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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Uncharacterized mKiaa1211 Expression during Mouse Development and Cardiovascular Morphogenesis
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020024
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
Mammalian Kiaa1211 and Kiaa1211-like are a homologous pair of uncharacterized, highly conserved genes cloned from fetal and adult brain cDNA libraries. Herein we map the in utero spatiotemporal expression of mKiaa1211 and mKiaa1211L mRNA and their expression patterns in postnatal testis, skin, gastrointestinal, [...] Read more.
Mammalian Kiaa1211 and Kiaa1211-like are a homologous pair of uncharacterized, highly conserved genes cloned from fetal and adult brain cDNA libraries. Herein we map the in utero spatiotemporal expression of mKiaa1211 and mKiaa1211L mRNA and their expression patterns in postnatal testis, skin, gastrointestinal, and adipose progenitor tissues. Significantly, mKiaa1211 is present throughout the early stages of mouse heart development, particularly in the second heart field (SHF) lineage as it differentiates from mesenchymal cells into cardiomyocytes. We also show that mKiaa1211 is expressed within several early neuronal tissues destined to give rise to central, peripheral, and sympathetic nervous system structures. Expression profiling revealed that the paralog mKiaa1211L is not expressed during the normal developmental process and that mKiaa1211 expression was noticeably absent from most adult terminally differentiated tissues. Finally, we confirm that a previously uncharacterized CRISPR/CAS-generated mKiaa1211 mouse mutant allele is hypomorphic. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Association Between Smoking Hookahs (Shishas) and Higher Risk of Obesity: A Systematic Review of Population-Based Studies
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020023
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
The American Heart Association has published a scientific statement on the effect of hookah smoking on health outcomes; nevertheless, hookah smoking continues to be popular worldwide, especially among the young. Recent reports mention a potential link between hookah smoking and obesity; however, uncertainties [...] Read more.
The American Heart Association has published a scientific statement on the effect of hookah smoking on health outcomes; nevertheless, hookah smoking continues to be popular worldwide, especially among the young. Recent reports mention a potential link between hookah smoking and obesity; however, uncertainties still surround this issue. The aim of the current study was to conduct a systematic review to clarify whether hookah smoking is associated with a higher risk of obesity among the general population. This study was conducted in compliance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and data were collated by means of a meta-analysis and a narrative synthesis. Of the 818 articles retrieved, five large-population and low-bias studies comprising a total of 16,779 participants met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All included studies reported that, regardless of gender, hookah smoking increases the risk of obesity among all ages and observed an association between the two after a correction for several confounders or reported a higher prevalence of obesity among hookah smokers. This was confirmed by the meta-analysis. Therefore, hookah smoking seems to be associated with a higher risk of obesity. Public health policymakers should be aware of this for the better management of obesity and weight-related comorbidities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Genetics, and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Produces, and Ischemic Preconditioning Prevents, Rat Cardiac Fibroblast Differentiation: Role of KATP Channels
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020022
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) protect cardiac myocytes from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. We investigated the influence of IR injury, IPC and KATP in isolated rat cardiac fibroblasts. Hearts were removed under isoflurane anesthesia. IR [...] Read more.
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) protect cardiac myocytes from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. We investigated the influence of IR injury, IPC and KATP in isolated rat cardiac fibroblasts. Hearts were removed under isoflurane anesthesia. IR was simulated in vitro by application and removal of paraffin oil over pelleted cells. Ischemia (30, 60 and 120 min) followed by 60 min reperfusion resulted in significant differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in culture (mean % fibroblasts ± SEM in IR vs. time control: 12 ± 1% vs. 63 ± 2%, 30 min ischemia; 15 ± 3% vs. 71 ± 4%, 60 min ischemia; 8 ± 1% vs. 55 ± 2%, 120 min ischemia). IPC (15 min ischemia, 30 min reperfusion) significantly attenuated IR-induced fibroblast differentiation (52 ± 3%) compared to 60 min IR. IPC was mimicked by opening KATP with pinacidil (50 μM; 43 ± 6%) and by selectively opening mitochondrial KATP (mKATP) with diazoxide (100 μM; 53 ± 3%). Furthermore, IPC was attenuated by inhibiting KATP with glibenclamide (10 μM; 23 ± 5%) and by selectively blocking mKATP with 5-hydroxydecanoate (100 μM; 22 ± 9%). These results suggest that (a) IR injury evoked cardiac fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation, (b) IPC attenuated IR-induced fibroblast differentiation, (c) KATP were involved in IPC and (d) this protection involved selective activation of mKATP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Fibroblasts and Fibrosis)
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Open AccessReview
The Functions of Long Non-Coding RNA during Embryonic Cardiovascular Development and Its Potential for Diagnosis and Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020021
