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Infrastructures, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Monitoring, maintaining, and rehabilitating structures require well-documented visual inspections. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have revolutionized surveying. By utilizing both technologies, a comprehensive 3D image-based model of the railway bridge's deck was created. TLS captured side and bottom sections, while UAV-CRP captured top, side, and track sections. Merging both models through post-processing generated an accurate 3D representation. A 3D as-designed model based on bridge plans was also developed. Comparing as-designed to as-is models through 3D digital registration revealed slight deviations in structural dimensions, averaging 9 mm. View this paper
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11 pages, 2379 KiB  
Article
Deflection-Based Approach for Flexible Pavement Design in Thailand
by Auckpath Sawangsuriya, Tunwin Svasdisant and Poranic Jitareekul
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070116 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1804
Abstract
The Department of Highways (DOH), Thailand, has adopted both empirical and mechanistic approaches for flexible pavement analysis and design. Recently, the deflection-based design approach has been comprehensively reviewed by the DOH for the possible adoption of national design standards and practices. One of [...] Read more.
The Department of Highways (DOH), Thailand, has adopted both empirical and mechanistic approaches for flexible pavement analysis and design. Recently, the deflection-based design approach has been comprehensively reviewed by the DOH for the possible adoption of national design standards and practices. One of the key reasons is that Thailand’s road authorities, i.e., the DOH and the Department of Rural Roads (DRR), have considered the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) for the new construction and rehabilitation of road pavements. In addition, the FWD is widely accepted as the non-destructive test for deflection measurement and structural capacity evaluation. Ultimately, the implication of FWD deflections for in-house pavement analysis and design shall be developed and proposed to Thailand’s road authorities. Therefore, this study presents the deflection-based approach of flexible pavement design in Thailand. The FWD and a standard Thai truck were selected as the main loading applications in this study. A typical FWD loading stress of 700–800 kPa was practically adopted by the DOH and compared with a standard 10-wheel 25-ton truck with a tandem axle-dual wheel configuration with a tire pressure of 690 kPa. The layered elastic analysis was performed to calculate the pavement responses. The results suggest that the flexible pavement design based on a deflection-based approach is simple, practical, and conservative. Full article
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19 pages, 14276 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Performance of Historical and Regular Stone Pavement Structures in Urban Trafficked Areas through the Finite Element Method (FEM)
by Nicholas Fiorentini, Jiandong Huang, Giacomo Cuciniello, Pietro Leandri and Massimo Losa
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070115 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Stone pavement structures (SPS), also known as stone roads or stone-paved roads, are road pavements constructed using stones as the primary surface material. Different types of SPS exist; historically, irregular-shaped stones with downward protrusions have been often exploited since regular-shaped stones were difficult [...] Read more.
Stone pavement structures (SPS), also known as stone roads or stone-paved roads, are road pavements constructed using stones as the primary surface material. Different types of SPS exist; historically, irregular-shaped stones with downward protrusions have been often exploited since regular-shaped stones were difficult to be produced. More recently, regular cuboid stones can be also used. Accordingly, in new construction and renovations of SPS, pavement designers must take an essential decision concerning the adoption of historical or regular stones. Nonetheless, it is often confusing which of the two types of stones should be employed, considering that historical and regular SPS follow the same theory and pavement design methods. Therefore, a comparison between the performance of these two types of SPS is required to support their design and maintenance. Moreover, SPS are limitedly investigated and, to the best of our knowledge, there are no research contributions that address this specific task. Accordingly, in the present study, after conducting a laboratory characterization and in situ structural survey by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) on a SPS, a comparative analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) was carried out for investigating the structural performance of the historical (H-SPS) and regular SPS (R-SPS) in urban trafficked areas, where SPS must withstand heavy traffic loads. Specifically, considering both typologies of SPS, the paper aims to model and investigate: (a) the mechanical behavior under loading (displacements, stress, and strain distribution), (b) failure criteria (stone warpage and separation between the stones and the mortar joint), (c) the joint efficiency between stones, and (d) to which extent the road subgrade stiffness may influence the performance of SPS. In addition to the pavement design perspective, the research also provides a short glance at the strengths and weaknesses of R-SPS and H-SPS from other sides, such as functionality, ease of maintenance, construction techniques, and cultural and historical values. Full article
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18 pages, 8610 KiB  
Article
Railway Bridge Geometry Assessment Supported by Cutting-Edge Reality Capture Technologies and 3D As-Designed Models
by Rafael Cabral, Rogério Oliveira, Diogo Ribeiro, Anna M. Rakoczy, Ricardo Santos, Miguel Azenha and José Correia
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070114 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Documentation of structural visual inspections is necessary for its monitoring, maintenance, and decision about its rehabilitation, and structural strengthening. In recent times, close-range photogrammetry (CRP) based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have greatly improved the survey phase. These [...] Read more.
