Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Fluids, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-23
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Determining the Effect of Inlet Flow Conditions on the Thermal Efficiency of a Flat Plate Solar Collector
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Viewed by 592 | PDF Full-text (3752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inlet temperature (Tin) and flowrate (m˙) on thermal efficiency (ηth) of flat plate collectors (FPC). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was employed to
[...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inlet temperature (Tin) and flowrate ( m ˙ ) on thermal efficiency ( η t h ) of flat plate collectors (FPC). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was employed to simulate a FPC and the results were validated with experimental data from literature. The FPC was examined for high and low level flowrates and for inlet temperatures which varied from 298 to 373 K. Thermal efficiency of 93% and 65% was achieved at 298 K and 370 K inlet temperature’s respectively. A maximum temperature increase of 62 K in the inlet temperature was achieved at a flowrate of 5 × 10−4 kg/s inside the riser pipe. Tin and m ˙ were optimised in order to achieve the minimum required feed temperature for a 10 kW absorption chiller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ventilation and Passive Cooling for Healthy and Comfortable Buildings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle CO2 Injection Effect on Geomechanical and Flow Properties of Calcite-Rich Reservoirs
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
Viewed by 390 | PDF Full-text (3365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geologic carbon storage is considered as a requisite to effectively mitigate climate change, so large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are expected to be injected in sedimentary saline formations. CO2 injection leads to the creation of acidic solution when it
[...] Read more.
Geologic carbon storage is considered as a requisite to effectively mitigate climate change, so large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are expected to be injected in sedimentary saline formations. CO2 injection leads to the creation of acidic solution when it dissolves into the resident brine, which can react with reservoir rock, especially carbonates. We numerically investigated the behavior of reservoir-caprock system where CO2 injection-induced changes in the hydraulic and geomechanical properties of Apulian limestone were measured in the laboratory. We found that porosity of the limestone slightly decreases after CO2 treatment, which lead to a permeability reduction by a factor of two. In the treated specimens, calcite dissolution was observed at the inlet, but carbonate precipitation occurred at the outlet, which was closed during the reaction time of three days. Additionally, the relative permeability curves were modified after CO2–rock interaction, especially the one for water, which evolved from a quadratic to a quasi-linear function of the water saturation degree. Geomechanically, the limestone became softer and it was weakened after being altered by CO2. Simulation results showed that the property changes occurring within the CO2 plume caused a stress redistribution because CO2 treated limestone became softer and tended to deform more in response to pressure buildup than the pristine rock. The reduction in strength induced by geochemical reactions may eventually cause shear failure within the CO2 plume affected rock. This combination of laboratory experiments with numerical simulations leads to a better understanding of the implications of coupled chemo-mechanical interactions in geologic carbon storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamentals of CO2 Storage in Geological Formations)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Turbulent Near Wall Flame Behavior for a Sidewall Quenching Burner by Means of a Large Eddy Simulation and Tabulated Chemistry
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
Viewed by 456 | PDF Full-text (15752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Combustion will play a major part in fulfilling the world’s energy demand in the next 20 years. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamentals of the flame–wall interaction (FWI), which takes place in internal combustion engines or gas turbines. The FWI can
[...] Read more.
