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Inventions, Volume 8, Issue 1 (February 2023) – 49 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is the process of building a solid object in a layer-wise manner. Cybersecurity is a prevalent issue that appears more and more frequently as AM becomes popular. This paper focuses on the effect of fan speed on the printing quality and presents a plugin called Fan Speed Attack Detection (FSAD). FSAD is a cybersecurity application that predicts and monitors fan speeds throughout the printing process. FSAD ensures that the fan speed will result in a high-quality print. It is anticipated that this work will help in detecting various types of cyberattacks on 3D printing that inadvertently or otherwise affect its fan speed. View this paper
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27 pages, 2884 KiB  
Article
Exerting Qualitative Analytics and Blockchain Requirement-Engineering in Designing and Implementing a Luxury Products Authentication System
by Chibuzor Udokwu, Robert Zimmermann, Alexander Norta, Patrick Brandtner, Alexandr Kormiltsyn and Sunday Melitus Aroh
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010049 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
High-quality luxury products cater to a specific group of consumers due to their durability and the value attached to them. Counterfeiting luxury products has resulted in economic losses for both the producers and consumers. The market for counterfeit luxury products has continued to [...] Read more.
High-quality luxury products cater to a specific group of consumers due to their durability and the value attached to them. Counterfeiting luxury products has resulted in economic losses for both the producers and consumers. The market for counterfeit luxury products has continued to grow due to the difficulty in authenticating genuine luxury products. The traditional system of verification largely depends on the expert use of specialized equipment for visually inspecting physical luxury products and their associated certificates. This conventional process of authenticating luxury products is expensive, slow, and not easily accessible to consumers. Hence, there is a need for a digital verification approach for luxury products. Blockchain provides the potential for providing traceable and immutable information about a given luxury product. The focus of this paper is to develop a blockchain decentralized application (DApp) for authenticating luxury products in the class of luxury accessories such as jewelry across their respective lifecycles. To achieve this, qualitative analytics is applied to identify useful features for the digital authentication of luxury products. Blockchain requirement engineering modelling is then applied to explore the use of blockchain technologies to realize the features that guarantee transparency in the ownership and use of luxury products. Furthermore, this paper explores the existing blockchain technologies for realizing and implementing the developed requirements of the authentication DApp for luxury products. The selected blockchain technology stack is applied in prototyping authentication systems for luxury products. The implemented platform is simulated to demonstrate the operations carried out in authenticating luxury products. Full article
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16 pages, 3830 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of the Wind Energy along the Romanian Black Sea Coast
by Laura-Ionela Nedelcu, Viorel-Mihai Tanase and Eugen Rusu
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010048 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
The present study aims to outline a general overview of the wind energy potential along the Romanian coast of the Black Sea, using the weather data provided by the Maritime Hydrographic Directorate covering a 13-year time interval (2009–2021). The data obtained from seven [...] Read more.
The present study aims to outline a general overview of the wind energy potential along the Romanian coast of the Black Sea, using the weather data provided by the Maritime Hydrographic Directorate covering a 13-year time interval (2009–2021). The data obtained from seven automatic weather coastal stations distributed along the Romanian perimeter were used to evaluate the wind regime, highlighting the Black Sea’s complex marine environment. The analysis based on the evaluation of the wind parameters per each station registered on the total period revealed that the overall wind characteristics are similar, resulting in no significant variations depending on the station’s location. Moreover, the climatic picture of the Black Sea can be interpreted as two seasons, winter and summer, a conclusion based on the analysis made of the seasonal and monthly variation of the wind aspects. Subsequently, the outcomes obtained in this research imply that the Romanian Black Sea coast has the potential to be a good location for wind energy development due to the strong winds that blow in the region. Full article
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11 pages, 4371 KiB  
Article
Robust Control and Active Vibration Suppression in Dynamics of Smart Systems
by Amalia Moutsopoulou, Georgios E. Stavroulakis, Anastasios Pouliezos, Markos Petousis and Nectarios Vidakis
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010047 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Challenging issues arise in the design of control strategies for piezoelectric smart structures. Piezoelectric materials have been investigated for use in distributed parameter systems in order to provide active control efficiently and affordably. In the active control of dynamic systems, distributed sensors and [...] Read more.
Challenging issues arise in the design of control strategies for piezoelectric smart structures. Piezoelectric materials have been investigated for use in distributed parameter systems in order to provide active control efficiently and affordably. In the active control of dynamic systems, distributed sensors and actuators can be created using piezoelectric materials. The three fundamental issues that structural control engineers must face when creating robust control laws are structural modeling methodologies, uncertainty modeling, and robustness validation. These issues are reviewed in this article. A smart structure with piezoelectric (PZT) materials is investigated for its active vibration response under dynamic disturbance. Numerical modeling with finite elements is used to achieve that. The vibration for different model values is presented considering the uncertainty of the modeling. A vibration suppression was achieved with a robust controller and with a reduced order controller. Results are presented for the frequency domain and the state space domain. This work cleary demostrated the advantage of robust control in the vibration suppration of smart stuctures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems)
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14 pages, 2167 KiB  
Review
Photobiomodulation with Laser Technology to Reduce Pain Perception during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: Literature Review and New Perspectives with LED Devices
by Paolo Caccianiga, Ileana Carminati and Gianluigi Caccianiga
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010046 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Despite the growing demand for improving smile aesthetics and occlusal functionality, a significant percentage of patients still refuse or discontinue orthodontic treatment because of pain and discomfort related to this therapy. As consequence, controlling the pain experienced by patients during the same therapy [...] Read more.
