMS Scanning Mirror for Projection Display
by Zhong-He Li, Yu-Tang Lin and Michael S.-C. Lu
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040353 - 8 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Bi-axial MEMS scanning mirrors are considered the key component for applications like laser scanning projectors and Lidars. Most studies have shown fabricated devices driven by open-loop operation without sensing, making it difficult to meet the requirements for practical applications. To facilitate bi-axial closed-loop [...] Read more.
Bi-axial MEMS scanning mirrors are considered the key component for applications like laser scanning projectors and Lidars. Most studies have shown fabricated devices driven by open-loop operation without sensing, making it difficult to meet the requirements for practical applications. To facilitate bi-axial closed-loop operation, this work presents an electro magnetically-driven scanning mirror with piezoresistive sensing conveniently implemented in a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process. The measured resonant frequencies with respect to the slow and fast axes are 4.3 and 36.05 kHz, respectively, with the aim to provide SXGA display resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1158 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
High Gauge Factor Piezoresistors Using Aluminium Induced Crystallisation of Silicon at Low Thermal Budget
by Ian Chuang, Aron Michael and Chee Yee Kwok
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040354 - 5 Sep 2017
Viewed by 2042
Abstract
This paper reports on polysilicon piezo-resistors that are fabricated at a low thermal budget using aluminium-induced-crystallization (AIC) of ultra-high-vacuum e-beam evaporated silicon films. By in-situ phosphorus doping of precursor amorphous silicon films e-beam evaporated at room temperature on aluminium layer, we are able [...] Read more.
This paper reports on polysilicon piezo-resistors that are fabricated at a low thermal budget using aluminium-induced-crystallization (AIC) of ultra-high-vacuum e-beam evaporated silicon films. By in-situ phosphorus doping of precursor amorphous silicon films e-beam evaporated at room temperature on aluminium layer, we are able to increase and control the gauge factor of the polysilicon films formed by AIC at 450 °C. Piezo-resistors made from the polysilicon films are integrated on microcantilever beams to measure their gauge factors. Gauge factors as high as 62 is obtained for 2 × 1018/cm3 phosphorus doping level in the precursor amorphous silicon film. The measured gauge factors are significantly higher than previously reported values for polysilicon films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Tuning the Anti-Phase Mode Sensitivity to Vibrations of a MEMS Gyroscope
by Pierre Janioud, Alexandra Koumela, Christophe Poulain, Patrice Rey, Audrey Berthelot, Panagiota Morfouli and Guillaume Jourdan
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040355 - 8 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
This paper proposes a stiffness correction method to improve the resilience to vibration of a dual-mass MEMS gyroscope with a particular focus near the resonance frequency of the anti-phase drive mode (fDa), i.e., its operational mode. Because of its balanced [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a stiffness correction method to improve the resilience to vibration of a dual-mass MEMS gyroscope with a particular focus near the resonance frequency of the anti-phase drive mode (fDa), i.e., its operational mode. Because of its balanced shape, this operating mode is ideally insensitive to vibrations. However, fabrication imperfections generates a residual sensitivity to parasitic vibrations that can disturb normal operation of the sensor. This work shows that the application of a DC voltage (Vtr) at the drive actuation electrode enables to decrease this sensitivity by a factor of at least 30 because of the stiffness tuning of the dual-mass structure. Experiments are performed to confirm this assumption and an efficient stiffness correction method is proposed to improve device operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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3291 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Catheter Flow Sensor for Breathing Measurements at Different Levels of Tracheobronchial Airway
by Tomohiro Fujinori, Yoshihiro Hasegawa, Miyoko Matsushima, Tsutomo Kawabe and Mitsuhiro Shikida
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040356 - 21 Aug 2017
Viewed by 1991
Abstract
We attempted to develop different sized catheter flow sensors for evaluating breathing characteristics at different levels of the tracheobronchial airway in a lung system. Two catheter flow sensors with 1.8 and 3.5 mm outer diameters were designed for measuring breathing characteristics in bronchus- [...] Read more.
We attempted to develop different sized catheter flow sensors for evaluating breathing characteristics at different levels of the tracheobronchial airway in a lung system. Two catheter flow sensors with 1.8 and 3.5 mm outer diameters were designed for measuring breathing characteristics in bronchus- and bronchiole- regions in the lung system, respectively. They were fabricated by using photolithography and heat shrinkable tube packaging processes. We experimentally investigated the fundamental sensor characteristic and found that the sensor output depended on the mean flow velocity. The developed catheter flow sensors also successfully detected the oscillating airflow produced by an artificial ventilator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Micromachined Tube Type Thermal Flow Sensor for Adult-Sized Tracheal Intubation Tube
by Shun Watanabe, Yoshihiro Hasegawa, Miyoko Matsushima, Tsutomu Kawabe and Mitsuhiro Shikida
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040357 - 7 Sep 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
We designed and fabricated a tube-type thermal flow sensor for fabricating an adult-sized tracheal intubation tube device intended for clinical practice. The sensor film was packaged into the inside surface of the tube by interface tension and parylene coating, and a flow sensor [...] Read more.