Documentation of structural visual inspections is necessary for its monitoring, maintenance, and decision about its rehabilitation, and structural strengthening. In recent times, close-range photogrammetry (CRP) based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have greatly improved the survey phase. These technologies can be used independently or in combination to provide a 3D as-is image-based model of the railway bridge. In this study, TLS captured the side and bottom sections of the deck, while the CRP-based UAV captured the side and top sections of the deck, and the track. The combination of post-processing techniques enabled the merging of TLS and CRP models, resulting in the creation of an accurate 3D representation of the complete railway bridge deck. Additionally, a 3D as-designed model was developed based on the design plans of the bridge. The as-designed model is compared to the as-is model through a 3D digital registration. The comparison allows the detection of dimensional deviation and surface alignments. The results reveal slight deviations in the structural dimension with a global average value of 9 mm. Full article
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23 pages, 6230 KiB  
Article
Incorporating Traffic Models into Seismic Damage Analysis of Bridge Road Networks: A Case Study in Central Italy
by Alessandro Rasulo, Sofia Nardoianni, Azzurra Evangelisti and Mauro D’Apuzzo
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070113 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Transportation networks are one of the most vulnerable civil infrastructures during an earthquake and an estimation of traffic impacts in the post-earthquake scenario is a crucial aspect in the context of risk assessment and evaluation of remedial measures. In this paper, a methodology [...] Read more.
Transportation networks are one of the most vulnerable civil infrastructures during an earthquake and an estimation of traffic impacts in the post-earthquake scenario is a crucial aspect in the context of risk assessment and evaluation of remedial measures. In this paper, a methodology is presented, combining GIS tools, probabilistic seismic risk analysis and traffic simulation models, which is able to assess the direct and indirect (social) costs: bridge repairs, increase in travel time and a lack of accessibility. Operating issues related to the development and calibration of traffic models applicable to a damaged road network are carefully analysed and reviewed and an innovative approach to evaluate the social cost due to the lack of accessibility is also proposed. The developed modelling framework has been applied on a realistic bridge stock within a road transportation network in central Italy where local land-use data have been collected, extensive traffic surveys have been performed and a traffic model has been calibrated. A probabilistic risk analysis employing a ShakeMap derived from a historical real seismic event has been carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infrastructures and Structural Engineering)
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12 pages, 12285 KiB  
Review
Review of Recent Progress on the Effects of High Temperatures on the Mechanical Behavior of Masonry Prisms
by Gustavo Henrique Nalon, José Carlos Lopes Ribeiro, Leonardo Gonçalves Pedroti, Roberto Marcio da Silva, Eduardo Nery Duarte de Araújo, Rodrigo Felipe Santos and Gustavo Emilio Soares de Lima
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070112 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
The structural performance of civil engineering infrastructures exposed to elevated temperatures has been investigated in many recent works. Some of these studies evaluated the residual mechanical behavior of masonry prisms subjected to high temperatures, as these specimens are simplified models (2–5 units in [...] Read more.
The structural performance of civil engineering infrastructures exposed to elevated temperatures has been investigated in many recent works. Some of these studies evaluated the residual mechanical behavior of masonry prisms subjected to high temperatures, as these specimens are simplified models (2–5 units in height) that can be easily produced and tested, in terms of operational and economic factors. However, there is no previous literature review on the mechanical properties of fire-damaged masonry prisms. Therefore, this paper presents an investigation of the current state-of-the-art on this topic. It provides a careful review of recent knowledge on the failure mechanisms, residual compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and stress–strain behavior of masonry prisms made with different types of units, mortars, and/or grout after exposure to different types of thermal treatments. Based on the revised information, future research directions on the scientific field of masonry infrastructures are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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36 pages, 3108 KiB  
Article
Peripheral: Resilient Hydrological Infrastructures
by Ulrik Ekman
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070111 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1512
Abstract
This article addresses the issue of developing designs of resilient hydrological infrastructures for cities facing sea level rise in the Anthropocene. It undertakes short case studies of differently scaled cities, three in the Global North and three in the Global South. The aim [...] Read more.