Despite the growing demand for improving smile aesthetics and occlusal functionality, a significant percentage of patients still refuse or discontinue orthodontic treatment because of pain and discomfort related to this therapy. As consequence, controlling the pain experienced by patients during the same therapy represents a primary concern for both patients and clinicians. Recent pieces of evidence have suggested that photobiomodulation can reduce pain experienced by patients during the decrowding stage or during specific protocols, for example, rapid maxillary expansion. PBM can be performed with lasers and also with a light-emitting diode (LED) device. Nonetheless, few studies on the latter are still present in the literature. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) with Laser devices in pain management in fixed orthodontic treatment. Only 14 of all articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were therefore used to conduct the research. The different studies compared, in most cases, patients whose mouths were divided into a part treated with PBM and a placebo part. Most of their results show a statistically significant difference in perceived pain between the irradiated arch and the nonirradiated arch. Three authors did not find statistically significant results in favor of PBM, but they used different laser parameters. To obtain generally valid studies, with consistent and reproducible results, it is necessary to standardize the different laser parameters used. LED is less operator-dependent than laser and PBM using this technology seems to have a biological basis similar to that with lasers. In some studies, its clinical efficacy in pain reduction in some orthodontic therapies has been verified. Finally, this article aims to consider LED technology as a future prospect of research on PBM use in orthodontics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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18 pages, 8751 KiB  
Article
Testing Scale Models of Hydro-Reactor Profiled Ducts That Create Notable Net Head to Promote Hydroelectric Power from Currents
by António J. Arsénio dos Santos Costa and Luís Arsénio dos Santos Costa
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010045 - 07 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
In this article, experimental results from the testing of four representative scale models of hydro-reactor profiled channels, which create a net head to promote the extraction of hydroelectric power from currents, are presented. The tested scale models include a narrower intermediate channel section [...] Read more.
In this article, experimental results from the testing of four representative scale models of hydro-reactor profiled channels, which create a net head to promote the extraction of hydroelectric power from currents, are presented. The tested scale models include a narrower intermediate channel section of 300 mm diameter. The different profile models studied include an inlet compression chamber and an outlet depression chamber. A net head is created by the difference in pressure, with the head being higher the narrower channel’s zone than in the kinetic head of the outside stream velocity. Because there were no laboratory premises to test the constructed duct model sizes and to easily change the imposed steady current velocity, the experimental tests were performed by dragging the immersed models, attached to a raft in motion, in a place of steady water (the bay of a port). With this methodology, the same effect was obtained, making it possible to perform the testing for several current velocities (velocity of the raft relative to the steady water). Tests on free-flow to compare the difference in kinetic heads were performed. Furthermore, three loads obstructing different percentages of the channel’s narrower section were inserted to analyze the duct channel obstruction limits. The experimental results are validated by numerical results from finite element analysis. Full article
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29 pages, 12817 KiB  
Article
Design of an Autonomous, Sustainable Sharing Mobility Solution Aimed to Mobility-Disabled Individuals
by Leonardo Frizziero, Giulio Galiè, Martina Aldrovandi, Silvia Franco and Elisa Rana
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010044 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Recent analysis has shown deteriorating traffic conditions in urban areas, caused by an increase in the motorization rate, which has risen to 66.6 vehicles per 100 inhabitants. As a result of the pandemic, individuality has grown, hence private vehicles are becoming more prevalent [...] Read more.
Recent analysis has shown deteriorating traffic conditions in urban areas, caused by an increase in the motorization rate, which has risen to 66.6 vehicles per 100 inhabitants. As a result of the pandemic, individuality has grown, hence private vehicles are becoming more prevalent whilst public transport and sharing are negatively affected. Therefore, European policies have encouraged and innovated more sustainable mobility. Thus, the developed project aims to achieve more efficient mobility and more sustainable environments, towards social and economic well-being. The proposed means of transport aims to appeal to an audience with a reduced ability to drive a car as intended. The IDeS methodology was applied to develop a self-driving, urban micro mobility vehicle, aimed to give enough room and equipment for people with moving disabilities. The innovation of the IDeS method is state-of-the-art and ought to satisfy current product needs, which leads to an innovative micromobility vehicle and portrays a design for a car that will help to close the gaps in urban mobility. These design processes, which are distinguished by the fusion of several industrial techniques, enabled the development of a plan that addresses current mobility issues for disabled people and opens to new mobility prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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14 pages, 2593 KiB  
Article
Innovative Modernization of Building Heating Systems: The Economy and Ecology of a Hybrid District-Heating Substation
by Katarzyna Stokowiec, Sylwia Wciślik and Dagmara Kotrys-Działak
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010043 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Hybrid installations with respect to renewable energy sources are becoming more popular due to the stringent requirements for the energy efficiency of buildings. Therefore, the thermomodernization of a district-heating substation was proposed. Several scenarios, including different renewable energies (an air–water heat pump versus [...] Read more.
