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Safety, Volume 10, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 19 articles

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18 pages, 439 KiB  
Article
Exploring Perception of Warning Labels: Insights from Color, Signal Words, and Symbol Evaluation
by Miskeen Ali Gopang, Tauha Hussain Ali and Shakeel Ahmed Shaikh
Safety 2024, 10(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020052 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Protecting people from the risks associated with products is a critical concern in today’s economy. Pakistan, being the world’s fifth most populous country, lacks the framework of warning labels and therefore faces a significant gap in product warning labels. Pakistan is a representative [...] Read more.
Protecting people from the risks associated with products is a critical concern in today’s economy. Pakistan, being the world’s fifth most populous country, lacks the framework of warning labels and therefore faces a significant gap in product warning labels. Pakistan is a representative of a number of countries that export a variety of products to Pakistan; however, warning labels on these goods are typically in English, which might mislead people of Pakistan in perceiving the hazard level. It is therefore imperative to conduct research into the non-textual and cross-cultural understanding of labels from the perspective of Pakistan. This study examined the applicability of ANSI Z535.4 in the context of Pakistan. A total of 66 (34 male and 32 female) undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.5 participated in this study. A meticulous experiment was designed using a nine-point rating scale with anchors on both sides, where one represented ‘not at all hazardous’ and nine represented ‘extremely hazardous’. Participants rated each component of warning labels, i.e., color, symbol, signal words, and their complex configurations. The results showed alignment with the ANSI Z535.4 standards for some components (i.e., colors, symbols, and signal words) and complex configurations, whereas no significant difference was found in perceived hazard levels between green (M = 3.167), blue (M = 3.591, and yellow (M = 3.652) colors, with a p-value greater than 0.05. Participants did not differentiate significantly between signal words, i.e., caution (M = 5.182) and warning (M = 5.879). Participants also did not differentiate significantly between complex configurations, i.e., safety alert–caution–yellow (M = 5.076) and safety alert–warning–orange (M = 5.197), with p-values greater than 0.05. These results state that discrepancies in the perception of warning labels exist. This study is the first of its kind conducted in the context of Pakistan, which will help policy makers to consider the findings before implementing a policy. In fact, differences in perception could result in failure to take appropriate precautions. Nonetheless, these nuances can be overcome with proper awareness through training for the people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Assessment—Health and Safety)
16 pages, 2672 KiB  
Article
Proposed Changes to the Inspection Strategy for Fire Alarm Systems: Empirical Analysis of Weak Points and Technical Influencing Factors
by Stefan Siegfried Veit and František Steiner
Safety 2024, 10(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020051 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Fire alarm systems are an important part of the safety concept in complex buildings. For this reason, there are high availability requirements for the systems, which must be sustained by a maintenance concept. A shortage of skilled workers and rising costs in the [...] Read more.
Fire alarm systems are an important part of the safety concept in complex buildings. For this reason, there are high availability requirements for the systems, which must be sustained by a maintenance concept. A shortage of skilled workers and rising costs in the construction and operation of buildings are pushing these concepts ever further. This study deals with proposed changes to the maintenance strategies to achieve cost and time savings in addition to an improvement in quality. As a first part of the work, the current state of research on developments in fire alarm systems and their maintenance and inspection concepts is analyzed within a literature review. The results serve as a basis for further research, which is based on a qualitative content analysis of expert interviews and standardized surveys to identify the weaknesses in current inspection strategies and future factors influencing the methods and technology of inspections through technical innovations. As a data basis for this study, expert interviews were conducted with experts from manufacturers, industry associations, and standards bodies in order to determine the possible influencing factors. To determine their relevance for the inspection, more than 40 experts were surveyed about testing the systems. The presented results show that new technical risks, such as cyber threats and networked plant structures, are insufficiently covered by current inspection strategies. Furthermore, inspection steps can be substituted by new technologies. The most important influencing factors that can be identified here are automatic self-test functions of components and remote inspection techniques of the systems. Finally, the results are discussed within the framework of a PESTEL analysis. In conclusion, it can be stated that the integration of identified impacts in future inspection strategies brings time and efficiency benefits in the operation of systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Performance Assessment and Management in Construction)
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50 pages, 5391 KiB  
Article
Exploring Students’ and Teachers’ Insights on School-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Safety: A Case Study of Western Morava Basin, Serbia
by Vladimir M. Cvetković, Neda Nikolić and Tin Lukić
Safety 2024, 10(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020050 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Integrated disaster risk reduction in schools represents a key component of safety strategies within the educational sector of every country. The aim of this study is to comprehensively explore the impact of various demographic and socio-economic factors on the perceptions of students and [...] Read more.
