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Safety, Volume 10, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 10 articles

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20 pages, 3520 KiB  
Article
A Model of Adaptive Error Management Practices Addressing the Higher-Order Factors of the Dirty Dozen Error Classification—Implications for Organizational Resilience in Sociotechnical Systems
by Nicki Marquardt, Ricarda Gades-Büttrich, Tammy Brandenberg and Verena Schürmann
Safety 2024, 10(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030064 - 17 Jul 2024
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Within the dynamic, complex, and often safety-critical operations of many process industries, the integration of technology and human elements has given rise to sociotechnical systems (STSs), where the interaction between people and technology plays a pivotal role. To thrive in this complex environment, [...] Read more.
Within the dynamic, complex, and often safety-critical operations of many process industries, the integration of technology and human elements has given rise to sociotechnical systems (STSs), where the interaction between people and technology plays a pivotal role. To thrive in this complex environment, organizations must adopt adaptive error management strategies and cultivate organizational resilience. This approach involves managing the unexpected and designing systems to embrace disorder by organizational learning from errors in STSs. The main objective of this article was to present empirical data of error-causing elements in STSs based on the Dirty Dozen concept, their underlying structure, and implications for error causation screening and adaptive error management systems. A sample of 544 workers employed in seven process industries, such as automotive, chemicals, defense, metal, and timber, participated in this study. The results revealed a three-factor model of human error causation in STSs. Based on these results, an adaptive error management system (AEMS), which includes evidence-based interventions to manage causes of human errors and mitigate their risky consequences, was presented. Finally, implications for organizational resilience and safety culture in STSs were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Risk Management in Process Industries)
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17 pages, 2789 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Shoulder Risk Factors in the Repetitive Task of Slaughterhouse
by Ana Sophia Rosado, Isabella Cabrini, Natalia Duarte, João Santos Baptista and Joana C. Guedes
Safety 2024, 10(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030063 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Repetitive movements and the speed of upper limbs increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to analyse the risk of shoulder injuries in repetitive tasks by evaluating the humerus angle, angular velocity, and angular acceleration during simulated chicken wing cutting. The [...] Read more.
Repetitive movements and the speed of upper limbs increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to analyse the risk of shoulder injuries in repetitive tasks by evaluating the humerus angle, angular velocity, and angular acceleration during simulated chicken wing cutting. The study was conducted in a laboratory simulating a real environment. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers were assessed using an electromagnetic tracking device, TrakSTAR, integrated with MotionMonitor™ (Innovative Sports Training, Inc. Chicago, IL) and software to collect 3-D kinematic data developed in the research centre. The equipment measured the angles performed by the upper limbs during the entire movement. The humerus angles were automatically transformed into angular velocity (°·s−1) and angular acceleration (°·s−2). Maximum angular velocities were 27.39°·s−1 (men, right humerus) and 22.39°·s−1 (women, left humerus), both below the safe limit. Maximum accelerations were 25.32°·s−2 (men, left side) and 28.94°·s−2 (women, left side); safety values for these accelerations are not established. Monotony is a risk factor, especially for the dominant side. Future studies should evaluate risk factors simultaneously in repetitive tasks. Repetitiveness exceeds the safe limit according to the OCRA method. Full article
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16 pages, 11092 KiB  
Communication
Operational Management and Improvement Strategies of Evacuation Centers during the 2024 Noto Peninsula Earthquake—A Case Study of Wajima City
by Tomoya Itatani, Michio Kojima, Junichi Tanaka, Ryo Horiike, Kuniomi Sibata and Ryohei Sasaki
Safety 2024, 10(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030062 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
On 1 January 2024, a large earthquake occurred in Japan’s Noto region. Many buildings collapsed as a result of violent shaking. Electricity and water supplies were cut off, and communications were disrupted. On 5 January, four days after the earthquake, we visited Noto [...] Read more.
