Nanoporous Carbon Materials for Advanced Technological Applications

A topical collection in C (ISSN 2311-5629). This collection belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Ibaraki, Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan
Interests: fullerene nanoarchitectonics; nanoporous carbons; energy storage; sensing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Ibaraki, Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan
Interests: energy storage; nanoporous carbon materials; sensing; self-healing gels

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit original papers, feature articles, reviews, communications, or letters to this Topical Collection of C, a journal on carbon research, entitled “Nanoporous Carbon Materials for Advanced Technological Applications.” Hierarchically-porous carbon materials comprised of both micro- and mesopore architectures have received considerable attention in recent days in advanced applications. The aim of this Topical Collection is to publish recent developments and interesting novel insights into the production of high surface area and large-porosity nanoporous carbon materials with interconnected pore structures for technological applications including adsorption, catalysis/photocatalysis, energy storage (supercapacitors and batteries), energy conversion, vapor or gas sensing, and others. Emphasis is given to papers describing fabrication, characterizations, structure-property relation, porosity tuning, surface functionalization, hetero-atom doping, and also the binary or ternary composite materials that enhance the overall performance of the materials. In this Topical Collection, we are looking for outstanding high-performance nanoporous carbon materials fabricated from synthetic or natural precursors including agro-wastes or biopolymers either by templating method or by direct carbonization of chemical activation methods. We welcome both experimental and theoretical studies in this Topical Collection.

We look forward to receiving your excellent submissions.

Dr. Lok Kumar Shrestha
Dr. Rekha Goswami Shrestha
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanoporous carbons
  • micro/mesopores
  • activated carbon
  • functional materials
  • energy storage
  • supercapacitors
  • sensing
  • separation
  • adsorption

Published Papers (9 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

15 pages, 6557 KiB  
Article
Nanoporous Activated Carbon Material from Terminalia chebula Seed for Supercapacitor Application
by Chhabi Lal Gnawali, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Jonathan P. Hill, Renzhi Ma, Katsuhiko Ariga, Mandira Pradhananga Adhikari, Rinita Rajbhandari and Bhadra P. Pokharel
C 2023, 9(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9040109 - 14 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
High-surface-area porous carbon materials with high porosity and well-defined pore structures are the preferred advanced supercapacitors electrode materials. Here, we report the electrochemical supercapacitive performance of novel high-porosity activated carbon materials prepared from biowaste Terminalia chebula (Harro) seed stones involving zinc chloride (ZnCl [...] Read more.
High-surface-area porous carbon materials with high porosity and well-defined pore structures are the preferred advanced supercapacitors electrode materials. Here, we report the electrochemical supercapacitive performance of novel high-porosity activated carbon materials prepared from biowaste Terminalia chebula (Harro) seed stones involving zinc chloride (ZnCl2) activation. Activation is achieved by mixing ZnCl2 with Harro seed powder (1:1 w/w) followed by carbonization at 400–700 °C under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. The amorphous carbon materials obtained exhibit excellent performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolyte (1 M sulfuric acid) due to high specific surface areas (as high as 1382.6 m2 g−1) based on well-developed micropore and mesopore structures, and partial graphitic structure containing oxygenated surface functional groups. An electrode prepared using material having the optimal surface textural properties achieved a large specific capacitance of 328.6 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 in a three-electrode cell setup. The electrode achieved a good capacitance retention of 44.7% at a high 50 A g−1 current density and outstanding cycling performance of 98.2% even following 10,000 successive charge/discharge cycles. Electrochemical data indicate the significant potential of Terminalia chebula seed-derived porous carbons as high-performance electrode materials for high-energy-storage supercapacitor applications. Full article
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15 pages, 5946 KiB  
Article
Diffusion Behavior of Iodine in the Micro/Nano-Porous Graphite for Nuclear Reactor at High Temperature
by Ming-Bo Qi, Peng-Fei Lian, Peng-Da Li, He-Yao Zhang, Jin-Xing Cheng, Qing-Bo Wang, Zhong-Feng Tang, T. J. Pan, Jin-Liang Song and Zhan-Jun Liu
C 2023, 9(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9030081 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The diffusion behavior of iodine in micro/nano-porous graphite under high-temperature conditions was studied using analysis methods such as Rutherford backscattering Spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that iodine diffusion leads to the Lattice Contractions in Microcrystals, a [...] Read more.
The diffusion behavior of iodine in micro/nano-porous graphite under high-temperature conditions was studied using analysis methods such as Rutherford backscattering Spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that iodine diffusion leads to the Lattice Contractions in Microcrystals, a decrease in interlayer spacing, and a rise of defect density. And the reversal or repair of microstructure change was observed: the microcrystal size of the graphite increases, the interlayer spacing appears to return to the initial state, and the defect density decreases, upon diffusion of iodine out of iodine-loaded graphite. The comparative study comparing the iodine diffusion performance of nanoporous graphite (G400 and G450) between microporous graphite (G500), showed that nanoporous graphite exhibits a better barrier to the iodine diffusion. The study on the diffusion behavior of iodine in micro/nano-porous graphite holds substantial academic and engineering value for the screening, design, and performance optimization of nuclear graphite. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