Integrated disaster risk reduction in schools represents a key component of safety strategies within the educational sector of every country. The aim of this study is to comprehensively explore the impact of various demographic and socio-economic factors on the perceptions of students and teachers regarding disaster risk reduction and safety in schools. This study is distinguished by its extensive empirical approach, employing a multistage random sampling method to conduct 850 face-to-face interviews (650 with students and 200 with teachers) throughout 2023 in 10 out of the total 18 municipalities in the Western Morava Basin of the Republic of Serbia. Two structured survey instruments were developed, incorporating a mix of qualitative (closed-ended) multiple-choice questions and five-point Likert scales. The research proposes two central hypotheses regarding school-based disaster risk reduction. Firstly, it suggests that gender, age, parent’s employment, academic achievement, living situation, parental education levels, and engagement with social media collectively influence students’ perspectives on this matter (H1–H8). Secondly, it posits that gender, age, marital status, parenthood, and educational background significantly impact teachers’ viewpoints on school-based disaster risk reduction (H1–H5). Multivariate linear regression was used to explore predictors of students’ and teachers’ insights on school-based disaster risk reduction. Various statistical tests, including Chi-square, t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation, were employed to investigate the influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on these insights. The results of multivariate regression analyses indicate that age, gender, and marital status emerge as the primary predictors across various facets of students’ and teachers’ insights on school-based disaster risk reduction, including awareness of disasters, disaster education activities, attitudes toward disaster risk reduction education, and enhancement of disaster information accessibility. The findings of this study provide comprehensive insights into the key factors influencing students’ and teachers’ perceptions of disaster risk reduction in schools. This research not only contributes to the academic discourse on disaster education but also serves as a foundational basis for improving educational programs, developing policies and strategies, refining normative educational frameworks, guiding teacher training, and informing further research in disaster education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Assessment—Health and Safety)
12 pages, 465 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Relationship between Work-Related Health Problems and the Working Conditions of Electronics Industry Workers in South Korea
by Sul A. Won, Jae Wook Choi and Kyung Hee Kim
Safety 2024, 10(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020049 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Background: The electronics industry has characteristics, such as the continuous occurrence of new hazards and risk factors due to rapid technological changes, the occurrence of safety and health blind spots due to the outsourcing of work, trade secrets, and a lack of information, [...] Read more.