Hybrid installations with respect to renewable energy sources are becoming more popular due to the stringent requirements for the energy efficiency of buildings. Therefore, the thermomodernization of a district-heating substation was proposed. Several scenarios, including different renewable energies (an air–water heat pump versus a heat pump with photovoltaics), different investment financing (equity or bank credit), and different purposes for heating demand (central heating or central heating with ventilation and domestic hot water), were analyzed. The economic aspects involved the calculations of the payback time and net present value, while the ecological and environmental characteristics were weighed using emission reduction. Each of the analyses resulted in different proposed modernization methods. However, taking both factors together, the computations proved that the most profitable was the scenario with energy demand for heating, domestic hot water, and ventilation purposes financed by means of bank credit with a thermomodernization bonus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamic and Technical Analysis for Sustainability (Volume 2))
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16 pages, 7298 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Evaluating the Performance Data of Practical Honeycomb Fairing
by Valeriy V. Bodryshev, Artem A. Larin and Lev N. Rabinskiy
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010042 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
The quality criteria for fairing used to protect antenna devices (AD) of radar stations (RS) from environmental influences are the requirements for ensuring and maintaining strength and protective properties with minimal insertion loss of the transmitted electromagnetic wave (EMW). It is important to [...] Read more.
The quality criteria for fairing used to protect antenna devices (AD) of radar stations (RS) from environmental influences are the requirements for ensuring and maintaining strength and protective properties with minimal insertion loss of the transmitted electromagnetic wave (EMW). It is important to assess the influence of manufacturing technology on these parameters, identifying narrow critical zones on the product with minimum strength characteristics and maximum EMW insertion loss. Calculation models of the stress state in a three-layer sandwich are presented with the identification of critical places from a given type of loading. A method for flaw detection of fairings is presented, taking into account the influence of the dynamics of changes in the maximum allowable threshold of EMW losses, which is extremely necessary for analyzing the technological process and correcting strength calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics in the Energy Sector)
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15 pages, 2333 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Design of ZVS Single-Ended DC/AC Converter Based on Neural Network
by Nikolay Hinov and Bogdan Gilev
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010041 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
This paper presents a model-based and neural network-based innovative design of single-ended transistor resonant DC/AC converters with zero voltage switching (ZVS). A characteristic of the proposed design method is that the determination of the circuit elements of the converter is performed with an [...] Read more.
This paper presents a model-based and neural network-based innovative design of single-ended transistor resonant DC/AC converters with zero voltage switching (ZVS). A characteristic of the proposed design method is that the determination of the circuit elements of the converter is performed with an automated procedure, as their values are determined by the output of a previously trained neural network. The use of the proposed method is justified in cases where there is no methodology for the design of the specific power electronic device, or such a methodology exists, but it is either too complex or based on a large number of assumptions. This is usually due to the increasing complexity of power circuits, their possible modes of operation, and the inevitable assumptions and limitations in the analyses and methodologies based on them. In this way, a natural combination of classic design methods and innovative processes is developed based on applied techniques for artificial intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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9 pages, 2872 KiB  
Article
Compromised Vibration Isolator of Electric Power Generator Considering Self-Excitation and Basement Input
by Young Whan Park, Tae-Wan Kim and Chan-Jung Kim
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010040 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
A previous study proposed an optimal vibration isolator for self-excitation, but the solution results showed a critical drawback for the basement input. Because the plant system is exposed to self-excitation and basement input, the vibration isolator characteristics must meet all the requirements of [...] Read more.
A previous study proposed an optimal vibration isolator for self-excitation, but the solution results showed a critical drawback for the basement input. Because the plant system is exposed to self-excitation and basement input, the vibration isolator characteristics must meet all the requirements of both excitation cases. Two performance indices of the vibration isolator were introduced to evaluate the vibration control capability over two excitation cases, self-excitation and basement input, using the theoretical linear model of the electric power generator. The compromise strategy was devoted to enhancing the vibration control capability over the basement input, owing to the acceptable margin for self-excitation. The modification of the mechanical properties of the vibration isolator focused on the isolator between the mass block and the surrounding building. Simulation results revealed that an increase in the spring coefficient and a decrease in the damping coefficient of the vibration isolator beneath the mass block could enhance the vibration reduction capability over the basement input. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems)
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16 pages, 8355 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Different Type Materials of Grit Blasting on the Corrosion Resistance of S235JR Carbon Steel
by Nicoleta Bogatu, Alina Crina Muresan, Laurentiu Mardare, Viorica Ghisman, Anca Ravoiu, Floricel Maricel Dima and Daniela Laura Buruiana
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010039 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2525
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the corrosion rate expressed in material loss per unit of time and the surface properties of carbon steel type S235JR blasted with different types of materials (quartz, alumina, and red garnet with a particle size [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the corrosion rate expressed in material loss per unit of time and the surface properties of carbon steel type S235JR blasted with different types of materials (quartz, alumina, and red garnet with a particle size between 60 and 80 mesh (0.25–0.60 mm)). The estimation of corrosion rate was determined by electrochemical methods, such as open circuit potential (OCP), polarization resistance (Rp), corrosion rate (Vcorr), and gravimetric method by immersing the samples in 3.5% NaCl solution for a period of 336 h. All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using ex-situ characterizations, such as optical microscopy and roughness analysis. The results indicate that S235JR non-sandblasted exhibited higher polarization resistance, the lowest corrosion rate, and the lowest roughness values. While for the S235JR sandblasted groups, reduced corrosion resistance and increasing roughness values were noted. From the sandblasted groups, the lowest corrosion resistance and the highest value of roughness are attributed to the S235JR surface sandblasted with quartz. The S235JR surface sandblasted with quartz shows a decrease in corrosion resistance approximately two times lower than the non-sandblasted surface and an increasing of roughness approximately six times greater than the non-sandblasted surface. Full article
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10 pages, 2823 KiB  
Article
Reduction in the Computational Complexity of Calculating Losses on Eddy Currents in a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Using the Finite Element Analysis
by Artem Khoroshev, Ivan Vasyukov, Alexander Pavlenko and Denis Batishchev
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010038 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
This paper considers the issues of the reduction in the computational complexity of the numerical problem and the requirements of the computer memory size when calculating the power of the eddy currents in a hydrogen fuel cell based on a proton exchange membrane. [...] Read more.
