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Safety, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) An important number of injuries and fatalities due to accidents occur in urban roads. In order to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Firefighter Physical Fitness on Job Performance: A Review of the Factors That Influence Fire Suppression Safety and Success
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Purpose: The objective of this review was to analyze the physiological impact of fire suppression on the human body. Design: The literature review included studies focused on workload requirements for common firefighting tasks, effect of health status on the firefighting profession, and attempts [...] Read more.
Purpose: The objective of this review was to analyze the physiological impact of fire suppression on the human body. Design: The literature review included studies focused on workload requirements for common firefighting tasks, effect of health status on the firefighting profession, and attempts to establish a minimum physiological workload capacity for successful performance of firefighting. Findings: The existing literature provides evidence of the high degree of physiological stress that firefighters are under during fire suppression tasks and the great degree of maximal physical capacity that firefighting often requires. Firefighters often operate close to maximal aerobic capacity while performing tasks common to the profession. This is especially true due to the added physiological stress placed on the human body while wearing personal protective equipment during firefighting. Conclusions: Future investigations are necessary to further explore markers of physiological stress during firefighting and the impact that it may have on the ability to withstand the development of disease as well as fire suppression safety. Using completion time of fire suppression tasks as a criterion of success may be an important consideration in addition to the physiological requirements of the occupation when assessing the appropriateness of an individual to be a firefighter. An important future consideration is the effect that fire suppression activities may have on reaction time in critical situations in which life-and-death decisions must be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Safety 2019)
Open AccessArticle Comparisons of Predictive Power for Traffic Accident Involvement; Celeration Behaviour versus Age, Sex, Ethnic Origin, and Experience
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Driver celeration behaviour theory (DCBT) assumes that risk for a driver of causing a road crash is linearly related to speed change in any given moment and that the speed change variable (celeration) captures all risk (all vehicle control movements can be measured [...] Read more.
Driver celeration behaviour theory (DCBT) assumes that risk for a driver of causing a road crash is linearly related to speed change in any given moment and that the speed change variable (celeration) captures all risk (all vehicle control movements can be measured as acceleration). When sampling driver behaviour, the celeration variable is calculated as the average of all absolute values of acceleration when the vehicle is moving. DCBT predicts that no other variable can be a stronger predictor of (the same set of) traffic accident involvements than celeration, given equal reliability of the predictors. Also, other predictors, regardless of which ones, should associate with celeration in ways that are similar to how they correlate with accidents. Predictions were tested in a sample of bus drivers, against variables with reliabilities close to 1 (age, sex, experience, ethnic origin), which are not necessarily optimal predictors for testing but were the only predictors available. The results were largely as predicted from theory. The principles for testing the kind of predictions made from celeration theory were discussed, outlining the importance of a larger number of variables, preferably with repeated measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Driver Behaviour)
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Open AccessArticle Road Safety Analysis of Urban Roads: Case Study of an Italian Municipality
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
Attention to the most vulnerable road users has grown rapidly over recent decades. The experience gained reveals an important number of fatalities due to accidents in urban branch roads. In this study, an analytical methodology for the calculation of urban branch road safety [...] Read more.
Attention to the most vulnerable road users has grown rapidly over recent decades. The experience gained reveals an important number of fatalities due to accidents in urban branch roads. In this study, an analytical methodology for the calculation of urban branch road safety is proposed. The proposal relies on data collected during road safety inspections; therefore, it can be implemented even when historical data about traffic volume or accidents are not available. It permits us to identify geometric, physical, functional, and transport-related defects, and elements which are causal factors of road accidents, in order to assess the risk of death or serious injuries for users. Traffic volume, average speed, and expected consequences on vulnerable road users in case of an accident allow us to calculate both the level of danger of each homogeneous section which composes the road, and the hazard index of the overall branch. A case study is presented to implement the proposed methodology. The strategy proposed by the authors could have a significant impact on the risk management of urban roads, and could be used in decision-making processes to design safer roads and improve the safety of existing roads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing Large Workers’ Compensation Claims Using Generalized Linear Models and Monte Carlo Simulation
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
Insurance practitioners rely on statistical models to predict future claims in order to provide financial protection. Proper predictive statistical modeling is more challenging when analyzing claims with lower frequency, but high costs. The paper investigated the use of predictive generalized linear models (GLMs) [...] Read more.