Background: The electronics industry has characteristics, such as the continuous occurrence of new hazards and risk factors due to rapid technological changes, the occurrence of safety and health blind spots due to the outsourcing of work, trade secrets, and a lack of information, so research is needed from a safety and health perspective. This study sought to determine the relationship between work-related health problems and the working conditions of electronics industry workers. Methods: The study subjects were 3354 workers in the electronics industry from the raw data of the 4th to 6th Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). The variables were divided into general, occupational, and working environment characteristics, and a logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between work-related health problems and working conditions. Results: Among the general and occupational characteristics, gender, education, night work, and working time appropriateness were analyzed as effect factors. In terms of working environment characteristics, physical work risk, musculoskeletal work risk, possibility of risk to work, subjective health impact, and working environment satisfaction were found to have effects on work-related health problems. Conclusions: The results of this study are meaningful in that they identified the effect factors of work-related health problems in the working conditions of workers in the electronics industry, where prior studies are lacking. Therefore, improvements, such as the management of night workers, appropriate working time, reduction in exposure to work risk factors, and improvement in working environment satisfaction, appear to be necessary. Full article
16 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Examining Risky Riding Behaviors: Insights from a Questionnaire Survey with Middle-Aged and Older Motorcyclists in Thailand
by Sayam Sunmud, Tosporn Arreeras, Suchada Phonsitthangkun, Sirin Prommakhot and Krit Sititvangkul
Safety 2024, 10(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020048 - 27 May 2024
Viewed by 510
Abstract
This research endeavors to achieve three primary objectives. Firstly, it seeks to develop a measurement model capable of assessing the motorcycle riding behavior of middle-aged individuals in Thailand. The construction of this model integrates the motorcycle rider behavior questionnaire (MRBQ) with statistical and [...] Read more.
This research endeavors to achieve three primary objectives. Firstly, it seeks to develop a measurement model capable of assessing the motorcycle riding behavior of middle-aged individuals in Thailand. The construction of this model integrates the motorcycle rider behavior questionnaire (MRBQ) with statistical and descriptive analyses. Secondly, the research examines the accuracy of the measurement model using a factor analysis approach, comprising both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Lastly, the study aims to furnish the people of Thailand with a set of guidelines for self-assessment of their motorcycle riding habits. The examination involves 399 middle-aged motorcycle riders aged 35 years or older, a significant majority of whom (81%) possess the requisite licenses for motorcycle operation, with the majority (83%) accumulating over a decade of riding experience. Through analysis, a set of 39 items capturing nuanced behaviors exhibited by middle-aged motorcyclists in Thailand is identified. These items are categorized into four distinct clusters: speed violations, control errors, traffic errors, and adherence to safety equipment protocols. The utilization of the MRBQ in this study holds significant importance, as it provides valuable insights into the riding practices of the Thai population. The resultant findings hold the potential to inform safety initiatives and strategies aimed at enhancing the overall motorcycle riding experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety Culture)
33 pages, 2107 KiB  
Review
Insights into Women’s Occupational Health and Safety: A Decade in Review of Primary Data Studies
by Somayeh Bolghanabadi, Aida Haghighi and Mehdi Jahangiri
Safety 2024, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020047 - 27 May 2024
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Women play integral roles across various sectors, including mining. Moreover, they often form a majority in certain sectors, such as healthcare and education. Biological (sex) and social (gender) differences can influence how hazards are assessed and controlled for women at work. Therefore, because [...] Read more.
Women play integral roles across various sectors, including mining. Moreover, they often form a majority in certain sectors, such as healthcare and education. Biological (sex) and social (gender) differences can influence how hazards are assessed and controlled for women at work. Therefore, because of the importance of women’s occupational health and safety (OHS), this study reviews and analyzes OHS-related research studies to explore (i) the attention given to women’s OHS; (ii) the specific occupations studied; and (iii) the primary OHS issues and challenges faced by women. Following PRISMA guidelines, the study examined articles from 2010–2021, selecting 62 that utilized primary data, with all or part of their participants being female. The results indicate that the included studies examined women’s OHS in specific occupations. These include healthcare workers, farm and forestry workers, office staff, teachers, firefighters, police officers, nail technicians, workers in the clothing industry, and general industrial workers. The trend of publishing articles on women’s OHS has been growing, with most studies focusing on healthcare and agriculture. The USA and South Korea are leading in publications in the field of women’s OHS, while the USA, Australia, and the Netherlands have the highest collaboration rates. Key findings reveal that the most common OHS issues faced by women in various occupations include stress, fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders and pain, sleep disorders, long working hours, depression and anxiety, workplace violence, and allergies and skin problems. Many of these issues are related to mental health. Specific issues based on the nature of the work vary; for example, teachers experience voice disorders, while farmers face digestive problems. This study contributes theoretically by enhancing understanding of women’s OHS, serving as a foundation for further research, and providing practical guidance for employers and policymakers seeking to implement effective strategies for guaranteeing women’s OHS across sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Issues in Safety)
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14 pages, 1129 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Occupational Safety and Health Disclosure Practices: Insights from 8 Years in Taiwan’s Construction Industry
by Chieh-Wen Chang, Tomohisa Nagata, Louise E. Anthony and Ro-Ting Lin
Safety 2024, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020046 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
The construction industry has been identified as a major contributor to occupational accidents that can lead to fatalities. As a result, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of new safety and health regulations and revised guidelines in improving safety and health disclosures [...] Read more.