This paper considers the issues of the reduction in the computational complexity of the numerical problem and the requirements of the computer memory size when calculating the power of the eddy currents in a hydrogen fuel cell based on a proton exchange membrane. The study was performed on a model problem based on a geometric pattern of a hydrogen fuel cell of typical dimensions and characteristics operating at a nominal load in steady-state conditions. The power of the eddy currents was calculated using a numerical model based on a tetrahedral finite element mesh and a mathematical model of a quasi-stationary electromagnetic field in the classical formulation through the vector magnetic potential. The requirements for the minimum degree of the geometric model approximation by a finite element mesh to achieve mesh stability of the computational problem results were defined. The paper considers issues of finite element order selection, the method of ordering, and the solution of the systems of linear algebraic equations (SLAEs). It shows the techniques for determining the accuracy of the calculated SLAE solution obtained by the direct method, as well as the effectiveness of the low-rank approximation of the SLAE to reduce the computational complexity of the computational problem solution and reduce the requirements for the amount of computer memory needed, considering the reduced accuracy of the SLAE solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics in the Energy Sector)
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24 pages, 1623 KiB  
Article
Design Requirements for Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV) with Inward Tilt Mechanism to Minimize Steering Disturbances Caused by Uneven Road Surface
by Tetsunori Haraguchi and Tetsuya Kaneko
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010037 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV), which has an inward-tilting angle, turns with lateral force due to a large camber angle, so it is necessary to consider the lateral movement of the tire vertical load axis during turning. Although the steering torque mechanisms are [...] Read more.
The Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV), which has an inward-tilting angle, turns with lateral force due to a large camber angle, so it is necessary to consider the lateral movement of the tire vertical load axis during turning. Although the steering torque mechanisms are very different from those of automobiles, there are not many studies of the steering torque mechanisms of PMVs. In this paper, based on the effects of the force of six components acting on the tires, a method for setting the steering axis specifications is derived, including the geometrical minimization of steering moment disturbance due to the vertical load reaction force during turning. Automobile tires have a significant ground camber angle when traveling on rutted roads, but they do not have it on slanted roads because the vehicle body tilts along the road surface. On the other hand, in PMVs, the vehicle body always keeps upright when traveling both on slanted roads and on rutted roads. Therefore, the tires have ground camber angles on both types of road surface. We study the straight running ability under such road surface disturbances based on the geometrical minimization of steering moment disturbance due to the vertical load reaction force during turning. This straight running ability can be a remarkable strong point of PMVs with an inward tilt mechanism. In this study, it was proved that the steering axis parameters can be derived uniquely by taking into consideration the requirement to zero the moment (disturbance) around the steering axis due to the reaction force against the vertical load at all internal tilt angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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17 pages, 8868 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis in the Balancing Phase for an Open Source Transfemoral Prosthesis with Magneto-Rheological Damper
by Sebastian Muñoz-Vásquez, Zuly Alexandra Mora-Pérez, Paolo Andrés Ospina-Henao, César Hernando Valencia-Niño, Marcelo Becker and Jorge Guillermo Díaz-Rodríguez
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010036 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
The article presents a finite element simulation for the stress analysis of a transfemoral prosthesis with damping for a 100 kg person in the balancing phase. The maximum force is exerted at this stage when the person supports his or her whole body [...] Read more.
The article presents a finite element simulation for the stress analysis of a transfemoral prosthesis with damping for a 100 kg person in the balancing phase. The maximum force is exerted at this stage when the person supports his or her whole body on a single foot. Materials used included stainless steel and polymer matrix composites, for which mechanical testing was performed. The study applied the SolidWorks simulation software tools, where material properties were specified for each part that composes the prosthesis and considered loads, the fastenings, and the meshing. The simulation resembles the manufacturing process for each component, including the sole built by the novel composite fused deposition modeling technique. As a result of the simulation, the stress, displacement fields, and safety factor are obtained. Analysis of the safety factor indicates that the components can withstand the loads imposed. Finally, a fatigue analysis indicated that the most critically loaded component lasts at least 294,107 cycles at maximum constant loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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16 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
On Some Theoretical Aspects of The Evaporation Process of a Droplet and Its Optimal Size When Extinguishing Fires
by Sergey Oktyabrinovich Gladkov
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010035 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
We are proposing a model mathematical description of droplet evaporation using the kinetic approach. We have obtained the basic equation of the theory by using the law of conserving the full power of the vapor–liquid system, which has not been done before. We [...] Read more.
