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Horticulturae, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2016) – 7 articles

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Review
A Review on Organic Food Production in Malaysia
Horticulturae 2016, 2(3), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae2030012 - 24 Aug 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4277
Abstract
The consumption of organic food has grown remarkably, both in developed and developing countries. Although organic food comprises only a small fraction of the food market, its rapid growth has generated much interest among consumers and businesses, as well as researchers. For products [...] Read more.
The consumption of organic food has grown remarkably, both in developed and developing countries. Although organic food comprises only a small fraction of the food market, its rapid growth has generated much interest among consumers and businesses, as well as researchers. For products to be called organic, the production must conform to a certain established organic standard and be certified by a recognized certifying body. In Malaysia, the local organic food industry is still small, as more than 60% of organic food products are imported. Most of the organic products are sold domestically, while some are exported to Singapore. The perception and understanding of organic food production is based mainly on not using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. In general, there is a lack of awareness among producers, retailers, and consumers of the wider extent of organic production and processing standards in local markets. The organic food industry is facing several challenges in Malaysia. Although the demand for organic food in Malaysia is growing, the supply of local organic products is not able to keep up with the increased demand. In addition to the inconsistent supply, the variety of local organic food is also limited. Another problem faced by local organic food consumers is the price difference between organic and conventional food. Hence, to match the recent increases in demand, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute is actively developing the organic farming sector through various programs and activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Management of Organic Horticultural Produce)
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Article
Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes between “Honeycrisp” and “Golden Delicious” Apple Fruit Tissues Reveal Candidates for Crop Improvement
Horticulturae 2016, 2(3), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae2030011 - 17 Aug 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Cultivars of the same species exhibit a large degree of variation in fruit quality traits, which can be directly influenced by differences in gene expression due to allelic variations and interactions with the environment. For Malus × domestica Borkh. (apple), fruit quality traits, [...] Read more.
Cultivars of the same species exhibit a large degree of variation in fruit quality traits, which can be directly influenced by differences in gene expression due to allelic variations and interactions with the environment. For Malus × domestica Borkh. (apple), fruit quality traits, including color, texture, aroma, flavor profile, and shelf life, are of utmost economic importance. In order to identify genes potentially influencing these traits, a direct comparative transcriptome profiling approach, based on the differential display technique, was performed using “Golden Delicious” and “Honeycrisp” apple endocarp and peel tissues. A total of 45 differentially expressed sequence tags were identified between the two apple varieties. Reanalysis of a previously published fruit developmental microarray expression experiment revealed that only one of the 45 sequence tags was represented on the array. Differential expression of 31 sequence tags from the peel tissue was validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, confirming the robustness of the differential display approach to quickly identify differentially expressed sequence tags. Among these were genes annotated to be involved in ripening, phytohormone signaling, transcription factors, and fruit texture. This work demonstrates yet again the utility of the differential display technique to rapidly identify genes related to desirable traits. Full article
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Communication
Encapsulation of Shoot Tips and Nodal Segments for in Vitro Storage of “Kober 5BB” Grapevine Rootstock
Horticulturae 2016, 2(3), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae2030010 - 11 Aug 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
In vitro preservation of the “Kober 5BB” rootstock (Vitis berlandieri × Vitis riparia) was assessed with the encapsulation technique and slow growth storage. Shoot tips and nodal segments excised from in vitro cultures were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads. A 30 min [...] Read more.
In vitro preservation of the “Kober 5BB” rootstock (Vitis berlandieri × Vitis riparia) was assessed with the encapsulation technique and slow growth storage. Shoot tips and nodal segments excised from in vitro cultures were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads. A 30 min ion exchange time proved optimal for forming proper beads. The encapsulated and naked explants were stored at 4 °C in the dark or light. After 9 months of cold storage, the highest regrowth, 83.3%, was recorded for the encapsulated shoot tips maintained in darkness. The development of the encapsulated nodal segments was 55.6% under the same storage conditions. The encapsulated explants had a better regrowth capacity after storage than the naked explants. Full article
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Communication
Thai Orchid Genetic Resources and Their Improvement
Horticulturae 2016, 2(3), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae2030009 - 28 Jul 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
Thailand is the origin of about 1300 species and 180–190 genera of orchids, comprising the major tropical orchids in the world. These wild Thai orchids grow naturally in various habitats and have unique flowers, stems, leaves, and roots. Many genera, including Vanda, [...] Read more.
Thailand is the origin of about 1300 species and 180–190 genera of orchids, comprising the major tropical orchids in the world. These wild Thai orchids grow naturally in various habitats and have unique flowers, stems, leaves, and roots. Many genera, including Vanda, Rhynchostylis, Ascocentrum, Aerides, Phalaenopsis, Doritis, Dendrobium, Bulbophyllum, Cirrhopetalum, Spathoglottis, and Paphiopedilum, contribute significantly to the Thai orchid industry for cut-flowers and potted plants. The improvement of these orchids’ horticultural characteristics has been significant through breeding, tissue culture, and cultural practices, as well as by technological applications and extension. Orchids will continue to dominate other ornamental crops in Thailand due to their diversity, better technologies, know-how from research, suitable climatic conditions, and experienced and skillful growers and exporters, as well as their nationwide popularity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Management of Organic Horticultural Produce)
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Review
The Impact of Production Technology on Plant Phenolics
Horticulturae 2016, 2(3), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae2030008 - 28 Jun 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Due to rising public pressure in recent decades, alternatives for large-scale and industrial farming are being sought. Environmental and sustainability issues and the rising awareness of the link between the overuse of pesticides/fertilizers and negative health effects have been key factors for creating [...] Read more.