The construction industry has been identified as a major contributor to occupational accidents that can lead to fatalities. As a result, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of new safety and health regulations and revised guidelines in improving safety and health disclosures and performance within the construction industry. We retrieved safety and health disclosure reports from 25 Taiwanese construction companies between 2013 and 2020 using the Market Observation Post System website. We analyzed the data using the Kaplan–Meier method to assess the timing of disclosures and differences between larger (≥300 employees) and smaller (<300 employees) companies. We found that construction companies reported safety indicators more promptly than health indicators and that larger companies disclosed earlier compared to smaller ones. Only 45% of companies provide detailed reviews and preventative measures in their sustainability reports despite 64% disclosing occupational accidents. We found that from 2013 to 2020, more companies improved their occupational safety and health (OSH) reporting. This improvement coincided significantly with the adoption of international standards and Taiwan’s government regulations. In summary, the study found that larger companies were more likely to disclose OSH data compared to smaller ones. This suggests that company size and available resources could have an impact on reporting practices. While some progress was made, companies still struggle to provide detailed reports on major accidents, balancing transparency with competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Building a Sustainable Construction Workforce)
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22 pages, 1822 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Road Safety Decision-Making through Analysis of Youth Survey Data: A Descriptive Statistical Approach
by Zohra Bohdidi, El Khalil Cherif, Hamza El Azhari, Ayman Bnoussaad and Aziz Babounia
Safety 2024, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020045 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Unsafe roads have posed a significant threat to public health, economic stability, societal well-being, and national interests for numerous decades. Road traffic accidents constitute the primary cause of death among Morocco’s youth population. This study facilitates a comprehensive exploration of the opinions held [...] Read more.
Unsafe roads have posed a significant threat to public health, economic stability, societal well-being, and national interests for numerous decades. Road traffic accidents constitute the primary cause of death among Morocco’s youth population. This study facilitates a comprehensive exploration of the opinions held by youth in Morocco with regard to decision-making in road safety. Through a rigorous analysis of their perspectives, the research endeavors to scientifically categorize these opinions. 97.8% of the surveyed youth strongly agree that road safety holds national importance and 58% recognize road safety as a personal responsibility. The overarching aim is to provide decision-makers with valuable insights to enhance the implementation of effective strategies and actively involve youth in shaping future road safety initiatives. Full article
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24 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Hydrogen Value Chain Events: Implications for Hydrogen Refueling Stations’ Safety
by Eulàlia Badia, Joaquín Navajas, Roser Sala, Nicola Paltrinieri and Hitomi Sato
Safety 2024, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020044 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 732
Abstract
Renewable hydrogen is emerging as the key to a sustainable energy transition with multiple applications and uses. In the field of transport, in addition to fuel cell vehicles, it is necessary to develop an extensive network of hydrogen refueling stations (hereafter HRSs). The [...] Read more.