We are proposing a model mathematical description of droplet evaporation using the kinetic approach. We have obtained the basic equation of the theory by using the law of conserving the full power of the vapor–liquid system, which has not been done before. We have found the range of droplet sizes at which it is stable. We have given a comparison of the obtained results with the known traditional ones. We have given numerical estimates for the critical size of the fine-dispersed phase up to the value of which ordinary evaporation takes place (that is for Knudsen number Kn=lR, inequality Kn1 must be fulfilled, where l is the free path of the molecule and R is the droplet radius). We have given the optimal droplet size which is the most effective from the point of view of technical use in extinguishing flammable oil transformers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena)
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23 pages, 7634 KiB  
Article
A 2-DoF Kinematic Chain Analysis of a Magnetic Spring Excited by Vibration Generator Based on a Neural Network Design for Energy Harvesting Applications
by Joanna Bijak, Grazia Lo Sciuto, Zygmunt Kowalik, Tomasz Trawiński and Marcin Szczygieł
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010034 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
In this paper, an original mathematical model and experimental results for the vibration generator and the magnetic spring prototype that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy are proposed. The magnetic spring model is developed by a robotic approach based on Denavit–Hartenberg’s notation and [...] Read more.
In this paper, an original mathematical model and experimental results for the vibration generator and the magnetic spring prototype that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy are proposed. The magnetic spring model is developed by a robotic approach based on Denavit–Hartenberg’s notation and designed by the 2-degrees of freedom kinematic chain for determination of its motion and estimation of several resonance frequencies useful in many energy harvesting applications. The vibration generator that moves the magnetic spring is modeled by neural networks and the magnetic spring potential energy is calculated by the finite elements method (FEM). Furthermore, the magnetic spring and the vibration generator are designed by the Simulink block diagram. Testing results of the magnetic spring and vibration generator displacement conducted in laboratory have shown good agreement with simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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12 pages, 6106 KiB  
Article
VHCF of the 3D-Printed Aluminum Alloy AlSi10Mg
by Arseny Babaytsev, Alexander Nikitin and Andrey Ripetskiy
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010033 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
The paper is focused on the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) properties of aluminum alloys proceeded in two different technological procedures. The hot-rolled D16T alloy is compared with the selected laser melting (SLM) AlSi10Mg alloy. The fatigue tests were performed at a high [...] Read more.
The paper is focused on the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) properties of aluminum alloys proceeded in two different technological procedures. The hot-rolled D16T alloy is compared with the selected laser melting (SLM) AlSi10Mg alloy. The fatigue tests were performed at a high frequency (20 kHz) in the laboratory air environment at room temperature. The experimental results showed a significant difference in fatigue strength between hot-rolled and SLM materials. The VHCF properties of AlSi10Mg were more than two times lower than those of D16T in spite of the comparable quasi-static tensile properties. The difference in fatigue properties was explained based on fractographic analysis of fracture surfaces. The morphology of the fracture pattern was qualitatively different. In the case of the hot-rolled alloy, the three clear zones of crack growth could be outlined. The main part of the pattern was covered by quasi-brittle facets that are typical for VHCF fractures in Al alloys. In the case of the SLM material, unregulated structures were found in the microstructure. In some local zones, numerous non-melted particles were observed on the fracture surface. The boundaries of certain layers also played an important role in the fracture. Large, separated surfaces were observed on the fracture pattern. It is important to note that these boundaries were not associated with the layer-by-layer building of the specimen. The distance between such features was significantly larger than the thickness of an individual layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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32 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
A Generalized Framework for Adopting Regression-Based Predictive Modeling in Manufacturing Environments
by Mobayode O. Akinsolu and Khalil Zribi
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010032 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1778
Abstract
In this paper, the growing significance of data analysis in manufacturing environments is exemplified through a review of relevant literature and a generic framework to aid the ease of adoption of regression-based supervised learning in manufacturing environments. To validate the practicality of the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the growing significance of data analysis in manufacturing environments is exemplified through a review of relevant literature and a generic framework to aid the ease of adoption of regression-based supervised learning in manufacturing environments. To validate the practicality of the framework, several regression learning techniques are applied to an open-source multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process data set to typify inference-driven decision-making that informs the selection of regression learning methods for adoption in real-world manufacturing environments. The investigated regression learning techniques are evaluated in terms of their training time, prediction speed, predictive accuracy (R-squared value), and mean squared error. In terms of training time (TT), k-NN20 (k-Nearest Neighbour with 20 neighbors) ranks first with average and median values of 4.8 ms and 4.9 ms, and 4.2 ms and 4.3 ms, respectively, for the first stage and second stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process, respectively, over 50 independent runs. In terms of prediction speed (PS), DTR (decision tree regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 5.6784×106 observations