Combustion will play a major part in fulfilling the world’s energy demand in the next 20 years. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamentals of the flame–wall interaction (FWI), which takes place in internal combustion engines or gas turbines. The FWI can increase heat losses, increase pollutant formations and lowers efficiencies. In this work, a Large Eddy Simulation combined with a tabulated chemistry approach is used to investigate the transient near wall behavior of a turbulent premixed stoichiometric methane flame. This sidewall quenching configuration is based on an experimental burner with non-homogeneous turbulence and an actively cooled wall. The burner was used in a previous study for validation purposes. The transient behavior of the movement of the flame tip is analyzed by categorizing it into three different scenarios: an upstream, a downstream and a jump-like upstream movement. The distributions of the wall heat flux, the quenching distance or the detachment of the maximum heat flux and the quenching point are strongly dependent on this movement. The highest heat fluxes appear mostly at the jump-like movement because the flame behaves locally like a head-on quenching flame. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Combustion)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Implementation and Validation of a Free Open Source 1D Water Hammer Code
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
Viewed by 602 | PDF Full-text (3293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper presents a free code for calculating 1D hydraulic transients in liquid-filled piping. The transient of focus is the Water Hammer phenomenon which may arise due to e.g., sudden valve closure, pump start/stop etc. The method of solution of the system of
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a free code for calculating 1D hydraulic transients in liquid-filled piping. The transient of focus is the Water Hammer phenomenon which may arise due to e.g., sudden valve closure, pump start/stop etc. The method of solution of the system of partial differential equations given by the continuity and momentum balance is the Method of Characteristics (MOC). Various friction models ranging from steady-state and quasi steady-state to unsteady friction models including Convolution Based models (CB) as well as an Instantaneous Acceleration Based (IAB) model are implemented. Furthermore, two different models for modelling cavitation/column separation are implemented. Column separation may occur during low pressure pulses if the pressure decreases below the vapour pressure of the fluid. The code implementing the various models are compared to experiments from the literature. All experiments consist of an upstream reservoir, a straight pipe and a downstream valve. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Optimal Perturbations of an Oceanic Vortex Lens
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
Viewed by 345 | PDF Full-text (10819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The stability properties of a vortex lens are studied in the quasi geostrophic (QG) framework using the generalized stability theory. Optimal perturbations are obtained using a tangent linear QG model and its adjoint. Their fine-scale spatial structures are studied in details. Growth rates
[...] Read more.
The stability properties of a vortex lens are studied in the quasi geostrophic (QG) framework using the generalized stability theory. Optimal perturbations are obtained using a tangent linear QG model and its adjoint. Their fine-scale spatial structures are studied in details. Growth rates of optimal perturbations are shown to be extremely sensitive to the time interval of optimization: The most unstable perturbations are found for time intervals of about 3 days, while the growth rates continuously decrease towards the most unstable normal mode, which is reached after about 170 days. The horizontal structure of the optimal perturbations consists of an intense counter-shear spiralling. It is also extremely sensitive to time interval: for short time intervals, the optimal perturbations are made of a broad spectrum of high azimuthal wave numbers. As the time interval increases, only low azimuthal wave numbers are found. The vertical structures of optimal perturbations exhibit strong layering associated with high vertical wave numbers whatever the time interval. However, the latter parameter plays an important role in the width of the vertical spectrum of the perturbation: short time interval perturbations have a narrow vertical spectrum while long time interval perturbations show a broad range of vertical scales. Optimal perturbations were set as initial perturbations of the vortex lens in a fully non linear QG model. It appears that for short time intervals, the perturbations decay after an initial transient growth, while for longer time intervals, the optimal perturbation keeps on growing, quickly leading to a non-linear regime or exciting lower azimuthal modes, consistent with normal mode instability. Very long time intervals simply behave like the most unstable normal mode. The possible impact of optimal perturbations on layering is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Geophysical Fluid Dynamics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Two-Way Coupling Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) Approach to Inertial Focusing Dynamics under Dean Flow Patterns in Asymmetric Serpentines
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
Viewed by 423 | PDF Full-text (6660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dynamics of a spherical particle in an asymmetric serpentine is studied by finite element method (FEM) simulations in a physically unconstrained system. The two-way coupled time dependent solutions illustrate the path of the particle along a curve where a secondary flow (Dean
[...] Read more.
The dynamics of a spherical particle in an asymmetric serpentine is studied by finite element method (FEM) simulations in a physically unconstrained system. The two-way coupled time dependent solutions illustrate the path of the particle along a curve where a secondary flow (Dean flow) has developed. The simulated conditions were adjusted to match those of an experiment for which particles were focused under inertial focusing conditions in a microfluidic device. The obtained rotational modes inferred the influence of the local flow around the particle. We propose a new approach to find the decoupled secondary flow contribution employing a quasi-Stokes flow. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial Flow and Heat or Mass Transfer in the Chemical Process Industry
Received: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
Viewed by 324 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Open AccessArticle A Simple Analytical Model for Estimating the Dissolution-Driven Instability in a Porous Medium
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
Viewed by 397 | PDF Full-text (2199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article deals with the stability problem that arises in the modeling of the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. It provides a more detailed description of the alternative approach to tackling the stability problem put forth by Vo and Hadji (Physics of Fluids,
[...] Read more.