Due to rising public pressure in recent decades, alternatives for large-scale and industrial farming are being sought. Environmental and sustainability issues and the rising awareness of the link between the overuse of pesticides/fertilizers and negative health effects have been key factors for creating the integrated production approach, which encompasses environmentally friendly technologies. Moreover, the demand for organically grown products is constantly growing. The organic production model is a step towards further restriction of synthetic chemical use in plant production. Limited use of pesticides may boost the plant’s investment into its own defense systems, which may result in a higher content of secondary compounds. Synthesis of secondary metabolites is a common plant response to any form of stress (biotic or abiotic), and their function is to help the plant overcome unfavorable conditions. Many compounds, especially phenolics, are also considered beneficial for human health; therefore, numerous studies comparing different production systems have been conducted in the past 20 years. Generally, organically produced food may contain greater amounts of health beneficial compounds and diminished levels of pesticide residues and nitrates. However, the results are not always clear, as other factors may influence the composition of natural products (e.g., environmental and varietal factors, sampling, and the design of experiments). Therefore, controlled field trials, in which most of the factors can be either controlled or at least recorded, should be encouraged. The present paper synthesizes the function of phenolics as a response to different forms of stress, which can occur during plant growth, with a special emphasis on different production systems. Examples of diverse horticultural crops are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Management of Organic Horticultural Produce)
Review
An Overview of Fertilization and Irrigation Management in the Conventional and Certified Organic Production of Vegetable Crops in Florida
Horticulturae 2016, 2(3), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae2030007 - 27 Jun 2016
Viewed by 2036
Abstract
The postharvest quality of vegetable crops from conventional and organic production systems depends on pre-harvest factors such as variety genetic potential, fertilization, and irrigation. The five principles of plant nutrition (plants absorb ions, not fertilizers; Leibeig’s law of the minimum; nutrient application requires [...] Read more.
The postharvest quality of vegetable crops from conventional and organic production systems depends on pre-harvest factors such as variety genetic potential, fertilization, and irrigation. The five principles of plant nutrition (plants absorb ions, not fertilizers; Leibeig’s law of the minimum; nutrient application requires a source, a rate, a placement and a time of application; no correlation exists between total nutrient presence in the soil and availability; and plant nutrient concentration and yield are related) must be followed throughout the crop growth cycle. In certified organic production in the United States, cover crops, manure and composts may be used together with Organic Materials Review Institute–approved fertilizer products. A fertilization program usually includes (1) soil sampling and understanding the recommendation; (2) adjusting pH if necessary; (3) applying preplant fertilizer and developing a schedule for sidedressing or fertigation; (4) using foliar fertilization; (5) monitoring plant nutrient status; and (5) keeping fertilization records. The components of an irrigation schedule are (1) determining a target irrigation volume based on reference evapotranspiration and crop age; (2) adjusting this amount based on soil moisture content; (3) determining the contribution of rainfall; (4) developing a rule for splitting irrigation; and (5) keeping irrigation records. A poorly designed irrigation program can negate the benefits of a sound fertilization program. Challenges encountered in conventional and organic production include predicting nutrient release rates from organic materials, supplying enough N throughout the cropping season, identifying rescue strategies, keeping production costs low, and meeting the additional legal requirements of the food safety and best management practices programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Management of Organic Horticultural Produce)
Article
Estimating the Leaf Area of Cut Roses in Different Growth Stages Using Image Processing and Allometrics
Horticulturae 2016, 2(3), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae2030006 - 27 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Non-destructive, accurate, user-friendly and low-cost approaches to determining crop leaf area (LA) are a key tool in many agronomic and physiological studies, as well as in current agricultural management. Although there are models that estimate cut rose LA in the literature, they are [...] Read more.
Non-destructive, accurate, user-friendly and low-cost approaches to determining crop leaf area (LA) are a key tool in many agronomic and physiological studies, as well as in current agricultural management. Although there are models that estimate cut rose LA in the literature, they are generally designed for a specific stage of the crop cycle, usually harvest. This study aimed to estimate the LA of cut “Red Naomi” rose stems in several phenological phases using morphological descriptors and allometric measurements derived from image processing. A statistical model was developed based on the “multiple stepwise regression” technique and considered the stem height, the number of stem leaves, and the stage of the flower bud. The model, based on 26 stems (232 leaves) collected at different developmental stages, explained 95% of the LA variance (R2 = 0.95, n = 26, p < 0.0001). The mean relative difference between the observed and the estimated LA was 8.2%. The methodology had a high accuracy and precision in the estimation of LA during crop development. It can save time, effort, and resources in determining cut rose stem LA, enhancing its application in research and production contexts. Full article
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