We designed and fabricated a tube-type thermal flow sensor for fabricating an adult-sized tracheal intubation tube device intended for clinical practice. The sensor film was packaged into the inside surface of the tube by interface tension and parylene coating, and a flow sensor for an adult-sized tracheal intubation tube was successfully produced. We experimentally investigated flow rate detection and response time and found that the flow sensor fitted King’s model in terms of flow rate detection and has a sufficiently short response time of 59 ms. Thus, we concluded that the developed sensor will be applicable to measuring breathing characteristics of adults in the near future. Finally, the developed sensor was assembled into a tracheal intubation tube actually used in medical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Temperature Sensors Integrated into a CMOS Image Sensor
by Accel Abarca, Shuang Xie, Jules Markenhof and Albert Theuwissen
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040358 - 7 Sep 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
In this work, a novel approach is presented for measuring relative temperature variations inside the pixel array of a CMOS image sensor itself. This approach can give important information when compensation for dark (current) fixed pattern noise (FPN) is needed. The test image [...] Read more.
In this work, a novel approach is presented for measuring relative temperature variations inside the pixel array of a CMOS image sensor itself. This approach can give important information when compensation for dark (current) fixed pattern noise (FPN) is needed. The test image sensor consists of pixels and temperature sensors pixels (=Tixels). The size of the Tixels is 11 μm × 11 μm. Pixels and Tixels are placed next to each other in the active imaging array and use the same readout circuits. The design and the first measurements of the combined image-temperature sensor are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Development of Small-Footprint Thermal Sensor Detecting Airflow at Mouth in Baby
by Yuki Mitsunari, Yoshihiro Hasegawa, Miyoko Matsushima, Tsutomu Kawabe and Mitsuhiro Shikida
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040359 - 7 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
This paper presents a novel tube flow sensor to measure airflow in mouths for detecting respiration and heartbeat signals of premature babies in incubators. A flow rate sensor with temperature compensation and a flow direction sensor were combined to decrease their footprint on [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel tube flow sensor to measure airflow in mouths for detecting respiration and heartbeat signals of premature babies in incubators. A flow rate sensor with temperature compensation and a flow direction sensor were combined to decrease their footprint on a sensor film. The fabricated sensor film was assembled onto the inside surface of the tube, and its detection properties were investigated. The sensor output in the flow rate sensor obeyed King’s model. The value of output in the flow-direction sensor was changed in accordance with the change of the airflow direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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697 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flexible Hydrogel Capacitive Pressure Sensor for Underwater Applications
by Elgar Kanhere, Meghali Bora, Jianmin Miao and Michael Triantafyllou
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040360 - 7 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
This paper reports development of a novel, flexible hydrogel based capacitive pressure sensor. It features a simple design of hydrogel thin film sandwiched between two gold electrodes. The sensor shows linear increase in output with increase in pressure. The microporous network of hydrogel [...] Read more.
This paper reports development of a novel, flexible hydrogel based capacitive pressure sensor. It features a simple design of hydrogel thin film sandwiched between two gold electrodes. The sensor shows linear increase in output with increase in pressure. The microporous network of hydrogel enables high water retention while its flexible and stretchable structure ensures usage over large areas. These factors, combined with its stability in water, make it an ideal candidate for underwater applications. Further, the physical and chemical properties of hydrogels can be tailored to tune the capacitance to specific sensing needs. Flexible arrays of capacitive sensors with hydrogel hold great potential for underwater smart skin applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Portable SAW Impedance Sensor Using a 1-Port Resonator Approach
by Vu Hoa Nguyen, Oliver Peters, Sam Serve and Uwe Schnakenberg
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040361 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
All actually used SAW sensors have in common that they analyze the transmission characteristics of propagating SAWs. Here, a portable device using the SAW-based impedance sensor type based on one interdigital transducer (IDT) simultaneously as SAW generator and sensor element (1-port approach) is [...] Read more.