Insurance practitioners rely on statistical models to predict future claims in order to provide financial protection. Proper predictive statistical modeling is more challenging when analyzing claims with lower frequency, but high costs. The paper investigated the use of predictive generalized linear models (GLMs) to address this challenge. Workers’ compensation claims with costs equal to or more than US$100,000 were analyzed in agribusiness industries in the Midwest of the USA from 2008 to 2016. Predictive GLMs were built with gamma, Weibull, and lognormal distributions using the lasso penalization method. Monte Carlo simulation models were developed to check the performance of predictive models in cost estimation. The results show that the GLM with gamma distribution has the highest predictivity power (R2 = 0.79). Injury characteristics and worker’s occupation were predictive of large claims’ occurrence and costs. The conclusions of this study are useful in modifying and estimating insurance pricing within high-risk agribusiness industries. The approach of this study can be used as a framework to forecast workers’ compensation claims amounts with rare, high-cost events in other industries. This work is useful for insurance practitioners concerned with statistical and predictive modeling in financial risk analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
Open AccessReview Immunological Methods in Gluten Risk Analysis: A Snapshot
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
Gluten is among the 14 major food allergens officially recognized by Regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011. The risk to coeliac patients from gluten presence in the food products they consume is likely due to the unintentional contamination of naturally gluten-free (GF) and GF-labelled products, [...] Read more.
Gluten is among the 14 major food allergens officially recognized by Regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011. The risk to coeliac patients from gluten presence in the food products they consume is likely due to the unintentional contamination of naturally gluten-free (GF) and GF-labelled products, or to hidden sources of gluten in processed GF products. The aim of this paper is to provide a snapshot of gluten risk analysis, with emphasis on immunological methods currently used in gluten detection. The study highlights that immunoassays have some advantages over other analytical methods in gluten determination and are suitable for routine tests. However, some factors (e.g., complexity of the food matrix, type of the applied antibody, gluten extraction procedures and lack of reference material) affect the reliability of obtained results. Hence, efforts are required at an analytical level to overcome the drawbacks of the immunological methods currently available. Harmonization is necessary, so as to assist both consumers in making safe food choices, and the food industry in gluten risk assessment, management and communication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring Industrial Health Using a Diminished Quality of Life Instrument
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Historically, the focus of industrial health and safety (H&S) has been on safety and accident avoidance with relatively less attention to long-term occupational health other than via health monitoring and surveillance. The difficulty is the multiple overlapping health consequences that are difficult to [...] Read more.
Historically, the focus of industrial health and safety (H&S) has been on safety and accident avoidance with relatively less attention to long-term occupational health other than via health monitoring and surveillance. The difficulty is the multiple overlapping health consequences that are difficult to separate, measure, and attribute to a source. Furthermore, many health problems occur later, not immediately on exposure, and may be cumulative. Consequently, it is difficult to conclusively identify the cause. Workers may lack knowledge of long-term consequences, and thus not use protective systems effectively. Compounding this is the lack of instruments and methodologies to measure exposure to harm. Historically, the existing risk methodologies for calculating safety risk are based on the construct of consequence and likelihood. However, this may not be appropriate for health, especially for the long-term harm, as both the consequence and likelihood may be indeterminate. This paper develops an instrument to measure the health component of workplace H&S. This is achieved by adapting the established World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) quality of life score to workplace health. Specifically, the method is to identify the likelihood of an exposure incident arising (as estimated by engineering technologists and H&S officers), followed by evaluation of the biological harm consequences. Those consequences are then scored by using the WHODAS 12-item inventory. The result is an assessment of the Diminished Quality of Life (DQL) associated with a workplace hazard. This may then be used to manage the minimization of harm, exposure monitoring, and the design of safe systems of work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Perceived Safety Benefits of Aftermarket Driver Support Systems: Results from a Large Scale European Field Operational Test (FOT)
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
A field operational test (FOT) is a technique used within traffic safety to evaluate the overall value of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) under normal operating conditions. In this study, a pan-European FOT was used to evaluate Navigation, Speed Information/Alert, Traffic Information, and Green [...] Read more.