On 1 January 2024, a large earthquake occurred in Japan’s Noto region. Many buildings collapsed as a result of violent shaking. Electricity and water supplies were cut off, and communications were disrupted. On 5 January, four days after the earthquake, we visited Noto and conducted disaster-relief activities. This report integrates and discusses the results of the site visits, information broadcasts by public institutions, and previous research. Evacuation centers lacked water and proper sanitation, leading to health issues, including infectious diseases. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) were delayed in implementing infection control measures. Isolated evacuation centers faced communication and supply challenges. Infrastructure restoration, power supply, and toilet facilities at evacuation centers were delayed because of geographical challenges. It is important to have a team that can determine and carry out the necessary activities on site, even without instructions from the DMAT. It is believed to be effective to decide in advance how volunteer teams and the private sector will conduct their activities, assuming that they will be unable to contact public institutions during a disaster. In large-scale disasters, evacuees must operate evacuation centers autonomously. To achieve this, it is necessary for residents to regularly come together as a community. Systematically recording and accumulating these experiences will contribute to improved disaster prevention and mitigation planning. We hope that the experiences we obtained through the abovementioned disaster will be useful for preparing for future disasters. Full article
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15 pages, 2506 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Occupational Hazards Based on the Physical Ergonomics Dimension to Improve the Occupational Health of Agricultural Workers: The Case in Mayo Valley, Mexico
by Víctor Manuel Ramos-García, Josué Aarón López-Leyva, Ana Paola Balderrama-Carmona, Iván Ochoa-Vázquez, Juan José García-Ochoa and Manuel de Jesús Espinoza-Espino
Safety 2024, 10(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030061 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 509
Abstract
The occupational health and safety of agricultural workers is a topic that has a direct impact on the agricultural sector worldwide. For this reason, investigations into ergonomic factors are relevant to the health and safety of agricultural workers. In this study, nine variables [...] Read more.
The occupational health and safety of agricultural workers is a topic that has a direct impact on the agricultural sector worldwide. For this reason, investigations into ergonomic factors are relevant to the health and safety of agricultural workers. In this study, nine variables of the physical–ergonomic dimension were analyzed to determine which factors represent occupational risks for agricultural workers in Mayo Valley, Mexico. A sample of 200 people was considered. The sample was separated by gender and divided into groups according to age. A closed-ended survey was developed and validated to assess physical ergonomics variables using a five-level Likert scale. Using Principal Component Analysis, it was found that there are physical ergonomic variables that affect male agricultural workers more than female workers (the risk of carrying heavy objects, PE3, and the risk of performing repetitive movements, PE4). It was also found that certain physical ergonomic variables are not perceived as hazardous by agricultural workers (the risk of using inappropriate materials, PE9). In addition, various research findings are discussed to determine the implications and recommendations for improving the occupational health and safety of agricultural workers in Mayo Valley, Mexico. Full article
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39 pages, 1485 KiB  
Review
Occupational Chemical Exposure and Health Status of Wildland Firefighters at the Firefront: A Systematic Review
by Tatiana Teixeira, Liliana Almeida, Isabel Dias, João Santos Baptista, Joana Santos, Mário Vaz and Joana Guedes
Safety 2024, 10(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030060 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Wildland firefighting represents a physically and mentally demanding endeavour fraught with various risk factors. The primary aim of this study is to delineate occupational chemical exposure within the firefighting work environment on the firefront and its implications for firefighters’ health status. A systematic [...] Read more.
Wildland firefighting represents a physically and mentally demanding endeavour fraught with various risk factors. The primary aim of this study is to delineate occupational chemical exposure within the firefighting work environment on the firefront and its implications for firefighters’ health status. A systematic literature review was conducted utilising diverse keyword combinations across Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, and ScienceDirect databases. Only English-language journal articles, real-world monitoring reports, and studies featuring samples of firefighters were considered for inclusion. Forty-one studies were analysed, with 26 focusing on firefighters’ occupational exposure to chemical agents during wildland firefighting and 15 addressing the health impairments of wildland firefighting activities. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), VOCs, and particulates emerged as the most prevalent chemical agents in the exposure profiles of frontline firefighters. They were shown to be the main incidents of cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and work-related cancer. The rigorous demands of wildland firefighting have been demonstrated to significantly impact firefighter health, resulting in a notable prevalence of fatalities and illnesses. Given that an elevated number of health issues are common in this occupation, adopting advanced assessment technologies is imperative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Research in Work-Related Diseases, Safety and Health)
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17 pages, 1407 KiB  
Article
Subjective Effects of Using a Passive Upper Limb Exoskeleton for Industrial Textile Workers
by Edda Maria Capodaglio, Federica Amitrano, Armando Coccia, Vittorio Gabba, Gaetano Pagano, Giovanni D’Addio and Monica Panigazzi
Safety 2024, 10(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030059 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Industrial wool textile production exposes workers mainly to the biomechanical loading of the shoulder joint. In this work context, which is characterized by poor machine ergonomics, exposure to biomechanical risk factors, and variable work organization, exoskeletons could facilitate work processes or could be [...] Read more.