Renewable hydrogen is emerging as the key to a sustainable energy transition with multiple applications and uses. In the field of transport, in addition to fuel cell vehicles, it is necessary to develop an extensive network of hydrogen refueling stations (hereafter HRSs). The characteristics and properties of hydrogen make ensuring the safe operation of these facilities a crucial element for their successful deployment and implementation. This paper shows the outcomes of an analysis of hydrogen incidents and accidents considering their potential application to HRSs. For this purpose, the HIAD 2.0 was reviewed and a total of 224 events that could be repeated in any of the major industrial processes related to hydrogen refueling stations were analyzed. This analysis was carried out using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative techniques, considering the following hydrogen value chain: production, storage, delivery and industrial use. The results provide general information segmented by event frequency, damage classes and failure typology. The analysis shows the main processes of the value chain allow the identification of key aspects for the safety management of refueling facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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13 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Fire Safety Management for Special Needs Schools in South Africa
by Tlou D. Raphela and Ndivhuwo Ndaba
Safety 2024, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020043 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 684
Abstract
The safety and well-being of learners with special educational needs in South Africa remain a paramount concern, significantly impacting their constitutional rights and dignity. Despite legislative commitments aimed at fostering inclusive education, a pervasive absence of adequate fire safety measures in special needs [...] Read more.
The safety and well-being of learners with special educational needs in South Africa remain a paramount concern, significantly impacting their constitutional rights and dignity. Despite legislative commitments aimed at fostering inclusive education, a pervasive absence of adequate fire safety measures in special needs schools (SNSs) in South Africa has persisted, leading to the vulnerability of these learners. Tragic incidents, such as fatal fires in these schools, as reported in the literature, underscore the urgent need for immediate intervention to ensure the safety and security of these learners, especially with regards to fire hazards. This study, conducted within the Northwest Province of South Africa, assessed the state of fire safety management in SNSs by applying a series of chi-squared (χ2) tests of independence for categorical variables, descriptive statistics, and regression analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), Version 20 and found that limited access to power is the potential root cause of fires in these schools; also, the limited amount of fire safety initiatives was a problem. In addition, the ordinal regression showed a statistically significant relationship when the question of to what extent the learners in the sampled schools are involved in fire safety programs was regressed with the questions of whether management and stakeholders were involved in fire safety programs and also on taking part in the physical fire safety programs (χ2 = 47.412; df = 2; p < 0.001; R2 = 70.5%). Furthermore, fire safety management was not sufficiently implemented in the sampled schools and the safety legislations of the country were not implemented accordingly when it came to fire safety. This study identified root causes of fire risks, gauged stakeholders’ awareness and involvement in fire safety management, and advocated for more stringent safety policies and practices within the SNS based on the above findings. Full article
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49 pages, 3104 KiB  
Article
Navigating the Power of Artificial Intelligence in Risk Management: A Comparative Analysis
by Mohammad Yazdi, Esmaeil Zarei, Sidum Adumene and Amin Beheshti
Safety 2024, 10(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020042 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
This study presents a responsive analysis of the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in risk management, contrasting traditional approaches with those augmented by AI and highlighting the challenges and opportunities that emerge. AI, intense learning methodologies such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have [...] Read more.
This study presents a responsive analysis of the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in risk management, contrasting traditional approaches with those augmented by AI and highlighting the challenges and opportunities that emerge. AI, intense learning methodologies such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have been identified as pivotal in extracting meaningful insights from image data, a form of analysis that holds significant potential in identifying and managing risks across various industries. The research methodology involves a strategic selection and processing of images for analysis and introduces three case studies that serve as benchmarks for evaluation. These case studies showcase the application of AI, in place of image processing capabilities, to identify hazards, evaluate risks, and suggest control measures. The comparative evaluation focuses on the accuracy, relevance, and practicality of the AI-generated findings alongside the system’s response time and comprehensive understanding of the context. Results reveal that AI can significantly enhance risk assessment processes, offering rapid and detailed insights. However, the study also recognises the intrinsic limitations of AI in contextual interpretation, advocating for a synergy between technological and domain-specific expertise. The conclusion underscores the transformative potential of AI in risk management, supporting continued research to further integrate AI effectively into risk assessment frameworks. Full article
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22 pages, 2574 KiB  
Article
A Risk Assessment Framework Based on Fuzzy Logic for Automotive Systems
by Francesco Merola, Cinzia Bernardeschi and Giuseppe Lami
Safety 2024, 10(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020041 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Recent advancements in the automotive field have significantly increased the level of complexity and connectivity of modern vehicles. In this context, the topic of cybersecurity becomes extremely relevant, as a successful attack can have an impact in terms of safety on the car [...] Read more.