A field operational test (FOT) is a technique used within traffic safety to evaluate the overall value of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) under normal operating conditions. In this study, a pan-European FOT was used to evaluate Navigation, Speed Information/Alert, Traffic Information, and Green Driving Support functions together with participants’ perceptions of safety’ before, during, and after using the functions. Through utilization and adherence to the FOT methodology, data were collected over a period ranging from 8 to 16 months in five European countries in order to assess the driver pre-conceived ideas and subsequent subjective and objective experiences with the IVIS functions. Several analyses of data were conducted, and this paper describes the results relating to the ‘user-experience’ as evaluated through subjective responses. The study showed that before the FOTs started, overall participants expected a higher safety benefit through using Speed Alert compared to the other functions. This function was also perceived to offer the highest safety benefit after the FOT had been completed. Perceptions of safety were found to be lowest for the green-driving function. The results offer insights into public expectations of IVIS functions and how these change with experience and overall; they suggest that, in some cases, the perception to safety benefits could be somewhat misplaced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Driver Behaviour)
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Open AccessArticle Consequences of Increases in Wild Boar-Vehicle Accidents 2003–2016 in Sweden on Personal Injuries and Costs
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
This study examined whether the rising trends of wild boar (Sus scrofa)-vehicle accidents in Sweden are accompanied by a higher amount of personal injuries and costs. Temporal trends in accident frequencies and the number of persons injured in wild boar-vehicle accidents [...] Read more.
This study examined whether the rising trends of wild boar (Sus scrofa)-vehicle accidents in Sweden are accompanied by a higher amount of personal injuries and costs. Temporal trends in accident frequencies and the number of persons injured in wild boar-vehicle accidents were examined for 2003–2016, and the cost of wild boar-vehicle accidents was calculated. Results show increases in the number of personal injuries, and increased costs, particularly after 2010–2012. The total number of wild boar accidents correlated with the number of injured persons as well as with the number of accidents with personal injuries. Approximately one person (1.13%) is injured per 100 wild boar-vehicle accidents, and approximately one accident per 200 wild boar-vehicle accidents will result in one or more persons with injuries (0.5%). However, most of the persons injured have slighter injuries. Although the number of wild boar-vehicle accidents and the number of persons injured in the accidents have increased, the frequency of accidents resulting in personal injuries is still at low levels in comparison with, for example, frequencies of personal injuries for moose accidents. The cost for wild boar-vehicle accidents has increased between 2003 to 2016 and is currently estimated to vary between approximately EUR 9.66–12.31 million per year. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Bishop, H. et al. Driving among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Safety 2018, 4, 40
Received: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
The published version of the paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Driver Behaviour)
Open AccessArticle Large Occupational Accidents Data Analysis with a Coupled Unsupervised Algorithm: The S.O.M. K-Means Method. An Application to the Wood Industry
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Data on occupational accidents are usually stored in large databases by worker compensation authorities, and by the safety and prevention teams of companies. An analysis of these databases can play an important role in the prevention of accidents and the reduction of risks, [...] Read more.