This article deals with the stability problem that arises in the modeling of the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. It provides a more detailed description of the alternative approach to tackling the stability problem put forth by Vo and Hadji (Physics of Fluids, 2017, 29, 127101) and Wanstall and Hadji (Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 2018, 108, 53–71), and it extends two-dimensional analysis to the three-dimensional case. This new approach, which is based on a step-function base profile, is contrasted with the usual time-evolving base state. While both provide only estimates for the instability threshold values, the step-function base profile approach has one great advantage in the sense that the problem at hand can be viewed as a stationary Rayleigh–Bénard problem, the model of which is physically sound and the stability of which is not only well-defined but can be analyzed by a variety of existing analytical methods using only paper and pencil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamentals of CO2 Storage in Geological Formations)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Wing Rotation in Hover
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
Viewed by 534 | PDF Full-text (11217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pitching kinematics of an experimental hovering flapping wing setup are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. The pitching kinematics of the setup are parameterized with seven degrees of freedom to allow for complex non-linear and non-harmonic pitching motions. Two optimization objectives
[...] Read more.
The pitching kinematics of an experimental hovering flapping wing setup are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. The pitching kinematics of the setup are parameterized with seven degrees of freedom to allow for complex non-linear and non-harmonic pitching motions. Two optimization objectives are considered. The first objective is maximum stroke average efficiency, and the second objective is maximum stroke average lift. The solutions for both optimization scenarios converge within less than 30 generations based on the evaluation of their fitness. The pitching kinematics of the best individual of the initial and final population closely resemble each other for both optimization scenarios, but the optimal kinematics differ substantially between the two scenarios. The most efficient pitching motion is smoother and closer to a sinusoidal pitching motion, whereas the highest lift-generating pitching motion has sharper edges and is closer to a trapezoidal motion. In both solutions, the rotation or pitching motion is advanced with respect to the sinusoidal stroke motion. Velocity field measurements at selected phases during the flapping motions highlight why the obtained solutions are optimal for the two different optimization objectives. The most efficient pitching motion is characterized by a nearly constant and relatively low effective angle of attack at the start of the half stroke, which supports the formation of a leading edge vortex close to the airfoil surface, which remains bound for most of the half stroke. The highest lift-generating pitching motion has a larger effective angle of attack, which leads to the generation of a stronger leading edge vortex and higher lift coefficient than in the efficiency optimized scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-inspired Flow)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Steady Flux Regime During Convective Mixing in Three-Dimensional Heterogeneous Porous Media
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
Viewed by 410 | PDF Full-text (9497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Density-driven convective mixing in porous media can be influenced by the spatial heterogeneity of the medium. Previous studies using two-dimensional models have shown that while the initial flow regimes are sensitive to local permeability variation, the later steady flux regime (where the dissolution
[...] Read more.
Density-driven convective mixing in porous media can be influenced by the spatial heterogeneity of the medium. Previous studies using two-dimensional models have shown that while the initial flow regimes are sensitive to local permeability variation, the later steady flux regime (where the dissolution flux is relatively constant) can be approximated with an equivalent anisotropic porous media, suggesting that it is the average properties of the porous media that affect this regime. This work extends the previous results for two-dimensional porous media to consider convection in three-dimensional porous media. Through the use of massively parallel numerical simulations, we verify that the steady dissolution rate in the models of heterogeneity considered also scales as k v k h in three dimensions, where k v and k h are the vertical and horizontal permeabilities, respectively, providing further evidence that convective mixing in heterogeneous models can be approximated with equivalent anisotropic models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamentals of CO2 Storage in Geological Formations)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Microparticle Inertial Focusing in an Asymmetric Curved Microchannel
Received: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
Viewed by 593 | PDF Full-text (2127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inertial Microfluidics offer a high throughput, label-free, easy to design, and cost-effective solutions, and are a promising technique based on hydrodynamic forces (passive techniques) instead of external ones, which can be employed in the lab-on-a-chip and micro-total-analysis-systems for the focusing, manipulation, and separation
[...] Read more.