Recent advancements in the automotive field have significantly increased the level of complexity and connectivity of modern vehicles. In this context, the topic of cybersecurity becomes extremely relevant, as a successful attack can have an impact in terms of safety on the car navigation, potentially leading to harmful behavior. Risk assessment is typically performed using discrete input and output scales, which can often lead to an identical output in terms of risk evaluation despite the inputs presenting non-negligible differences. This work presents a novel fuzzy-logic-based methodology to assess cybersecurity risks which takes attack feasibility and safety impact as input factors. This technique allows us explicitly model the uncertainty and ambiguousness of input data, which is typical of the risk assessment process, providing an output on a more detailed scale. The fuzzy inference engine is based on a set of control rules expressed in natural language, which is crucial to maintaining the interpretability and traceability of the risk calculation. The proposed framework was applied to a case study extracted from ISO/SAE 21434. The obtained results are in line with the traditional methodology, with the added benefit of also providing the scatter around the calculated value, indicating the risk trend. The proposed method is general and can be applied in the industry independently from the specific case study. Full article
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13 pages, 1066 KiB  
Article
Occupational Safety Assessment for Surface Mine Systems: The Case in Jordan
by Samir K. Khrais, Tamer Elia Yared, Noor Majid Saifan, Tarek H. Al-Hawari and Fikri Dweiri
Safety 2024, 10(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020040 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Surface mining is one of the hazardous industries that have several risky operations, including transportation, treatment, and mineral extraction. To avoid the risk of disaster, it is important to evaluate safety procedures and determine expected hazards. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Surface mining is one of the hazardous industries that have several risky operations, including transportation, treatment, and mineral extraction. To avoid the risk of disaster, it is important to evaluate safety procedures and determine expected hazards. The aim of this study is to develop a thorough safety evaluation model for the surface mining industry based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one important multi-criteria decision-making approach. A total of 11 criteria and 36 sub-criteria that are both independent and homogeneous were involved in the decision problem. Further, a deep sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the stability of the ranking preference. The findings indicate that four out of the eleven criteria are particularly significant. To test the model’s applicability and effectiveness, a case study was conducted involving three surface mining companies located in the north of Jordan. The results demonstrate that the model is reliable, applicable, and effective in addressing real-world problems. Full article
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6 pages, 171 KiB  
Communication
Nose-Over and Nose-Down Accidents in General Aviation: Tailwheels and Aging Airplanes
by Alex de Voogt and Kayla Louteiro
Safety 2024, 10(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020039 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Safety in General Aviation has been a continuous concern. About 12% of all airplane accidents in General Aviation involve nose-overs and nose-down events. A total of 134 accidents reported by the National Transportation Safety Board that include nose-overs and nose-downs were analyzed for [...] Read more.
Safety in General Aviation has been a continuous concern. About 12% of all airplane accidents in General Aviation involve nose-overs and nose-down events. A total of 134 accidents reported by the National Transportation Safety Board that include nose-overs and nose-downs were analyzed for their main causes. It was found that 35% of the defining events involved a loss of control on the ground while 58% of the total dataset involved tailwheel-type aircraft. A relatively high proportion of aircraft built before 1950 were found, which are also aircraft that have tailwheel-type landing gear, and thereby a higher propensity for ground loops and nose-overs. It is shown that the high accident rate in General Aviation, especially for accidents that did not result in a fatality, was, to an important extent, explained by tailwheel and older aircraft in the US General Aviation airplane fleet struggling with controlling the aircraft on the ground. Attention to this group of aircraft in future studies may help to more effectively address the relatively high accident rates in General Aviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aviation Safety—Accident Investigation, Analysis and Prevention)
11 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Altered Haematological Parameters in Gasoline Station Workers Due to Benzene Exposure
by Sunisa Chaiklieng, Umakorn Tongsantia, Pornnapa Suggaravetsiri and Herman Autrup
Safety 2024, 10(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020038 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Benzene is harmful to human health and early detection of haematological alterations is important in preventing adverse health effects. This study aimed to investigate the biomarkers of benzene exposure and its effects due to haematological alterations. Gasoline station workers with potential risks according [...] Read more.