All actually used SAW sensors have in common that they analyze the transmission characteristics of propagating SAWs. Here, a portable device using the SAW-based impedance sensor type based on one interdigital transducer (IDT) simultaneously as SAW generator and sensor element (1-port approach) is presented. The input port reflection coefficient S11 is measured at the IDT instead of the commonly used S21 transmission forward gain parameter. As a novelty, the so far required expensive vector network analyzer (VNA) is replaced by a hand-held device to measure the impedance spectrum of the SAW sensor by RF-gain-phase meters. The pivotal aspect of the portable system is the transfer of the sophisticated high frequency approach into a quasi-static one. This enables the use of simple lumped electronics without the need of impedance matching circuits. Proof-of-concept was carried out by measuring conductivities of phosphate-buffered solutions (PBS) and viscosities of glycerin. Sensitivities for conductivity of 64 Hz/S cm−1 and for viscosity of 122 mΩ/mPas were obtained, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Ferroelectret Receiver with Additional DC Voltage
by Mate Gaal, Rui Caldeira, Jürgen Bartusch and Mario Kupnik
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040362 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Highly sensitive air-coupled ultrasonic sensors are essential for various applications such as testing of composite materials. One of the major challenges for the development of air-coupled ultrasonic sensors is the impedance matching to air. With a lower acoustic impedance than the usual piezoelectric [...] Read more.
Highly sensitive air-coupled ultrasonic sensors are essential for various applications such as testing of composite materials. One of the major challenges for the development of air-coupled ultrasonic sensors is the impedance matching to air. With a lower acoustic impedance than the usual piezoelectric materials, charged cellular polypropylene film (cPP) offers better matching to air with a similar piezoelectric coefficient. The piezoelectric behaviour demonstrated by cPP comes from polarized air cells that create a permanent internal voltage. The sensitivity of the sensor varies with the application of an additional DC bias voltage. Thus, this work presents a cPP ultrasonic sensor with an improvement of up to 15 ± 1 dB on the signal-to-noise ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Single-Element Omnidirectional Piezoelectric Ultrasound Transducer for under Water Communication
by Sina Sadeghpour, Sebastian Meyers, Jean-Pierre Kruth, Jef Vleugels and Robert Puers
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040363 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
This paper presents the design and fabrication procedure of a single-element omnidirectional piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, which can be utilized for under water communication. The transducer consists of a spherical silicon infiltrated silicon carbide (Si-SiC) body and is able to perform communication at 160 [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and fabrication procedure of a single-element omnidirectional piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, which can be utilized for under water communication. The transducer consists of a spherical silicon infiltrated silicon carbide (Si-SiC) body and is able to perform communication at 160 kHz with a Q factor of about 5.6 over a distance of more than one meter. The circumferential pressure amplitude of the beam pattern of the transducer varies less than 10 dB, which allows reliable communication between different transducers at an arbitrary orientation with respect to each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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1030 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (pMUT) Array, for Wide Bandwidth Underwater Communication Applications
by Sina Sadeghpour, Paulius Pobedinskas, Ken Haenen and Robert Puers
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040364 - 7 Aug 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2992
Abstract
This paper presents an array of five aluminum nitride (AlN) based piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (pMUTs) with different dimensions operating at 540–2360 kHz in air. Due to the damping effect of water or oil on the vibration of each individual pMUT, their frequency [...] Read more.
This paper presents an array of five aluminum nitride (AlN) based piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (pMUTs) with different dimensions operating at 540–2360 kHz in air. Due to the damping effect of water or oil on the vibration of each individual pMUT, their frequency response tends to merge and significantly increases the bandwidth of the pMUTs array. The device is fabricated based on the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process on the backside of an SOI wafer to realize the circular diaphragms. Theoretical calculations, measured frequency response, simulation results, and detail of the fabrication are explained in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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875 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mechanical Characterization of (La,Sr)MnO3 Microbridges for Thermometric Applications
by Federico Remaggi, Luca Pellegrino, Nicola Manca, Cristina Bernini and Daniele Marré
Proceedings 2017, 1(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings1040365 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) made of heterostructures of crystalline oxide materials with targeted physical properties may be applied as sensors having different integrated functionalities. In this work, we explore the feasibility of manganite thin film based epitaxial MEMS for thermometric micromechanical sensing. We investigate [...] Read more.
MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) made of heterostructures of crystalline oxide materials with targeted physical properties may be applied as sensors having different integrated functionalities. In this work, we explore the feasibility of manganite thin film based epitaxial MEMS for thermometric micromechanical sensing. We investigate the mechanical properties of La1−xSrxMnO3, with x ≈ 1/3, freestanding microbridges as a function of temperature for applications in the field of micromechanical temperature sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Proceedings of Eurosensors 2017, Paris, France, 3–6 September 2017)
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Proceeding Paper
Thin Film PZT Acoustic Sensor for Fully Implantable Cochlear Implants
by Bedirhan İlik, Aziz Koyuncuoğlu, Hasan Uluşan, Salar Chamanian, Dilek Işık, Özlem Şardan-Sukas and Haluk Külah