Inertial Microfluidics offer a high throughput, label-free, easy to design, and cost-effective solutions, and are a promising technique based on hydrodynamic forces (passive techniques) instead of external ones, which can be employed in the lab-on-a-chip and micro-total-analysis-systems for the focusing, manipulation, and separation of microparticles in chemical and biomedical applications. The current study focuses on the focusing behavior of the microparticles in an asymmetric curvilinear microchannel with curvature angle of 280°. For this purpose, the focusing behavior of the microparticles with three different diameters, representing cells with different sizes in the microchannel, was experimentally studied at flow rates from 400 to 2700 µL/min. In this regard, the width and position of the focusing band are carefully recorded for all of the particles in all of the flow rates. Moreover, the distance between the binary combinations of the microparticles is reported for each flow rate, along with the Reynolds number corresponding to the largest distances. Furthermore, the results of this study are compared with those of the microchannel with the same curvature angle but having a symmetric geometry. The microchannel proposed in this study can be used or further modified for cell separation applications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sinus Hemodynamics in Representative Stenotic Native Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valves: An In-Vitro Study
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 526 | PDF Full-text (1582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) The study’s objective is to assess sinus hemodynamics differences between stenotic native bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and native tricuspid aortic valve (TrAV) sinuses in order to assess sinus flow shear and vorticity dynamics in these common pathological states of the aortic valve.
[...] Read more.
(1) The study’s objective is to assess sinus hemodynamics differences between stenotic native bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and native tricuspid aortic valve (TrAV) sinuses in order to assess sinus flow shear and vorticity dynamics in these common pathological states of the aortic valve. (2) Representative patient-specific aortic roots with BAV and TrAV were selected, segmented, and 3D printed. The flow dynamics within the sinus were assessed in-vitro using particle image velocimetry in a left heart simulator at physiological pressure and flow conditions. Hemodynamic data calculations, vortex tracking, shear stress probability density functions and sinus washout calculations based on Lagrangian particle tracking were performed. (3) (a) At peak systole, velocity and vorticity in BAV reach 0.67 ± 0.02 m/s and 374 ± 5 s−1 versus 0.49 ± 0.03 m/s and 293 ± 3 s−1 in TrAV; (b) Aortic sinus vortex is slower to form but conserved in BAV sinus; (c) BAV shear stresses exceed those of TrAV (1.05 Pa versus 0.8 Pa); (d) Complete TrAV washout was achieved after 1.5 cycles while it was not for BAV. (4) In conclusion, sinus hemodynamics dependence on the different native aortic valve types and sinus morphologies was clearly highlighted in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Flows)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Flow of a Dense Suspension Modeled as a Modified Second Grade Fluid
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
Viewed by 389 | PDF Full-text (1801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a simple shear flow of a dense suspension is studied. We propose a new constitutive relationship based on the second grade fluid model for the suspension, capable of exhibiting non-linear effects, where the normal stress coefficients are assumed to depend
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a simple shear flow of a dense suspension is studied. We propose a new constitutive relationship based on the second grade fluid model for the suspension, capable of exhibiting non-linear effects, where the normal stress coefficients are assumed to depend on the volume fraction of the particles and the shear viscosity depends on the shear rate and the volume fraction. After non-dimensionalizing the equations, we perform a parametric study looking at the effects of the normal stress coefficients and the variable viscosity. The numerical results show that for a certain range of parameters, the particles tend to form a region of high and uniform volume fraction, near the lower half of the flow. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Encapsulation of Droplets Using Cusp Formation behind a Drop Rising in a Non-Newtonian Fluid
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Viewed by 299 | PDF Full-text (636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rising of a Newtonian oil drop in a non-Newtonian viscous solution is studied experimentally. In this case, the shape of the ascending drop is strongly affected by the viscoelastic and shear-thinning properties of the surrounding liquid. We found that the so-called velocity
[...] Read more.
The rising of a Newtonian oil drop in a non-Newtonian viscous solution is studied experimentally. In this case, the shape of the ascending drop is strongly affected by the viscoelastic and shear-thinning properties of the surrounding liquid. We found that the so-called velocity discontinuity phenomena is observed for drops larger than a certain critical size. Beyond the critical velocity, the formation of a long tail is observed, from which small droplets are continuously emitted. We determined that the fragmentation of the tail results mainly from the effect of capillary effects. We explore the idea of using this configuration as a new encapsulation technique, where the size and frequency of droplets are directly related to the volume of the main rising drop, for the particular pair of fluids used. These experimental results could lead to other investigations, which could help to predict the droplet formation process by tuning the two fluids’ properties, and adjusting only the volume of the main drop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drop, Bubble and Particle Dynamics in Complex Fluids)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quality Measures of Mixing in Turbulent Flow and Effects of Molecular Diffusivity
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 362 | PDF Full-text (10707 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Results from numerical simulations of the mixing of two puffs of scalars released in a turbulent flow channel are used to introduce a measure of mixing quality, and to investigate the effectiveness of turbulent mixing as a function of the location of the
[...] Read more.