Data on occupational accidents are usually stored in large databases by worker compensation authorities, and by the safety and prevention teams of companies. An analysis of these databases can play an important role in the prevention of accidents and the reduction of risks, but it can be a complex procedure because of the dimensions and complexity of such databases. The SKM (SOM K-Means) method, a two-level clustering system, made up of SOM (Self Organizing Map) and K-Means clustering, has obtained positive results in identifying the dynamics of critical accidents by referring to a database of 1200 occupational accidents that had occurred in the wood industry. The present research has been conducted to validate the recently presented SKM methodology through the analysis of a larger data set of more than 4000 occupational accidents that occurred in Piedmont (Italy), between 2006 and 2013. This work has partitioned the accidents into groups of different accident dynamics families and has quantified the severity and frequency of occurrence of these accidents. The obtained information may be of help to Company Managers and National Authorities to better address preventive measures and policies concerning the clusters that have been identified as being the most critical within a risk-based decision-making framework. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Traffic Safety at Median Ditches: Steel vs. Concrete Barrier Performance Comparison Using Computer Simulation
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
In Turkey, concrete V-shaped ditches are formed at the median section of divided highways to provide drainage. Recent accidents show that these ditches actually present safety risks to vehicles entering the medians. Vehicles either cross over the ditch, roll over, or become trapped [...] Read more.
In Turkey, concrete V-shaped ditches are formed at the median section of divided highways to provide drainage. Recent accidents show that these ditches actually present safety risks to vehicles entering the medians. Vehicles either cross over the ditch, roll over, or become trapped in the ditch, depending upon the mass, size, speed, and angle of the entering vehicle. To overcome this safety risk and reduce the severity of these accidents, longitudinal barriers are installed along these ditches. Currently, in Turkey, steel barriers are extensively used to improve traffic safety at median ditches. In this paper, the crash performances of steel and concrete barriers used at medians with ditches are compared. A model of a standard steel EDSP-1.33 barrier and a model of a newly developed concrete C470 barrier were constructed, and impact simulations were performed for when they are installed at a ditch slope break point. A nonlinear finite element program, LS-DYNA, was used for the analysis. A 13,000 kg bus model was used to impact both barriers in accordance with European standard requirements for crash tests. Simulation results show that when the steel EDSP-1.33 barrier is used, the bus has the potential for excessive penetration of the ditch, with significant barrier deformation. Moreover, the barrier damage is extensive, resulting in increased maintenance costs. On the other hand, the concrete C470 barrier successfully contains and redirects the 13,000 kg bus impact, with minimal barrier deformation and safety risk. Even though the concrete barrier slides toward the inside of the ditch, the bus does not enter the ditch area and exits the barrier in a stable manner. Therefore, to increase traffic safety at ditches located at the median section of divided highways in Turkey, utilization of the newly developed concrete barrier C470 is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design for Transport Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Effect of ADS-B Message Drop-Out in Detect and Avoid of Unmanned Aircraft System Using Monte Carlo Simulation
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
This work analyzes the severity and risk associated with automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) message drop-out in detect and avoid (DAA) function of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Performance assessment of the universal access transceiver (UAT) ADS-B message implies that, in some cases, ADS-B fails [...] Read more.
This work analyzes the severity and risk associated with automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) message drop-out in detect and avoid (DAA) function of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Performance assessment of the universal access transceiver (UAT) ADS-B message implies that, in some cases, ADS-B fails to update within a specified update interval, which is referred to as ‘drop-out’ in this work. ADS-B is a fundamental surveillance sensor for both class 1 and class 2 DAA systems. Message loss or drop-out has been found as one of the common limitations of the ADS-B system. The key feature of this study is incorporating the update rate of real ADS-B data transmitted from the manned aircraft. The data were received from the Grand Forks International Airport, North Dakota. Monte Carlo method has been adopted to resolve encounter scenarios in the presence of drop-out. The change in the alert triggered by the UAS DAA in the presence of ADS-B drop-out has been investigated. Furthermore, the risk matrices are created to quantify the associated risk with drop-out affected alerts. Simulation results depict that both the duration of drop-out and DAA look-ahead time affect the alert-triggering function of UAS. With a small look-ahead window and longer duration of drop-out, the number of warning alerts increases. Also, alerts are affected more during an overtaking encounter than that of a head-to-head encounter. A system-level analysis is also carried out to recognize the potential reasons behind the ADS-B drop-out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact Performance Evaluation of a Crash Cushion Design Using Finite Element Simulation and Full-Scale Crash Testing
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Crash cushions are designed to gradually absorb the kinetic energy of an impacting vehicle and bring it to a controlled stop within an acceptable distance while maintaining a limited amount of deceleration on the occupants. These cushions are used to protect errant vehicles [...] Read more.