per second (ob/s) and 4.8691×106 observations per second (ob/s), and 4.9929×106 observations per second (ob/s) and 5.8806×106 observations per second (ob/s), respectively, for the first stage and second stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process, respectively, over 50 independent runs. In terms of R-squared value (R2), BR (bagging regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 0.728 and 0.728, respectively, over 50 independent runs, for the first stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process, and RFR (random forest regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 0.746 and 0.746, respectively, over 50 independent runs, for the second stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process. In terms of mean squared error (MSE), BR (bagging regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 2.7 and 2.7, respectively, over 50 independent runs, for the first stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process, and RFR (random forest regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 3.5 and 3.5, respectively, over 50 independent runs, for the second stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process. All methods are further ranked inferentially using the statistics of their performance metrics to identify the best method(s) for the first and second stages of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process. A Wilcoxon rank sum test is then used to statistically verify the inference-based rankings. DTR and k-NN20 have been identified as the most suitable regression learning techniques given the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process data used for experimentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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13 pages, 5532 KiB  
Communication
An Automatic Question Generator for Chinese Comprehension
by Yin-Chun Fung, Lap-Kei Lee and Kwok Tai Chui
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010031 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2279
Abstract
Question generation (QG) is a natural language processing (NLP) problem that aims to generate natural questions from a given sentence or paragraph. QG has many applications, especially in education. For example, QG can complement teachers’ efforts in creating assessment materials by automatically generating [...] Read more.
Question generation (QG) is a natural language processing (NLP) problem that aims to generate natural questions from a given sentence or paragraph. QG has many applications, especially in education. For example, QG can complement teachers’ efforts in creating assessment materials by automatically generating many related questions. QG can also be used to generate frequently asked question (FAQ) sets for business. Question answering (QA) can benefit from QG, where the training dataset of QA can be enriched using QG to improve the learning and performance of QA algorithms. However, most of the existing works and tools in QG are designed for English text. This paper presents the design of a web-based question generator for Chinese comprehension. The generator provides a user-friendly web interface for users to generate a set of wh-questions (i.e., what, who, when, where, why, and how) based on a Chinese text conditioned on a corresponding set of answer phrases. The web interface allows users to easily refine the answer phrases that are automatically generated by the web generator. The underlying question generation is based on the transformer approach, which was trained on a dataset combined from three publicly available Chinese reading comprehension datasets, namely, DRUD, CMRC2017, and CMRC2018. Linguistic features such as parts of speech (POS) and named-entity recognition (NER) are extracted from the text, which together with the original text and the answer phrases, are then fed into a machine learning algorithm based on a pre-trained mT5 model. The generated questions with answers are displayed in a user-friendly format, supplemented with the source sentences in the text used for generating each question. We expect the design of this web tool to provide insight into how Chinese question generation can be made easily accessible to users with low computer literacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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17 pages, 5172 KiB  
Article
Apparatus Development for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Geothermal Backfill Materials
by C. Castán-Fernández, G. Marcos-Robredo, M. P. Castro-García, M. A. Rey-Ronco and T. Alonso-Sánchez
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010030 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1317
Abstract
This paper describes the design, construction, validation, and calibration of a thermal conductivity measuring apparatus for geothermal backfill materials in the range from 0.13–2.80 W/m·K. The developed apparatus is based on the Transient Hot Wire (THW) method whose mathematical basis is the Infinite [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design, construction, validation, and calibration of a thermal conductivity measuring apparatus for geothermal backfill materials in the range from 0.13–2.80 W/m·K. The developed apparatus is based on the Transient Hot Wire (THW) method whose mathematical basis is the Infinite Linear Source (ILS) model. The apparatus consists of a nichrome hot wire, an adjustable direct current power supply, a temperature sensor (K-type thermocouple), and a datalogger. For the validation and calibration of the developed apparatus, four standard samples have been used with a known thermal conductivity, to 3.0 W/m·K. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity of four geothermal backfill materials of common use (bentonite, neat cement, cement–sand mortar, and cement–bentonite mortar) has been measured using both the developed apparatus and a commercial meter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamic and Technical Analysis for Sustainability (Volume 2))
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14 pages, 1153 KiB  
Article
Development of a Method for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production with an Electrical Submersible Pump
by Anton Petrochenkov, Pavel Ilyushin, Sergey Mishurinskikh and Anton Kozlov
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010029 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Most of the operating oil fields are in the late stages of development, in which special attention is paid to the oil production energy efficiency. In accordance with the trend toward the digitalization of technical processes, intelligent control stations for production wells are [...] Read more.