Results from numerical simulations of the mixing of two puffs of scalars released in a turbulent flow channel are used to introduce a measure of mixing quality, and to investigate the effectiveness of turbulent mixing as a function of the location of the puff release and the molecular diffusivity of the puffs. The puffs are released from instantaneous line sources in the flow field with Schmidt numbers that range from 0.7 to 2400. The line sources are located at different distances from the channel wall, starting from the wall itself, the viscous wall layer, the logarithmic layer, and the channel center. The mixing effectiveness is quantified by following the trajectories of individual particles with a Lagrangian approach and carefully counting the number of particles from both puffs that arrive at different locations in the flow field as a function of time. A new measure, the mixing quality index Ø, is defined as the product of the normalized fraction of particles from the two puffs at a flow location. The mixing quality index can take values from 0, corresponding to no mixing, to 0.25, corresponding to full mixing. The mixing quality in the flow is found to depend on the Schmidt number of the puffs when the two puffs are released in the viscous wall region, while the Schmidt number is not important for the mixing of puffs released outside the logarithmic region. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Direct Numerical Simulation of Particles in Spatially Varying Electric Fields
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
Viewed by 414 | PDF Full-text (3787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A numerical scheme is developed to simulate the motion of dielectric particles in the uniform and nonuniform electric fields of microfluidic devices. The motion of particles is simulated using a distributed Lagrange multiplier method (DLM) and the electric force acting on the particles
[...] Read more.
A numerical scheme is developed to simulate the motion of dielectric particles in the uniform and nonuniform electric fields of microfluidic devices. The motion of particles is simulated using a distributed Lagrange multiplier method (DLM) and the electric force acting on the particles is calculated by integrating the Maxwell stress tensor (MST) over the particle surfaces. One of the key features of the DLM method used is that the fluid-particle system is treated implicitly by using a combined weak formulation, where the forces and moments between the particles and fluid cancel, as they are internal to the combined system. The MST is obtained from the electric potential, which, in turn, is obtained by solving the electrostatic problem. In our numerical scheme, the domain is discretized using a finite element scheme and the Marchuk-Yanenko operator-splitting technique is used to decouple the difficulties associated with the incompressibility constraint, the nonlinear convection term, the rigid-body motion constraint and the electric force term. The numerical code is used to study the motion of particles in a dielectrophoretic cage which can be used to trap and hold particles at its center. If the particles moves away from the center of the cage, a resorting force acts on them towards the center. The MST results show that the ratio of the particle-particle interaction and dielectrophoretic forces decreases with increasing particle size. Therefore, larger particles move primarily under the action of the dielectrophoretic (DEP) force, especially in the high electric field gradient regions. Consequently, when the spacing between the electrodes is comparable to the particle size, instead of collecting on the same electrode by forming chains, they collect at different electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drop, Bubble and Particle Dynamics in Complex Fluids)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Pipette Petri Dish Single-Cell Trapping (PP-SCT) in Microfluidic Platforms: A Passive Hydrodynamic Technique
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 22 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
Viewed by 370 | PDF Full-text (4141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microfluidics-based biochips play a vital role in single-cell research applications. Handling and positioning of single cells at the microscale level are an essential need for various applications, including genomics, proteomics, secretomics, and lysis-analysis. In this article, the pipette Petri dish single-cell trapping (PP-SCT)
[...] Read more.