Crash cushions are designed to gradually absorb the kinetic energy of an impacting vehicle and bring it to a controlled stop within an acceptable distance while maintaining a limited amount of deceleration on the occupants. These cushions are used to protect errant vehicles from hitting rigid objects, such as poles and barriers located at exit locations on roads. Impact performance evaluation of crash cushions are attained according to an EN 1317-3 standard based on various speed limits and impact angles. Crash cushions can be designed to absorb the energy of an impacting vehicle by using different material deformation mechanisms, such as metal plasticity supported by airbag folding or damping. In this study, a new crash cushion system, called the ulukur crash cushion (UCC), is developed by using linear, low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) containers supported by embedded plastic energy-absorbing tubes as dampers. Steel cables are used to provide anchorage to the design. The crashworthiness of the system was evaluated both numerically and experimentally. The finite element model of the design was developed and solved using LS-DYNA (971, LSTC, Livermore, CA, USA), in which the impact performance was evaluated considering the EN 1317 standard. Following the simulations, full-scale crash tests were performed to determine the performance of the design in containing and redirecting the impacting vehicle. Both the simulations and crash tests showed acceptable agreement. Further crash tests are planned to fully evaluate the crashworthiness of the new crash cushion system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design for Transport Safety)
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Open AccessReview Application of Nanomaterials in Personal Respiratory Protection Equipment: A Literature Review
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Exposure to air pollutants leads to a variety of health effects in humans. Inhalation is one of the most common routs of exposure to poor quality air, mostly in work environments. Respiratory masks are used to prevent breathing in hazardous gases and vapors, [...] Read more.
Exposure to air pollutants leads to a variety of health effects in humans. Inhalation is one of the most common routs of exposure to poor quality air, mostly in work environments. Respiratory masks are used to prevent breathing in hazardous gases and vapors, especially in the absence of proper controlling measures. This study aims to review the effectiveness of respiratory masks with a nanostructure. The electronic search of the genuine databases, including PubMed, Magiran, Iran Medex, Science Database (SID), Science Direct, Web of Science, and Scopus, was conducted in January and February 2017 in chronological order of publications with the keywords defined in the search strategy. Of all identified papers, nine were collected and included in the study. The results of this study indicated that the use of nanomaterials in the structure of brand new mask filters compared with conventional masks enhances the performance and efficiency of breathing air filtration, improves permeability, increases antimicrobial properties, and offers reasonable comfort to the workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Accident Report Interpretation
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
The language and approach we use to describe the past can have a strong influence on the audience’s interpretation of our story. In our experiment, we explore, using 3 different conditions, how the framing, language and style of an accident report can affect [...] Read more.
The language and approach we use to describe the past can have a strong influence on the audience’s interpretation of our story. In our experiment, we explore, using 3 different conditions, how the framing, language and style of an accident report can affect the audience’s proposed solutions to manage the problems found. We find that the approach used to create an accident report can have a powerful influence on the audience’s decision making. Whether we are describing an accident in a linear manner, using a systems approach, or we are accepting of multiple stories which are not linear or coherent, the methods we use to capture and communicate the story have a profound impact on the actions decided upon by the reader. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Complexity)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Safety Culture Oversight: An Intangible Concept for Tangible Issues within Nuclear Installations
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Traced back to the Chernobyl Accident analysis (INSAG-1), the concept of safety culture is regarded as a central phenomenon influencing behaviors and values within high-risk organisations. Many studies have already been conducted on safety culture within nuclear installations. Describing a model designed to [...] Read more.
