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Volume 7, September

C, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 5 articles

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Article
Applicability of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) Discharge for the Reduction in Graphene Oxide Films and Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials
C 2021, 7(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7040071 - 14 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are widely used in industry for surface cleaning and chemical modification. In the recent past, they have gained more scientific attention especially in the processing of carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a novel power generation technique was applied [...] Read more.
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are widely used in industry for surface cleaning and chemical modification. In the recent past, they have gained more scientific attention especially in the processing of carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a novel power generation technique was applied to realize the stable discharge in N2 (10 vol.% H2) forming gas in ambient conditions. This APPJ was used to reduce solution-processed graphene oxide (GO) thin films and the result was compared with an established and optimized reduction process in a low–pressure capacitively coupled (CCP) radiofrequency (RF) hydrogen (H2) plasma. The reduced GO (rGO) films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Effective deoxygenation of GO was observed after a quick 2 s treatment by AAPJ. Further deoxygenation at longer exposure times was found to proceed with the expense of GO–structure integrity. By adding acetylene gas into the same APPJ, carbon nanomaterials on various substrates were synthesized. The carbon materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. Fullerene-like particles and graphitic carbon with short carbon nanotubes were detected on Si and Ag surfaces, respectively. We demonstrate that the APPJ tool has obvious potential for the versatile processing of carbon nanomaterials. Full article
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Review
Fabrication and Supercapacitor Applications of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Thin Films
C 2021, 7(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7040070 - 30 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a one-dimensional nanomaterial with several desirable material properties, including high mechanical tensile modulus and strength, high electrical conductivity, and good thermal conductivity. A wide variety of techniques have been optimized to synthesize MWCNTs and to fabricate thin films [...] Read more.
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a one-dimensional nanomaterial with several desirable material properties, including high mechanical tensile modulus and strength, high electrical conductivity, and good thermal conductivity. A wide variety of techniques have been optimized to synthesize MWCNTs and to fabricate thin films of MWCNTs. These synthesis and fabrication methods vary based on precursor materials, process parameters, and physical and chemical principals, and have a strong influence on the properties of the nanotubes and films. Thus, the fabrication methods determine the performance of devices that can exploit the advantageous material properties of MWCNTs. Techniques for the fabrication of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube thin films are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the use of MWCNTs as an electrode material for electrochemical double-layer supercapacitors (EDLCs). EDLCs feature high power density, excellent reversibility and lifetime, and improved energy density over electrolytic capacitors. Beyond surveying fabrication techniques previously explored for MWCNT electrodes, an alternative approach based on inkjet printing capable of depositing a small amount of active material is discussed. Such an approach allows for a high degree of control over electrode properties and can potentially reduce cost and active material waste, which are essential components to the gradual conversion to green energy. Full article
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Article
Nanoporous Carbon Magnetic Hybrid Derived from Waterlock Polymers and Its Application for Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution
C 2021, 7(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7040069 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Sodium polyacrylate is the superabsorbent waterlock polymer used in disposable diapers, which are the third largest single consumer item in landfills. As diapers are difficult to recycle, their use produces an incredible amount of environmental waste. In the present article, we present a [...] Read more.
Sodium polyacrylate is the superabsorbent waterlock polymer used in disposable diapers, which are the third largest single consumer item in landfills. As diapers are difficult to recycle, their use produces an incredible amount of environmental waste. In the present article, we present a reliable and facile approach to transform sodium polyacrylate, the main constitute in the used diapers, in a carbon-based magnetic sorbent material, capable for use in environmental applications. A nanoporous carbon magnetic hybrid material was prepared by reacting NaPA with iron acetate species under chemical activation conditions. Analysis of the characterization results revealed, the creation of a nanoporous structure, with high specific surface area value (SgBET = 611 m2/g), along with the formation of nanosized zero valent iron nanoparticles and iron carbide (Fe3C), inside the carbon pore system. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy verified also the existence of these two main iron-bearing phases, as well as additional minor magnetic phases, such as Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements of the obtained hybrid confirmed its ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic behavior. The hybrid material demonstrated a rapid sorption of Cr(VI) ions (adsorption capacity: 90 mg/g, 24 h, pH = 3). The results showed highly pH-dependent sorption efficiency of the hybrids, whereas a pseudo-second-order kinetic model described their kinetics. Full article
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Article
CH Activation by a Heavy Metal Cation: Production of H2 from the Reaction of Acetylene with C4H4-Os(+) in Gas phase
C 2021, 7(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7040068 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
While first-row transition metal cations, notably Fe(+), catalyze the gas-phase conversion of acetylene to benzene, a distinct path is chosen in systems with Os, Ir, and Rh cations. Rather than losing the metal cation M(+) from the benzene–M(+) complex, as is observed for [...] Read more.
While first-row transition metal cations, notably Fe(+), catalyze the gas-phase conversion of acetylene to benzene, a distinct path is chosen in systems with Os, Ir, and Rh cations. Rather than losing the metal cation M(+) from the benzene–M(+) complex, as is observed for the Fe(+) system, the heavy metal ions activate CH bonds. The landmark system C4H4-Os(+) reacts with acetylene to produce C6H4-Os(+) and dihydrogen. Following our work on isomers of the form C2nH2n-Fe(+), we show by DFT modeling that the CH bonds of the metalla-7-cycle structure, C6H6-Os(+), are activated and define the gas-phase reaction path by which H2 is produced. The landmark structures on the network of reaction paths can be used as a basis for the discussion of reactions in which a single Os atom on an inert surface can assist reactions of hydrocarbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Materials for Physical and Chemical Hydrogen Storage)
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Article
Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanolayered Carbon Films
C 2021, 7(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7040067 - 27 Sep 2021
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Abstract
In this paper, carbon thin films were grown using the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). Methane (CH4) was used as the carbon precursor to grow the carbon thin film. The grown film was analyzed by the high-resolution transmission electron micrograph (TEM), [...] Read more.
In this paper, carbon thin films were grown using the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). Methane (CH4) was used as the carbon precursor to grow the carbon thin film. The grown film was analyzed by the high-resolution transmission electron micrograph (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and Raman spectrum analysis. The analyses show that the PE-ALD-grown carbon film has an amorphous structure. It was found that the existence of defective sites (nanoscale holes or cracks) on the substrate of copper foil could facilitate the formation of nanolayered carbon films. The mechanism for the formation of nanolayered carbon film in the nanoscale holes was discussed. This finding could be used for the controlled growth of nanolayered carbon films or other two-dimensional nanomaterials while combining with modern nanopatterning techniques. Full article
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