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Congenital heart disease (CHD) arises due to errors during the embryonic development of the heart, a highly regulated process involving an interplay between cell-intrinsic transcription factor expression and intercellular signalling mediated by morphogens. Emerging evidence indicates that expression of these protein-coding genes is [...] Read more.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) arises due to errors during the embryonic development of the heart, a highly regulated process involving an interplay between cell-intrinsic transcription factor expression and intercellular signalling mediated by morphogens. Emerging evidence indicates that expression of these protein-coding genes is controlled by a plethora of previously unappreciated non-coding RNAs operating in complex feedback-control circuits. In this review, we consider the contribution of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) to embryonic cardiovascular development before discussing applications to CHD diagnostics and therapeutics. We discuss the process of lineage restriction during cardiovascular progenitor cell differentiation, as well as the subsequent patterning of the cardiogenic progenitor fields, taking as an example the regulation of NODAL signalling in left-right patterning of the heart. lncRNA are a highly versatile group. Nuclear lncRNA can target specific genomic sequences and recruit chromatin remodelling complexes. Some nuclear lncRNA are transcribed from enhancers and regulate chromatin looping. Cytoplasmic lncRNA act as endogenous competitors for micro RNA, as well as binding and sequestering signalling proteins. We discuss features of lncRNA that limit their study by conventional methodology and suggest solutions to these problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non Coding RNAs in the Cardiovascular System)
Open AccessBrief Report
Activation of Interleukin-1 Beta in Arterialized Vein Grafts and the Influence of the -511C/T IL-1β Gene Polymorphism
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020020
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
The interleukin-1 family is associated with innate immunity and inflammation. The latter has been linked to the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. We, therefore, investigated whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is activated during arterialization of vein grafts. First, we examined the activation of IL-1β using [...] Read more.
The interleukin-1 family is associated with innate immunity and inflammation. The latter has been linked to the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. We, therefore, investigated whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is activated during arterialization of vein grafts. First, we examined the activation of IL-1β using the rat arterialized jugular vein serially sampled for up to 90 days. IL-1β expression increased 18 times on day 1 in the arterialized rat jugular vein and remained five times above nonarterialized vein levels for up to 90 days. Similarly, IL-1β expression increased early (1–5 days) in human vein graft autopsy samples compared with late phases (1–4 years). Activation was also detected in ex vivo arterialized human saphenous veins. Upon stratification of the results, we uncovered a T allele promoter attenuating effect in IL-1β activation in response to hemodynamic stress. Altogether, the results show that IL-1β is activated during arterialization of vein grafts in rats and humans, and this response is modulated by -511C/T IL-1β gene polymorphism. It is tempting to speculate that the activation of IL-1β, and consequently local inflammation, modulates early vascular remodeling and that the gene polymorphism may be useful in predicting outcomes or assisting in interventions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Gender and Aging
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020019
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
The aging and elderly population are particularly susceptible to cardiovascular disease. Age is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults, but these risks are compounded by additional factors, including frailty, obesity, and diabetes. These factors are known to complicate and [...] Read more.
The aging and elderly population are particularly susceptible to cardiovascular disease. Age is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults, but these risks are compounded by additional factors, including frailty, obesity, and diabetes. These factors are known to complicate and enhance cardiac risk factors that are associated with the onset of advanced age. Sex is another potential risk factor in aging adults, given that older females are reported to be at a greater risk for CVD than age-matched men. However, in both men and women, the risks associated with CVD increase with age, and these correspond to an overall decline in sex hormones, primarily of estrogen and testosterone. Despite this, hormone replacement therapies are largely shown to not improve outcomes in older patients and may also increase the risks of cardiac events in older adults. This review discusses current findings regarding the impacts of age and gender on heart disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Cardiomyopathy)
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Open AccessReview
Non-Invasive Imaging in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020018
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
There is increasing recognition of a specific diabetic cardiomyopathy beyond ischemic cardiomyopathy, which leads to structural and functional myocardial abnormalities. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature on diagnostic findings and prognostic significance of non-invasive imaging including echocardiography, nuclear [...] Read more.