Most of the operating oil fields are in the late stages of development, in which special attention is paid to the oil production energy efficiency. In accordance with the trend toward the digitalization of technical processes, intelligent control stations for production wells are currently being developed, one of the main tasks of which is to maintain the equipment operation in an optimal mode. This work aims to develop a methodology for selecting an energy-efficient well operation mode by choosing the methods for controlling an electrical submersible pump. To solve this problem, a mathematical apparatus for calculating power consumption is presented, which considers the well pressure curve, while taking into account its degradation when pumping reservoir fluids, the fluids’ properties, the supply of demulsifier, and the equipment’s operating parameters. Based on the simulation results, it is revealed that the optimal method for controlling electrical submersible pump installations is a combination of frequency control and choke control. The reduction in specific power consumption with the combined control relative to the use of separate control types is up to 7.30%, and in the case of additional use of a demulsifier, it is up to 12.01%. The developed algorithms can be implemented based on programmable logic controllers of intelligent control stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory and Advanced Applications)
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16 pages, 1226 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Mathematical Methods of Integral Expert Evaluation for Predictive Diagnostics of Technical Systems Based on the Kemeny Median
by Vadim Manusov, Aysulu Kalanakova, Javod Ahyoev, Inga Zicmane, Seepana Praveenkumar and Murodbek Safaraliev
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010028 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
At present, diagnostics of the current technical condition of high-voltage power equipment in power systems have become more important. This allows the estimation of the real technical condition of power equipment more accurately with its removal into repair based on the results of [...] Read more.
At present, diagnostics of the current technical condition of high-voltage power equipment in power systems have become more important. This allows the estimation of the real technical condition of power equipment more accurately with its removal into repair based on the results of the diagnostics. This paper presents the comparative analysis of expert evaluations with the use of the arithmetical mean and median values of expert evaluations. In this case, individual expert opinions, influenced by a level of competence, correspond to each other in a different manner, depending on the applied approach. As the comparison of the consistency of expert opinions is the basis for decision-making, it is recommended to make a decision on the technical condition using median estimations because these estimations are less subjected to distortions from single outliers of judgments. This provides more reliable information for making key decisions. Three approaches are considered in this paper: the method of arithmetical mean estimations, the method of median estimations based on the Kemeny median method, and the analytic hierarchy process of Saaty. The considered methods allow decisions on power equipment operation to be made very quickly; namely, if the power equipment is in an operable state and may remain operated, or it has considerable defects and should be removed from operation for routine maintenance, or it has reached the final technical state and needs to be removed from operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics in the Energy Sector)
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18 pages, 3408 KiB  
Article
A Cloud-Edge-Based Framework for Electric Vehicle Emergency Energy Trading
by Seyede Zahra Tajalli and Mohammad-Hassan Khooban
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010027 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1261
Abstract
The number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasingly growing day by day and the charging infrastructure for covering this growing number of EVs should be developed. The construction of charging stations is one of the main solutions for supporting EVs while it costs [...] Read more.
The number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasingly growing day by day and the charging infrastructure for covering this growing number of EVs should be developed. The construction of charging stations is one of the main solutions for supporting EVs while it costs huge investments for installation. Thus, this is not financially logical to invest in charging stations in remote areas with lower demands. An alternative way of constructing charging stations is to provide a peer-to-peer (P2P) energy exchange system in order to support out-of-charge EVs. In this paper, a private cloud-edge emergency energy trading framework is proposed to facilitate energy exchange among consumers and providers. Furthermore, a bidding system is suggested to encourage EVs with extra charges to exchange their energy. Moreover, a matching strategy for pairing consumers and providers is suggested in this paper that considers the benefit of both consumers and providers. In the proposed matching system, a measurement strategy is also suggested for considering the effect of the reliability and punctuality of the providers. To develop the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed framework, employing deep learning methods is also suggested in different layers of the framework. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated on several case studies in the presence of EVs with realistic features to prove its efficiency, feasibility, and scalability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics in the Energy Sector)
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14 pages, 3272 KiB  
Article
Investigation of BaFe12O19 Hexaferrites Manufactured by Various Synthesis Methods Using a Developed Pulsed Magnetometer
by Dmitry V. Wagner, Katerina V. Kareva, Viktor A. Zhuravlev, Olga A. Dotsenko and Roman V. Minin
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010026 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
The manufacture and study of the properties of magnetic materials requires the development of new automated devices for measuring their magnetic properties. To obtain nanosized materials with a pure phase, it is necessary to modernize former methods and develop new methods for synthesizing [...] Read more.