Industrial wool textile production exposes workers mainly to the biomechanical loading of the shoulder joint. In this work context, which is characterized by poor machine ergonomics, exposure to biomechanical risk factors, and variable work organization, exoskeletons could facilitate work processes or could be a valuable means to protect workers from overuse injuries. Field evaluation is essential to verify the suitability of specific devices and their acceptance by users. As part of a pilot study, we examined the short-term subjective effects of a passive Arm-Support Exoskeleton (ASE) on workers performing repetitive overhead tasks. In a textile factory, eight workers participated in the study, answering questionnaires after carrying out a work session with (ASE) and without an exoskeleton (FREE). Participants had been using the Paexo exoskeleton for 4.2±5.8 months (min 0–max 12). Subjective evaluations were collected regarding the workload (NASA-TLX) and relief (Borg’s CR10 scale) obtained from the use of the exoskeleton, satisfaction (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST)), usability (System Usability Scale (SUS)), and opinions on the ergonomics of the device (Ergonomics questionnaire). Workers reported a high workload (NASA 7.2±1.0) and assessed a 46% reduction in effort on the CR10 in ASE conditions compared to FREE. They expressed high satisfaction with most characteristics of the ASE (100% satisfied with durability and effectiveness), high level of usability (62% of scores above 80, out of a maximum score of 100), and ergonomics of the device (88±12, out of a maximum score of 110). In addition to the objective effects (electromyography (EMG) reduction) already demonstrated in a previous publication, these qualitative results demonstrate a positive perception by textile workers regarding the effectiveness, usability, and suitability of the exoskeleton. The adoption of ASE in the textile industry appears beneficial in the short term, but the impact associated with individual variables and long-term effects remains to be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ergonomics and Safety)
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16 pages, 2220 KiB  
Review
Review of Integrated Management Systems to Re-Engineer Existing Nonconformances Troubleshooting System
by Matshidiso Moso and Oludolapo Akanni Olanrewaju
Safety 2024, 10(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030058 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Total quality management (TQM) is a strategic philosophy that has adopted kaizen activities which drives the business to carry out activities effectively to yield the best desired output, hence, a profitable organization. The kaizen philosophy acts as a catalyst in productivity rate and [...] Read more.
Total quality management (TQM) is a strategic philosophy that has adopted kaizen activities which drives the business to carry out activities effectively to yield the best desired output, hence, a profitable organization. The kaizen philosophy acts as a catalyst in productivity rate and integrated management systems (IMS) which results in drastic improvements. When the nonconformity arises within the process, the accuracy of the problem solving determines quality of preventive action, therefore the preventive action should be accompanied by the opportunity of improvement from the raised nonconformance. This research seeks to add more knowledge and upgrade technology of problem-solving models relating to the integrated management systems by examining various troubleshooting models for problem solving and preventive action related to quality nonconformances, safety incidents and engineering breakdowns. Hence, the aim of this research is for troubleshooting model technique enhancement for issues related to process engineering, quality management systems and occupational health and safety by creating a model which analyses kaizen projects from the corrective and preventive action analysis of nonconformances. The proposed troubleshooting model was developed using lean techniques and risk rating tools; it was then applied to the case study company for simulation and the outcomes resulted in the closure of nonconformances and continual improvement of future projects. The proposed model is more advantageous to the manufacturing industries seeking to improve their Corrective Action and Preventive Action (CAPA) systems. Full article
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29 pages, 951 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Safety Performance in Building Construction Projects Using System Dynamics Approach in Tanzania
by Kamugisha Kajumulo, Juma Matindana and Fatma Mohamed
Safety 2024, 10(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030057 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Issues in construction safety in Tanzania cast a long shadow, claiming lives and hindering project success. Understanding the complex dynamics at play is crucial for improving safety performance. This research aims to develop a system dynamics model to understand the factors influencing safety [...] Read more.