Traced back to the Chernobyl Accident analysis (INSAG-1), the concept of safety culture is regarded as a central phenomenon influencing behaviors and values within high-risk organisations. Many studies have already been conducted on safety culture within nuclear installations. Describing a model designed to capture and assess safety culture observations, this paper intends to highlight the role of safety culture within the overall regulatory nuclear safety oversight, and to show how intangible cultural elements can lead to the identification of tangible safety issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Safety)
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Open AccessArticle A Safety Culture Maturity Matrix for Nuclear Regulatory Bodies
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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The concept of safety culture has attracted a great deal of attention. Since the rise of the concept, progress has been made regarding the definition of safety culture and the development of tools dedicated to safety culture oversight and self-assessment. In addition, these [...] Read more.
The concept of safety culture has attracted a great deal of attention. Since the rise of the concept, progress has been made regarding the definition of safety culture and the development of tools dedicated to safety culture oversight and self-assessment. In addition, these recent advances have been made across different high-hazard industries, and obviously in the nuclear world. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to tailored methods allowing a regulatory body to assess its own safety culture. The aim of this paper is to present a framework adapted to nuclear regulatory bodies or TSOs (Technical Safety Organisations) in order to guide them in understanding their own safety culture through a “Safety Culture Maturity Matrix”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Human Factors Affecting Logging Injury Incidents in Idaho and the Potential for Real-Time Location-Sharing Technology to Improve Safety
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Human factors, including inadequate situational awareness, can contribute to fatal and near-fatal traumatic injuries in logging, which is among the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Real-time location-sharing technology may help improve situational awareness for loggers. We surveyed and interviewed professional logging [...] Read more.
Human factors, including inadequate situational awareness, can contribute to fatal and near-fatal traumatic injuries in logging, which is among the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Real-time location-sharing technology may help improve situational awareness for loggers. We surveyed and interviewed professional logging contractors in Idaho to (1) characterize current perceptions of in-woods hazards and the human factors that lead to injuries; (2) understand their perspectives on using technology-based location-sharing solutions to improve safety in remote work environments; and (3) identify logging hazard scenarios that could be mitigated using location-sharing technology. We found production pressure, fatigue, and inexperience among the most-common factors contributing to logging injuries from the perspective of participants. Potential limitations of location-sharing technology identified included potential for distraction and cost. Contractors identified several situations where the technology may help improve safety, including (1) alerting workers of potential hand-faller injuries due to lack of movement; (2) helping rigging crews to maintain safe distances from yarded trees and logs during cable logging; and (3) providing a means for equipment operators to see approaching ground workers, especially in low-visibility situations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Cohort Study Examining the Risk of Unintentional Fatal Drowning during Public Holidays in Australia
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Australia’s celebration of its public holidays often involves aquatic recreation, frequently mixed with consumption of alcohol, both of which are risk factors for drowning. This study examines how the demographics and circumstances of public holiday drownings compare to the average day drownings. A [...] Read more.
Australia’s celebration of its public holidays often involves aquatic recreation, frequently mixed with consumption of alcohol, both of which are risk factors for drowning. This study examines how the demographics and circumstances of public holiday drownings compare to the average day drownings. A total population survey (1 July 2002 to 30 June 2017) of unintentional fatal drownings in Australia were extracted from the Royal Life Saving National Fatal Drowning Database. Date of drowning and state/territory of residence were used to determine if the drowning occurred on a public holiday in the person’s place of residence. 4175 persons drowned during the study period. There was a statistically significant difference between the incidence of fatal drowning on public holidays and the other days, with fatal drowning 1.73 times more likely to occur on public holidays (CI: 1.57–1.89). The increased risk of drowning on public holidays should inform the timing and the content of drowning prevention campaigns and strategies. Full article
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