Benzene is harmful to human health and early detection of haematological alterations is important in preventing adverse health effects. This study aimed to investigate the biomarkers of benzene exposure and its effects due to haematological alterations. Gasoline station workers with potential risks according to the biomatrix concerning benzene exposure underwent blood and urine evaluation for the biological monitoring of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (tt-MA), and haematological and biochemical parameter evaluation. The results were analysed for correlations between biological and haematological effects. The tt-MA biomarker was detected in some workers and approximately 50% of workers had a blood profile that showed abnormal parameters with respect to the haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct) and white blood cell parameters, which were outside the normal range. A significant correlation was observed between the tt-MA biomarker’s level and the levels of the haematological and biochemical parameters, which were Hb, Hct, eosinophil, neutrophil, SGOT and blood creatinine. The level of urinary tt-MA as a marker of benzene exposure correlated with haematological and biochemical changes in the blood, suggesting that the gasoline station workers were affected by benzene exposure. Moreover, the current study suggests that early detection of haematological abnormalities may be possible by analysing biomarkers of their effects through regular health surveillance of workers. Full article
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14 pages, 3777 KiB  
Article
Tailored Incident Investigation Protocols: A Critically Needed Practice
by Ahmed Jalil Al-Bayati
Safety 2024, 10(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020037 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Construction scholars and practitioners have identified a repetitive pattern of direct causes leading to both fatal and non-fatal injuries among construction workers. Over the years, direct causes such as falls, electrocutions, and being struck have consistently represented a substantial proportion of recorded and [...] Read more.
Construction scholars and practitioners have identified a repetitive pattern of direct causes leading to both fatal and non-fatal injuries among construction workers. Over the years, direct causes such as falls, electrocutions, and being struck have consistently represented a substantial proportion of recorded and reported injuries in the United States. One potential factor contributing to this repetition is the absence of root cause investigations for incidents. Incident investigations should focus on system deficiencies and shortcomings instead of individual behaviors. While the identification of incident root causes provides the needed information to eliminate the direct causes, it is inherently complex. Recently, the use of tailored incident investigation protocols as a practical and systematically conducted method was suggested to uncover the root causes of incidents, subsequently assisting in reducing their recurrence. To illustrate the feasibility of such an approach, this article provides a step-by-step guide to creating a tailored investigation protocol for revealing the root causes of arc flash incidents by utilizing a panel of safety experts. In addition, this study demonstrates the feasibility of developing tailored investigation protocols for other common causes, such as falls and electrocutions. Tailored investigation protocols streamline the identification of potential root causes to a manageable number, relying on subject matter experts. Consequently, they enhance learning from incidents by mitigating investigators’ biases and potential lack of experience. Safety practitioners can use the method presented in this article to create tailored investigation protocols based on their working environment to improve learning for occupational injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Performance Assessment and Management in Construction)
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13 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Bio-Risk Management Systems: Biosafety Assessment in COVID-19 Referral Hospitals in Indonesia
by Windri Handayani, Anom Bowolaksono, Fatma Lestari, Abdul Kadir, Saraswati Andani Satyawardhani, Duta Liana, Alyssa Zahwa Ananda and Saravanan Gunaratnam
Safety 2024, 10(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020036 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Numerous hospital laboratories in Indonesia need to implement improved bio-risk management (BRM) systems. There are many potential biohazards in laboratory activities that can impact health and the environment, leading to laboratory incidents. To minimize the impact and occurrence of such incidents, it is [...] Read more.