There is increasing recognition of a specific diabetic cardiomyopathy beyond ischemic cardiomyopathy, which leads to structural and functional myocardial abnormalities. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature on diagnostic findings and prognostic significance of non-invasive imaging including echocardiography, nuclear imaging, computed tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Cardiomyopathy)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Adherence of Saudi Males to the Saudi Dietary Guidelines and Its Relation to Cardiovascular Diseases: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020017
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Dietary intake plays a major role in CVD incidence; however, the dietary intake status in Saudi nationals with CVD is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether the dietary patterns of Saudi [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Dietary intake plays a major role in CVD incidence; however, the dietary intake status in Saudi nationals with CVD is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether the dietary patterns of Saudi males, using the Saudi dietary guidelines adherence score, in parallel with the measurement of a selective number of cardiovascular disease-related biomarkers, are contributing factors to CVD risk. Demographics, dietary adherence score, and blood biomarker levels were collected for 40 CVD patients and forty non-CVD patients. Fasting blood glucose (p = 0.006) and high-density lipoprotein levels (p = 0.03) were significantly higher in CVD patients. The adherence score to the Saudi dietary guidelines was not significantly different between the CVD and non-CVD patients; however, the specific adherence scores of fruit (p = 0.02), olive oil (p = 0.01), and non-alcoholic beer (p = 0.02) were significantly higher in the non-CVD patients. The differences in CVD family history (p = 0.02) and adherence scores to specific groups/foods between the CVD and non-CVD patients may contribute to CVD risk in Saudi males. However, as the sample size of this study was small, further research is required to validate these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Genetics, and Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Inhibition of let-7c Regulates Cardiac Regeneration after Cryoinjury in Adult Zebrafish
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020016
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
The let-7c family of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) is expressed during embryonic development and plays an important role in cell differentiation. We have investigated the role of let-7c in heart regeneration after injury in adult zebrafish. let-7c antagomir or scramble injections were given at one [...] Read more.
The let-7c family of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) is expressed during embryonic development and plays an important role in cell differentiation. We have investigated the role of let-7c in heart regeneration after injury in adult zebrafish. let-7c antagomir or scramble injections were given at one day after cryoinjury (1 dpi). Tissue samples were collected at 7 dpi, 14 dpi and 28 dpi and cardiac function was assessed before cryoinjury, 1 dpi, 7 dpi, 14 dpi and 28 dpi. Inhibition of let-7c increased the rate of fibrinolysis, increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cardiomyocytes at 7 dpi and increased the expression of the epicardial marker raldh2 at 7 dpi. Additionally, cardiac function measured with echocardiography recovered slightly more rapidly after inhibition of let-7c. These results reveal a beneficial role of let-7c inhibition in adult zebrafish heart regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Non-Coding RNA in Congenital Heart Diseases
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020015
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
Cardiovascular development is a complex developmental process starting with the formation of an early straight heart tube, followed by a rightward looping and the configuration of atrial and ventricular chambers. The subsequent step allows the separation of these cardiac chambers leading to the [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular development is a complex developmental process starting with the formation of an early straight heart tube, followed by a rightward looping and the configuration of atrial and ventricular chambers. The subsequent step allows the separation of these cardiac chambers leading to the formation of a four-chambered organ. Impairment in any of these developmental processes invariably leads to cardiac defects. Importantly, our understanding of the developmental defects causing cardiac congenital heart diseases has largely increased over the last decades. The advent of the molecular era allowed to bridge morphogenetic with genetic defects and therefore our current understanding of the transcriptional regulation of cardiac morphogenesis has enormously increased. Moreover, the impact of environmental agents to genetic cascades has been demonstrated as well as of novel genomic mechanisms modulating gene regulation such as post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Among post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, non-coding RNAs, including therein microRNAs and lncRNAs, are emerging to play pivotal roles. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the functional role of non-coding RNAs in distinct congenital heart diseases, with particular emphasis on microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non Coding RNAs in the Cardiovascular System)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
An Update on the Tissue Renin Angiotensin System and Its Role in Physiology and Pathology
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020014
Received: 10 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
In its classical view, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was defined as an endocrine system involved in blood pressure regulation and body electrolyte balance. However, the emerging concept of tissue RAS, along with the discovery of new RAS components, increased the physiological and [...] Read more.
In its classical view, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was defined as an endocrine system involved in blood pressure regulation and body electrolyte balance. However, the emerging concept of tissue RAS, along with the discovery of new RAS components, increased the physiological and clinical relevance of the system. Indeed, RAS has been shown to be expressed in various tissues where alterations in its expression were shown to be involved in multiple diseases including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and renal fibrosis. In this chapter, we describe the new components of RAS, their tissue-specific expression, and their alterations under pathological conditions, which will help achieve more tissue- and condition-specific treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Genetics, and Cardiovascular Disease)
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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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