8 pages, 1623 KiB  
Article
Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Jet Treatment of PAN-Nonwovens—Carbonization of Nanofiber Electrodes
by Andreas Hoffmann, Matthias Uhl, Maximilian Ceblin, Felix Rohrbach, Joachim Bansmann, Marcel Mallah, Holger Heuermann, Timo Jacob and Alexander J. C. Kuehne
C 2022, 8(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8030033 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Carbon nanofibers are produced from dielectric polymer precursors such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Carbonized nanofiber nonwovens show high surface area and good electrical conductivity, rendering these fiber materials interesting for application as electrodes in batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. However, thermal processing is slow [...] Read more.
Carbon nanofibers are produced from dielectric polymer precursors such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Carbonized nanofiber nonwovens show high surface area and good electrical conductivity, rendering these fiber materials interesting for application as electrodes in batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. However, thermal processing is slow and costly, which is why new processing techniques have been explored for carbon fiber tows. Alternatives for the conversion of PAN-precursors into carbon fiber nonwovens are scarce. Here, we utilize an atmospheric pressure plasma jet to conduct carbonization of stabilized PAN nanofiber nonwovens. We explore the influence of various processing parameters on the conductivity and degree of carbonization of the converted nanofiber material. The precursor fibers are converted by plasma-jet treatment to carbon fiber nonwovens within seconds, by which they develop a rough surface making subsequent surface activation processes obsolete. The resulting carbon nanofiber nonwovens are applied as supercapacitor electrodes and examined by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Nonwovens that are carbonized within 60 s show capacitances of up to 5 F g−1. Full article
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21 pages, 2126 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Synthesis and Application of Activated Carbon for CO2 Capture
by Chong Yang Chuah and Afiq Mohd Laziz
C 2022, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8020029 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3997
Abstract
Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere have been a long-standing issue that has existed since the Industrial Revolution. To date, carbon dioxide capture through the carbon capture, utilization, and storage approach has been one of the feasible options to combat the strong release [...] Read more.
Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere have been a long-standing issue that has existed since the Industrial Revolution. To date, carbon dioxide capture through the carbon capture, utilization, and storage approach has been one of the feasible options to combat the strong release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This review focuses in general on the utilization of activated carbon as a tool when performing the carbon-capture process. Activated carbon possesses a lower isosteric heat of adsorption and a stronger tolerance to humidity as compared to zeolites and metal–organic frameworks, despite the overall gas-separation performance of activated carbon being comparatively lower. In addition, investigations of the activation methods of activated carbon are summarized in this review, together with an illustration of CO2 adsorption performance, in the context of process simulations and pilot-plant studies. This is followed by providing future research directions in terms of the applicability of activated carbon in real CO2 adsorption processes. Full article
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23 pages, 2606 KiB  
Article
Pore Structure and Gas Diffusion Features of Ionic Liquid-Derived Carbon Membranes
by Ourania Tzialla, Anastasios Labropoulos, Georgios Pilatos, Georgios Romanos and Konstantinos G. Beltsios
C 2022, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8020025 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
In the present study, the concept of Ionic Liquid (IL)-mediated formation of carbon was applied to derive composite membranes bearing a nanoporous carbon phase within their separation layer. Thermolytic carbonization of the supported ionic liquid membranes, prepared by infiltration of the IL 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium [...] Read more.
In the present study, the concept of Ionic Liquid (IL)-mediated formation of carbon was applied to derive composite membranes bearing a nanoporous carbon phase within their separation layer. Thermolytic carbonization of the supported ionic liquid membranes, prepared by infiltration of the IL 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium tricyanomethanide into the porous network of Vycor® porous glass tubes, was applied to derive the precursor Carbon/Vycor® composites. All precursors underwent a second cycle of IL infiltration/pyrolysis with the target to finetune the pore structural characteristics of the carbonaceous matter nesting inside the separation layer. The pore structural assets and evolution of the gas permeation properties and separation efficiency of the as-derived composite membranes were investigated with reference to the duration of the second infiltration step. The transport mechanisms of the permeating gases were elucidated and correlated to the structural characteristics of the supported carbon phase and the analysis of LN2 adsorption isotherms. Regarding the gas separation efficiency of the fabricated Carbon/Vycor® composite membranes, He/CO2 ideal selectivity values as high as 4.31 at 1 bar and 25 °C and 4.64 at 0.3 bar and 90 °C were achieved. In addition, the CO2/N2 ideal selectivity becomes slightly improved for longer second-impregnation times. Full article
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11 pages, 2614 KiB  
Article
Compositing Fullerene-Derived Porous Carbon Fibers with Reduced Graphene Oxide for Enhanced ORR Catalytic Performance
by Zhimin He, Ziqian Guo, Kun Guo, Takeshi Akasaka and Xing Lu
C 2022, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8010013 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2323
Abstract
Compositing all-carbon materials with distinct dimensions and structures has demonstrated the great potential to bring synergistic promotion to individual components for the electrocatalytic activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Fullerene-derived porous carbon fibers (FPCFs) offer unique one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with abundant defects and [...] Read more.
Compositing all-carbon materials with distinct dimensions and structures has demonstrated the great potential to bring synergistic promotion to individual components for the electrocatalytic activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Fullerene-derived porous carbon fibers (FPCFs) offer unique one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with abundant defects and a large specific surface area while graphene features two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures with fast electron transfer. Both carbon materials are promising alternatives to Pt-based electrocatalysts for ORR. Herein, a novel hierarchical composite (FPCFs@rGO) composed of FPCFs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is constructed by sonication-assisted mixing and high-temperature pyrolysis. When tested as an electrocatalyst for ORR, the 1D/2D FPCFs@rGO composite presents significantly enhanced performance compared to each individual component, indicating an eminent synergistic effect between FPCFs and rGO. The improved ORR performance of FPCFs@rGO is attributed to the unique hierarchical structure with abundant structural defects, a large specific surface area, and high porosity. Full article
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8 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Hydrogen Passivation on Conductive Properties of Graphene Nanomesh—Prospect Material for Carbon Nanotubes Growing
by Vladislav V. Shunaev and Olga E. Glukhova
C 2022, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8010008 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2250
Abstract
Graphene nanomesh (GNM) is one of the most intensively studied materials today. Chemical activity of atoms near GNM’s nanoholes provides favorable adsorption of different atoms and molecules, besides that, GNM is a prospect material for growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on its surface. This [...] Read more.
Graphene nanomesh (GNM) is one of the most intensively studied materials today. Chemical activity of atoms near GNM’s nanoholes provides favorable adsorption of different atoms and molecules, besides that, GNM is a prospect material for growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on its surface. This study calculates the dependence of CNT’s growing parameters on the geometrical form of a nanohole. It was determined by the original methodic that the CNT’s growing from circle nanoholes was the most energetically favorable. Another attractive property of GNM is a tunable gap in its band structure that depends on GNM’s topology. It is found by quantum chemical methods that the passivation of dangling bonds near the hole of hydrogen atoms decreases the conductance of the structure by 2–3.5 times. Controlling the GNM’s conductance may be an important tool for its application in nanoelectronics. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