Microfluidics-based biochips play a vital role in single-cell research applications. Handling and positioning of single cells at the microscale level are an essential need for various applications, including genomics, proteomics, secretomics, and lysis-analysis. In this article, the pipette Petri dish single-cell trapping (PP-SCT) technique is demonstrated. PP-SCT is a simple and cost-effective technique with ease of implementation for single cell analysis applications. In this paper a wide operation at different fluid flow rates of the novel PP-SCT technique is demonstrated. The effects of the microfluidic channel shape (straight, branched, and serpent) on the efficiency of single-cell trapping are studied. This article exhibited passive microfluidic-based biochips capable of vertical cell trapping with the hexagonally-positioned array of microwells. Microwells were 35 μm in diameter, a size sufficient to allow the attachment of captured cells for short-term study. Single-cell capture (SCC) capabilities of the microfluidic-biochips were found to be improving from the straight channel, branched channel, and serpent channel, accordingly. Multiple cell capture (MCC) was on the order of decreasing from the straight channel, branch channel, and serpent channel. Among the three designs investigated, the serpent channel biochip offers high SCC percentage with reduced MCC and NC (no capture) percentage. SCC was around 52%, 42%, and 35% for the serpent, branched, and straight channel biochips, respectively, for the tilt angle, θ values were between 10–15°. Human lung cancer cells (A549) were used for characterization. Using the PP-SCT technique, flow rate variations can be precisely achieved with a flow velocity range of 0.25–4 m/s (fluid channel of 2 mm width and 100 µm height). The upper dish (UD) can be used for low flow rate applications and the lower dish (LD) for high flow rate applications. Passive single-cell analysis applications will be facilitated using this method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Analytics Paradigm Combining Physics-Based Modeling and Data-Driven Modeling to Accelerate Incompressible Flow Solvers
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
Viewed by 1152 | PDF Full-text (11423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerical solution of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations poses a significant computational challenge due to the solenoidal velocity field constraint. In most computational modeling frameworks, this divergence-free constraint requires the solution of a Poisson equation at every step of the underlying time integration algorithm,
[...] Read more.
Numerical solution of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations poses a significant computational challenge due to the solenoidal velocity field constraint. In most computational modeling frameworks, this divergence-free constraint requires the solution of a Poisson equation at every step of the underlying time integration algorithm, which constitutes the major component of the computational expense. In this study, we propose a hybrid analytics procedure combining a data-driven approach with a physics-based simulation technique to accelerate the computation of incompressible flows. In our approach, proper orthogonal basis functions are generated to be used in solving the Poisson equation in a reduced order space. Since the time integration of the advection–diffusion equation part of the physics-based model is computationally inexpensive in a typical incompressible flow solver, it is retained in the full order space to represent the dynamics more accurately. Encoder and decoder interface conditions are provided by incorporating the elliptic constraint along with the data exchange between the full order and reduced order spaces. We investigate the feasibility of the proposed method by solving the Taylor–Green vortex decaying problem, and it is found that a remarkable speed-up can be achieved while retaining a similar accuracy with respect to the full order model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid Flows)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Aerodynamic Sealing of Air Curtains
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
Viewed by 440 | PDF Full-text (13621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Controlling the air quality is of the utmost importance in today’s buildings. Vertical air curtains are often used to separate two different climatic zones with a view to reduce heat transfer. In fact, this research work proposes an air curtain aimed to ensure
[...] Read more.
Controlling the air quality is of the utmost importance in today’s buildings. Vertical air curtains are often used to separate two different climatic zones with a view to reduce heat transfer. In fact, this research work proposes an air curtain aimed to ensure a proper separation between two zones, a clean one and a contaminated one. The methodology of this research includes: (i) small-scale tests on water models to ensure that the contamination does not pass through the air curtain, and (ii) an analytical development integrating the main physical characteristics of plane jets. In the solution developed, the airflow is extracted from the contaminated compartment to reduce the curtain airflow rejected to the exterior of the compartment. In this research work, it was possible to determine the minimum exhaust flow necessary to ensure the aerodynamic sealing of the air curtain. This article addresses the methodology used to perform the small-scale water tests and the corresponding results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ventilation and Passive Cooling for Healthy and Comfortable Buildings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Extended Noble–Abel Stiffened-Gas Equation of State for Sub-and-Supercritical Liquid-Gas Systems Far from the Critical Point
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 540 | PDF Full-text (1979 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Noble–Abel Stiffened-Gas (NASG) equation of state (Le Métayer, O. and Saurel, R. proposed in 2016) is extended to variable attractive and repulsive effects to improve the liquid phase accuracy when large temperature and pressure variation ranges are under consideration. The transition from
[...] Read more.
The Noble–Abel Stiffened-Gas (NASG) equation of state (Le Métayer, O. and Saurel, R. proposed in 2016) is extended to variable attractive and repulsive effects to improve the liquid phase accuracy when large temperature and pressure variation ranges are under consideration. The transition from pure phase to supercritical state is of interest as well. The gas phase is considered through the ideal gas assumption with variable specific heat rendering the formulation valid for high temperatures. The liquid equation-of-state constants are determined through the saturation curves making the formulation suitable for two-phase mixtures at thermodynamic equilibrium. The overall formulation is compared to experimental characteristic curves of the phase diagram showing good agreement for various fluids (water, oxygen). Compared to existing cubic equations of state, the present one is convex, a key feature for computations with hyperbolic flow models. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Rheology of an Inverted Cholesteric Droplet under Shear Flow
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
Viewed by 510 | PDF Full-text (9657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dynamics of a quasi two-dimensional isotropic droplet in a cholesteric liquid crystal medium under symmetric shear flow is studied by lattice Boltzmann simulations. We consider a geometry in which the flow direction is along the axis of the cholesteric, as this setup
[...] Read more.