Numerous hospital laboratories in Indonesia need to implement improved bio-risk management (BRM) systems. There are many potential biohazards in laboratory activities that can impact health and the environment, leading to laboratory incidents. To minimize the impact and occurrence of such incidents, it is necessary to evaluate the implementation of BRM in every hospital laboratory that uses biological agents. This study was conducted in eight COVID-19 reference hospitals in Indonesia in the regions of Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Java, which have committed to implementing BRM systems in their laboratory activities. This research employed a descriptive study design and quantitative methods, with the aim of analyzing and evaluating the implementation of BRM systems in laboratories by assessing the achievements and gap analysis obtained from each laboratory. This research utilized primary data in the form of checklist forms referencing ISO 35001:2019 for the laboratory BRM system. Then, the assessments were based on virtual interviews conducted by the researcher with laboratory personnel as the primary data. The evaluation conducted on gap analysis from the seven clauses in ISO 35001:2019 across all hospitals revealed large gaps, particularly in three clauses: leadership, support, and performance. However, the aspects concerning organization, improvement, and performance evaluation were relatively satisfactory. Hence, there is a need for further improvement in leadership, support, and performance evaluation clauses. Additionally, it is essential to highlight the importance of comprehensive performance assessment, including proactive audits and continuous enhancements to achieve optimal bio-risk management. Full article
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9 pages, 415 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Occupational Radiation Dose in Radiography Students: Implications for Safety and Training
by Mohamed Abuzaid, Zarmeena Noorajan, Wiam Elshami and Manal Ibham
Safety 2024, 10(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020035 - 4 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Background: This study aimed to investigate the occupational exposure of undergraduate radiography students to ionising radiation and evaluate the effectiveness of safety protocols and training in reducing radiation exposure. Methods: This study tracked undergraduate radiography students from the University of Sharjah, UAE, using [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to investigate the occupational exposure of undergraduate radiography students to ionising radiation and evaluate the effectiveness of safety protocols and training in reducing radiation exposure. Methods: This study tracked undergraduate radiography students from the University of Sharjah, UAE, using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) from 2015 to 2023. TLD readings were conducted every 15 weeks during 384 h of clinical placement. This study encompassed various radiographic procedures, and the TLDs were used to measure shallow (HP (0.07)) and deep doses (HP (10)). Results: A data analysis from 599 dosimeters revealed an average of 74 students annually. The average effective doses for HP (10) and HP (0.07) were 0.227 mSv and 0.222 mSv, respectively. These doses were well-below the recommended annual limits. Conclusion: This study’s results indicated that radiography students’ occupational radiation exposure during clinical training was within the safe limits, demonstrating the effectiveness of training and safety protocols. A comparison with international data corroborated the low exposure levels. Clinical training is essential for radiography students, and this study highlights the success of safety protocols in minimising occupational radiation exposure. Continuous monitoring and education are crucial to sustaining these positive outcomes. Full article
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Article
The BowTie as a Digital Twin: How a BowTie Looks Different from a Data Perspective
by Paul Singh, Coen van Gulijk and Neil Sunderland
Safety 2024, 10(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020034 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
This work follows from a research project for safety management system re-engineering that turned a safety BowTie into a digital twin. A digital twin is a model embedded in software that mirrors a specific aspect of a real system; the aspect in this [...] Read more.
This work follows from a research project for safety management system re-engineering that turned a safety BowTie into a digital twin. A digital twin is a model embedded in software that mirrors a specific aspect of a real system; the aspect in this case is the risk space associated with a process. The well-known BowTie is the model that turns out to be singularly well suited as a digital twin from the risk perspective as it maps out the risk space together with real-life controls. However, for a BowTie to be a high-fidelity digital twin of a real system, the rules and processes for designing and operating a BowTie are changed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Risk Management in Process Industries)
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