This article addresses the issue of developing designs of resilient hydrological infrastructures for cities facing sea level rise in the Anthropocene. It undertakes short case studies of differently scaled cities, three in the Global North and three in the Global South. The aim is to investigate the current water management situations in order to reveal potentials for increased urban and environmental resilience. Cities are approached as complex adaptive systems (CAS) negotiating uncertainty that concerns designing for resilience, understood as viable transitions for their interlinked social, ecological, and technological systems (SETS). The main finding is that, despite obvious differences, the six cases are surprisingly similar. Potentials for increased hydrological resilience reside in design approaches that work differently with what is currently deprivileged and considered ‘merely’ peripheral. Peripheral cities and the peripheries of coastal cities are found to be of key rather than minor adaptive infrastructural import. To reprivilege the peripheral here means to adopt more dynamically flexible, long-term, decentralized, and nonanthropocentric urban design approaches to water and infrastructures. Specifically, this article advocates thinking about water via at least four critical displacements. These displacements point toward alternatives concerning excessively static and land-based designs, short-term planning, overly anthropocentric conceptions of the city environment distinction, and undue centrism in planetary urbanization of the Global North and Global South. In conclusion, this article presents a brief outlook to other cases which suggest that greater resilience potentials are likely to be found in planning for the complexly ecotone city. This works mostly bottom-up from the local regimes for water sensitive infrastructures to regional network designs that can engage with larger climatic and ecological landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning Peripheral and Ultra-Peripheral Infrastructures)
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15 pages, 2819 KiB  
Article
Consideration of the Variable Contact Geometry in Vibratory Roller Compaction
by Johannes Pistrol, Mario Hager, Fritz Kopf and Dietmar Adam
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070110 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Vibratory rollers are mainly used for the near-surface compaction of granular media for a wide variety of construction tasks. In addition to the pronounced depth effect, vibratory rollers have offered the possibility of work-integrated compaction control (intelligent compaction) for decades. State-of-the-art measurement values [...] Read more.
Vibratory rollers are mainly used for the near-surface compaction of granular media for a wide variety of construction tasks. In addition to the pronounced depth effect, vibratory rollers have offered the possibility of work-integrated compaction control (intelligent compaction) for decades. State-of-the-art measurement values for intelligent compaction (ICMVs) only take into account, if at all, a constant geometry of the contact area between the drum and soil. Therefore, this paper introduces a comparatively simple mechanical model, which describes the dynamic interaction between the vibrating drum and the underlying soil during compaction to investigate the influence of the changing geometry of the contact area on the motion behavior of the vibrating drum. The model is tested on realistic soil and machine parameters, and the results of the simulation with varying drum contact geometry are compared to a conventional simulation with a fixed contact geometry. The analysis shows that only a consideration of the varying drum contact geometry can map the dynamic interaction between the vibrating drum and soil sufficiently and provide a motion behavior of the drum that is in good accordance with the field measurements. Full article
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19 pages, 2827 KiB  
Article
Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with Several Contents of Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA)
by Julio Cantero-Durango, Rodrigo Polo-Mendoza, Gilberto Martinez-Arguelles and Luis Fuentes
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070109 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Continuous research efforts have been developed in the literature to raise the sustainability components of the road infrastructure industry, i.e., reduce potential contaminants and augment financial profitability. In this regard, this investigation aims to explore the feasibility of producing Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) [...] Read more.
