Gluten is among the 14 major food allergens officially recognized by Regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011. The risk to coeliac patients from gluten presence in the food products they consume is likely due to the unintentional contamination of naturally gluten-free (GF) and GF-labelled products, or to hidden sources of gluten in processed GF products. The aim of this paper is to provide a snapshot of gluten risk analysis, with emphasis on immunological methods currently used in gluten detection. The study highlights that immunoassays have some advantages over other analytical methods in gluten determination and are suitable for routine tests. However, some factors (e.g., complexity of the food matrix, type of the applied antibody, gluten extraction procedures and lack of reference material) affect the reliability of obtained results. Hence, efforts are required at an analytical level to overcome the drawbacks of the immunological methods currently available. Harmonization is necessary, so as to assist both consumers in making safe food choices, and the food industry in gluten risk assessment, management and communication.
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