14 pages, 5516 KiB  
Article
Viability of Activated Carbon Derived from Polystyrene Sulphonate Beads as Electrical Double Layer Capacitors
by Gbenro Babajide Folaranmi, Anthony Ekennia, Nkiruka Chidiebere Ani and Richard Chukwuemeka Ehiri
C 2021, 7(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7040082 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
In this paper, a commercial polymeric resin precursor (polystyrene sulphonate beads) was used as a source of carbon spheres. The resin was pyrolyzed at different temperatures (700, 800, and 900 °C) and the resulting carbons were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical [...] Read more.
In this paper, a commercial polymeric resin precursor (polystyrene sulphonate beads) was used as a source of carbon spheres. The resin was pyrolyzed at different temperatures (700, 800, and 900 °C) and the resulting carbons were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the result of EIS, carbon spheres obtained at 700 °C (CS−700) have the least ohmnic resistance and highest capacitance. In furtherance, the resin was chemically activated with iron (III) chloride FeCl3·6H2O at different concentration (0.1 M, 0.3 M, and 0.5 M) and pyrolyzed at 700 °C to obtain activated carbon sphere namely (ACS 700−0.1, ACS 700−0.3, and ACS 700−0.5) in which the last digit of the samples denotes the concentration of FeCl3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the carbon is of spherical shape; X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed successful introduction of Fe on the surface of the carbon. Out of all the activated carbon spheres, ACS 700−0.1 exhibited highest double layer capacitance of 9 µF cm−2 and lowest charge transfer resistance of 3.33 KΩ·cm2. This method shows that carbon spheres obtained from a polymeric source can be easily improved by simple resin modification and the carbon could be a potential candidate for an electrical double layer capacitor. Full article
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9 pages, 4712 KiB  
Article
Ab Initio Study of Porous Graphene–CNT Silicon Composite for Li-Ion and Na-Ion Batteries
by Dmitry A. Kolosov and Olga E. Glukhova
C 2021, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7030057 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
In this work, we investigated composite materials based on graphene and carbon nanotubes with a silicon cluster from the standpoint of using them as Li-ion battery (LIB) and Na-ion battery (NIB) anodes. For our study, we used the density functional theory method, taking [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigated composite materials based on graphene and carbon nanotubes with a silicon cluster from the standpoint of using them as Li-ion battery (LIB) and Na-ion battery (NIB) anodes. For our study, we used the density functional theory method, taking into account the van der Waals interaction. The cavities of the composite were filled with lithium and sodium, and the energy characteristics of the structure were calculated through SIESTA molecular dynamics. The calculations showed the negative energy of adsorption for lithium and sodium and the negative value of the heat of formation of the composites. The introduction of a silicon cluster led to an increase in the specific capacity by 22.2% for the sodium and 37% for the lithium in comparison with the pure composite. The calculation of the transmission function showed a decrease in the resistance of the composite when a silicon cluster was added to the composite. We predict that the application of the considered composite will increase the efficiency of existing lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Full article
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