The dynamics of a quasi two-dimensional isotropic droplet in a cholesteric liquid crystal medium under symmetric shear flow is studied by lattice Boltzmann simulations. We consider a geometry in which the flow direction is along the axis of the cholesteric, as this setup exhibits a significant viscoelastic response to external stress. We find that the dynamics depends on the magnitude of the shear rate, the anchoring strength of the liquid crystal at the droplet interface and the chirality. While low shear rate and weak interface anchoring the system shows a non-Newtonian behavior, a Newtonian-like response is observed at high shear rate and strong interface anchoring. This is investigated both by estimating the secondary flow profile, namely a flow emerging along the out-of-plane direction (absent in fully-Newtonian fluids, such as water) and by monitoring defect formation and dynamics, which significantly alter the rheological response of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystal Rheology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evolution of the Size Distribution of an Emulsion under a Simple Shear Flow
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
Viewed by 480 | PDF Full-text (3048 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the rheology of immiscible liquids mixtures, as well as the role played by its micro-structures are important criteria for the production of new materials and processes in industry. Here, we study changes over time of the droplet size distributions of emulsions induced
[...] Read more.
Understanding the rheology of immiscible liquids mixtures, as well as the role played by its micro-structures are important criteria for the production of new materials and processes in industry. Here, we study changes over time of the droplet size distributions of emulsions induced by slow shearing flows. We observe that the initial heterogeneous microstructure may evolve toward more complex structures (such as bimodal distribution) as a result of coalescence and rupture of droplets. These dynamic structures were produced using a flow cell made up of two parallel disks, separated by a gap of 100 µm. The steady rotation of the lower disk generates a simple shear flow of γ˙=0.75 s1, during ~400 s. After a brief rest time, this procedure was repeated by applying a step ramp until the maximum shear rate of 4.5 s1 was reached, using step increments of 0.75 s1. During the last portion of the flow and during the rest time in between flows, structures of emulsions were characterized. Initially, a broad single-peak distribution of drops was observed, which evolved toward a rather narrower bimodal distribution, at first due to the coalescence of the smaller droplets and subsequently of the larger drops. The rupture of drops at higher shear rates was also observed. The observed evolutions also presented global structures such as “pearl necklaces” or “bands of particles”, the latter characterized by alternating bands of a high density of particles and regions of the continuous phase with only a few droplets. These changes may indicate complex, time-dependent rheological properties of these mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drop, Bubble and Particle Dynamics in Complex Fluids)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Flow Structure and Force Generation on Flapping Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers Relevant to the Flight of Tiny Insects
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
Viewed by 682 | PDF Full-text (7984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In contrast to larger species, little is known about the flight of the smallest flying insects, such as thrips and fairyflies. These tiny animals range from 300 to 1000 microns in length and fly at Reynolds numbers ranging from about 4 to 60.
[...] Read more.
In contrast to larger species, little is known about the flight of the smallest flying insects, such as thrips and fairyflies. These tiny animals range from 300 to 1000 microns in length and fly at Reynolds numbers ranging from about 4 to 60. Previous work with numerical and physical models have shown that the aerodynamics of these diminutive insects is significantly different from that of larger animals, but most of these studies have relied on two-dimensional approximations. There can, however, be significant differences between two- and three-dimensional flows, as has been found for larger insects. To better understand the flight of the smallest insects, we have performed a systematic study of the forces and flow structures around a three-dimensional revolving elliptical wing. We used both a dynamically scaled physical model and a three-dimensional computational model at Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 130 and angles of attacks ranging from 0° to 90°. The results of the physical and computational models were in good agreement and showed that dimensionless drag, aerodynamic efficiency, and spanwise flow all decrease with decreasing Reynolds number. In addition, both the leading and trailing edge vortices remain attached to the wing over the scales relevant to the smallest flying insects. Overall, these observations suggest that there are drastic differences in the aerodynamics of flight at the scale of the smallest flying animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-inspired Flow)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top