Continuous research efforts have been developed in the literature to raise the sustainability components of the road infrastructure industry, i.e., reduce potential contaminants and augment financial profitability. In this regard, this investigation aims to explore the feasibility of producing Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with the inclusion of Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) as a partial substitute for coarse Natural Aggregates (NAs). Thus, four different HMAs were considered, namely HMAs with coarse RCA contents of 0, 15, 30, and 45%. Specifically, the mechanical and sustainability properties of the asphalt mixtures were determined. On the one hand, the Marshall design parameters, resilient modulus, moisture susceptibility, rutting resistance, and fatigue life were addressed as mechanical properties. Meanwhile, regarding the sustainability properties, the environmental impacts and production costs were estimated using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) methodologies, respectively. Consequently, the following conclusions were obtained: (i) as the coarse RCA content increases, the mechanical behavior of the HMA progressively deteriorates; (ii) this decrease in mechanical performance is acceptable up to a 15% RCA of coarse RCA, whereas for higher dosages this alteration is abrupt; and (iii) the RCA only generates sustainability benefits at a 15% replacement amount. Full article
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21 pages, 9968 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Recipe-Technological Factors on the Resistance to Chloride Attack of Variotropic and Conventional Concrete
by Evgenii M. Shcherban’, Sergey A. Stel’makh, Alexey N. Beskopylny, Levon R. Mailyan, Besarion Meskhi, Valery Varavka, Andrei Chernil’nik, Diana Elshaeva and Oxana Ananova
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070108 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
A current problem in the construction industry is the lack of complex, scientifically based technological materials and design solutions for universal types of building materials, products, and structures, especially in terms of structures operating under conditions of aggressive chloride exposure. The aim of [...] Read more.
A current problem in the construction industry is the lack of complex, scientifically based technological materials and design solutions for universal types of building materials, products, and structures, especially in terms of structures operating under conditions of aggressive chloride exposure. The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate the differences in the durability of conventional and variotropic concretes made using three different technologies, vibrating, centrifuging, and vibro-centrifuging, modified with the addition of microsilica, under conditions of cyclic chloride attack. Laboratory experiments and analyses using scanning electron microscopy were conducted. Vibro-centrifuged concrete showed the highest resistance to cyclic aggressive chloride exposure, which was expressed by a lower percentage drop in compressive strength compared to vibrated (87%) and centrifuged concrete (24%). The use of a microsilica as a modifying additive in the amount of 2–6%, instead of as a part of the binder, had a positive effect on the resistance of concrete to cyclic chloride attack. The most effective intervention was the introduction of additives in the amount of 4%. There was a reduction in the loss of strength of vibrated, centrifuged, and vibro-centrifuged concrete after 90 “dry-wet” cycles, as a result of the use of a modifying additive, in an amount between 45% and 55%, depending on the type of technology being used for producing a composite. The combined effect of the use of vibro-centrifuged concrete and microsilica led to a 188% decrease in strength loss resulting from cyclic chloride exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IOCI 2022 Special Issue Session 4: Materials and Sustainability)
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14 pages, 3827 KiB  
Article
The Efficiency of the Benefits of Tire-Derived Aggregate Backfill for Buried Concrete Pipes Beneath Paved and Unpaved Roads
by Saif Alzabeebee, Safaa Manfi Alshibany, Suraparb Keawsawasvong and Davide Forcellini
Infrastructures 2023, 8(7), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8070107 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Tire-derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed in recent studies to be considered as part of backfill soil to reduce stress and strain developed in buried pipes. However, little attention is paid to checking the influence of TDA on the behavior of concrete pipes [...] Read more.
Tire-derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed in recent studies to be considered as part of backfill soil to reduce stress and strain developed in buried pipes. However, little attention is paid to checking the influence of TDA on the behavior of concrete pipes buried under trafficked roads. This research studies this topic using a verified numerical model that considers the three-dimensional nature of traffic load effects. Different road sections were considered in the analyses to cover the effect of the presence of the pavement layer and the effect of the thickness of the base and subbase materials. The results revealed that the presence of TDA decreases the bending moment induced in the pipe wall. However, the TDA performance was found to be remarkably influenced by burial depth, and it increases as the burial depth decreases. Furthermore, the TDA influence for pipes with outer diameters of 1.49 m and 2.89 m is much lower than that of 0.41 m and 0.79 m. Importantly, it was found that the highest reduction in the bending moment was achieved for the 1.0 m burial depth. The results of this research provide insight into the performance of TDA and, thus, will help practitioners make a decision regarding the use of TDA in the routine design of buried concrete pipes. Full article
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