The manufacture and study of the properties of magnetic materials requires the development of new automated devices for measuring their magnetic properties. To obtain nanosized materials with a pure phase, it is necessary to modernize former methods and develop new methods for synthesizing materials. As part of this study, a pulse magnetometer was made to study magnetic hysteresis loops. An exceptional feature of this device is the ability to conduct studies of the full cycle of the hysteresis loop using pulsed magnetic fields. M-type BaFe12O19 hexagonal ferrites were synthesized by standard ceramic, mechanochemical, and sol–gel methods. The structural, phase, and magnetic characteristics of the barium hexaferrites were studied. Methods for the synthesis of BaFe12O19 hexagonal ferrites were estimated and compared. Their structural and magnetic properties essentially depend on the method of synthesis. The mechanochemical technology makes it possible to obtain materials without impurity phases through the use of hydrated reagents in the synthesis. The use of sol–gel technology allows the synthesis to be carried out at much lower temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and Innovation in Applied Chemistry and Physics)
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4 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Inventions in 2022
by Inventions Editorial Office
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010025 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 840
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
14 pages, 3186 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning-Based Investigation of the 3D Printer Cooling Effect on Print Quality in Fused Filament Fabrication: A Cybersecurity Perspective
by Haijun Si, Zhicheng Zhang, Orkhan Huseynov, Ismail Fidan, Syed Rafay Hasan and Mohamed Mahmoud
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010024 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is the process of building a solid object in a layer-wise manner. Cybersecurity is a prevalent issue that appears more and more frequently as AM becomes popular. This paper focuses on the effect of [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is the process of building a solid object in a layer-wise manner. Cybersecurity is a prevalent issue that appears more and more frequently as AM becomes popular. This paper focuses on the effect of fan speed on the printing quality and presents a plugin called Fan Speed Attack Detection (FSAD) that predicts and monitors fan speeds throughout the printing process. The goal of the plugin is to prevent cybersecurity attacks, specifically targeting fan speed. Using the proposed FSAD, any fan speed changes during the printing process are evaluated to see whether the printer can sustain the abnormal fan speed change and still maintain good print quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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17 pages, 7083 KiB  
Article
Reverse Engineering of a Racing Motorbike Connecting Rod
by Marco Freddi, Patrich Ferretti, Giulia Alessandri and Alfredo Liverani
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010023 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
The following scientific paper aims to analyze in detail the methodology for reverse engineering of a racing motorcycle connecting rod. The objective is to start with a product available on the market as a spare part, reconstruct its CAD model with a high [...] Read more.
The following scientific paper aims to analyze in detail the methodology for reverse engineering of a racing motorcycle connecting rod. The objective is to start with a product available on the market as a spare part, reconstruct its CAD model with a high standard of accuracy, then proceed with lightening modifications to arrive at a new, improved design. The innovative aspect of the procedure lies in the fact that in order to ensure accuracy on the order of a tenth of a millimeter during reconstruction, it was decided to use a FARO articulated arm laser to scan the component’s outer surface. By taking advantage of appropriate redesign CAD software (Geomagic Design X), a reconstruction can proceed within the high standard of accuracy imposed. In conclusion, the modifications made through material removal allow an improvement in product efficiency, ensuring high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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16 pages, 2256 KiB  
Article
Study on the Design Stage from a Dimensional and Energetic Point of View for a Marine Technical Water Generator Suitable for a Medium Size Container Ship
by Catalin Faitar and Eugen Rusu
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010022 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the development of the modern low-speed marine two-stroke diesel engine from the point of view of the technical water cooling plant, taking into account and starting from the market requirements for power [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the development of the modern low-speed marine two-stroke diesel engine from the point of view of the technical water cooling plant, taking into account and starting from the market requirements for power and speed, with information and design options relevant to the entire shipping industry. Thus, through the ideas of this project, we analyze notions and relevant aspects of systems related to marine slow turning engines, including the basic thermodynamic structure of the technical water system designed for a marine engine. This study also presents the design criteria that define the size and design concept of the engine structure components, with a focus on the technical water cooling installation. The concepts for the main engine hot parts served by the technical water cooling installation play a vital role in the marine technical water generator. The choices the engine designer must make regarding basic auxiliary systems, such as fuel injection and exhaust valve actuation, are important factors to keep in mind when installing a technical water generator onboard a ship. The automation and control systems that govern the modern electronic engine, which drive the supply pump of the technical water cooling system can provide a simplified view of the engine development process. In order to point out the contributions of this study, it is important to focus on the calculations used to determine the main parameters of a technical water generator especially designed for a midsized container ship. Full article
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39 pages, 22724 KiB  
Review
A Review of Cooling Studies on Gas Turbine Rotor Blades with Rotation
by Shyy Woei Chang, Pey-Shey Wu, Ting-Yu Wan and Wei-Ling Cai
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010021 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
Increases in power density and thermal efficiency of a highly efficient gas turbine engine motivate an ever-mounting turbine entry temperature. The combined metallurgical and cooling advancements ensure the structural integrity of a gas turbine rotor blade that spins at high rotor speeds in [...] Read more.
Increases in power density and thermal efficiency of a highly efficient gas turbine engine motivate an ever-mounting turbine entry temperature. The combined metallurgical and cooling advancements ensure the structural integrity of a gas turbine rotor blade that spins at high rotor speeds in a gas stream with temperatures above the melting point of the blade material. The cooling performances promoted by a variety of heat transfer enhancement methods typical of the coolant channels of the leading edge, the mid-chord region, and the trailing edge of a gas turbine rotor blade are reviewed. The manifested rotational effects on the aerothermal performances of impinging jets and swirl chambers for leading-edge cooling, multi-pass ribbed, dimpled, and/or wavy channels over the mid-chord region, as well as pin fin and latticework narrow ducts in the trailing edge of a gas turbine rotor blade, are summarized and cross-examined. Research orientations for future cooling studies aimed at preventing the development of hot spots in a gas turbine rotor blade are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat transfer and Thermal Managements of Innovative Systems)
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4 pages, 201 KiB  
Editorial
Low-Cost Inventions and Patents: Series II
by Esther Salmerón-Manzano and Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010020 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Inventions are new, unique, and useful creations or solutions to problems that have been developed through the process of invention [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Inventions and Patents: Series II)
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