Issues in construction safety in Tanzania cast a long shadow, claiming lives and hindering project success. Understanding the complex dynamics at play is crucial for improving safety performance. This research aims to develop a system dynamics model to understand the factors influencing safety performance in building construction projects. Smart PLS was used to identify key variables using factor reduction, and 19 factors were determined as key factors to be used in this study from 143 variables from a questionnaire; then, STELLA was used to develop system dynamic modelling. A study was conducted on 255 building construction projects in five regions of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Arusha, Mwanza, and Mbeya, and later, the model was tested in one contractor’s company. By simulating the interactions between these diverse elements and their impact on accident rates, it was found that both safety performance and safety management processes for construction projects are not stagnant but are expected to rise at the beginning of the project and to grow steadily as the project execution approaches its end. The sensitivity analysis conducted on the system dynamics model found that the extent, frequency, and cost of incidences are positively correlated. This study contributes facts on the status of safety climate, a new definition of safety climate, and the integration of different analysis methods in evaluating safety performance in Tanzania. Full article
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12 pages, 5338 KiB  
Case Report
Assessing the Short-Term Effects of Dual Back-Support Exoskeleton within Logistics Operations
by André Cardoso, Ana Colim, Paula Carneiro, Nélson Costa, Sérgio Gomes, Abel Pires and Pedro Arezes
Safety 2024, 10(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030056 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Logistics activities involve significant risk factors for the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), particularly low back pain. Exoskeletons have emerged as potential solutions to mitigate these risks. This study assesses the short-term effects of dual passive back-support exoskeletons (Auxivo and Htrius) on [...] Read more.
Logistics activities involve significant risk factors for the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), particularly low back pain. Exoskeletons have emerged as potential solutions to mitigate these risks. This study assesses the short-term effects of dual passive back-support exoskeletons (Auxivo and Htrius) on WMSD risk factors in logistics operations. Two workstations were evaluated using self-report ratings, postural assessment, and surface electromyography (EMG). The results indicate that both exoskeletons provided relief and support during tasks, with Htrius showing a slight advantage. Exoskeletons reduced perceived exertion, especially during trunk flexion tasks, and improved posture, particularly in tasks involving manual lifting loads at lower height levels. While variations in muscular activity were observed, the Htrius exoskeleton showed a trend of reducing lumbar muscle activity. Overall, Htrius demonstrated promise in improving workers’ comfort, safety, and efficiency, potentially reducing WMSD risk and muscular fatigue. However, individual preferences and workplace-specific characteristics should be considered when selecting exoskeleton models. Future research should explore the effects on different loads, genders, and EMG of different muscles to further enhance the understanding and application of exoskeletons in occupational contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ergonomics and Safety)
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15 pages, 1229 KiB  
Article
Insights into Agricultural Machine Injuries in Pakistan: An Orthopedic Surgeons Survey (2022–2023)
by Mian Muhammad Sajid Raza, Zamir Hussain Tunio, Ikram Din Ujjan and Salah F. Issa
Safety 2024, 10(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10030055 - 25 Jun 2024
Viewed by 674
Abstract
As one of the most perilous industries, agriculture presents both fatal and non-fatal risks to farmers. Pakistan, a notable Asian nation, heavily depends on agriculture, which constitutes 23% of its GDP and employs 37.4% of its workforce. The study investigates the challenges within [...] Read more.
As one of the most perilous industries, agriculture presents both fatal and non-fatal risks to farmers. Pakistan, a notable Asian nation, heavily depends on agriculture, which constitutes 23% of its GDP and employs 37.4% of its workforce. The study investigates the challenges within Pakistan’s agriculture sector and enriches the existing literature by gathering data on agricultural machine-related injuries in Pakistan during 2022–2023. The survey, conducted from November 2022 to April 2023, involved 55 respondents, predominantly from Sindh and Punjab. The findings indicate a total of 507 injuries, with approximately a quarter being fatal (121 incidents). Sindh emerges as a significant hotspot, with the majority of injuries documented there. With respect to the key sources of injuries, the fodder cutter is a primary source of injuries with 201 injuries documented, accounting for approximately 40% of all injuries. Threshers contributed to 197 injuries, approximately 39% of the total, and about 52 are tractor-related injuries, making up about 10% of machine injuries. Regarding the severity and demographics of injuries, about 38% of cases involve amputation, with a higher incidence among males (77%) and individuals aged 15–34 years (65%). It is important to acknowledge the study’s limitations, including a small participant pool and a brief data collection period. This research advocates for safety regulations, accident reduction measures, and increased safety awareness among farmers, aiming to foster a safer and more sustainable agricultural environment in Pakistan. Full article
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