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Activation of Interleukin-1 Beta in Arterialized Vein Grafts and the Influence of the -511C/T IL-1β Gene Polymorphism

Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP 05403-000, Brazil
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020020
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract

The interleukin-1 family is associated with innate immunity and inflammation. The latter has been linked to the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. We, therefore, investigated whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is activated during arterialization of vein grafts. First, we examined the activation of IL-1β using the rat arterialized jugular vein serially sampled for up to 90 days. IL-1β expression increased 18 times on day 1 in the arterialized rat jugular vein and remained five times above nonarterialized vein levels for up to 90 days. Similarly, IL-1β expression increased early (1–5 days) in human vein graft autopsy samples compared with late phases (1–4 years). Activation was also detected in ex vivo arterialized human saphenous veins. Upon stratification of the results, we uncovered a T allele promoter attenuating effect in IL-1β activation in response to hemodynamic stress. Altogether, the results show that IL-1β is activated during arterialization of vein grafts in rats and humans, and this response is modulated by -511C/T IL-1β gene polymorphism. It is tempting to speculate that the activation of IL-1β, and consequently local inflammation, modulates early vascular remodeling and that the gene polymorphism may be useful in predicting outcomes or assisting in interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: human saphenous vein; interleukin-1β, vein graft; gene polymorphisms human saphenous vein; interleukin-1β, vein graft; gene polymorphisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miyakawa, A.A.; Borin, T.F.; Campos, L.C.G.; Girão-Silva, T.; Ribeiro-Silva, J.C.; Dallan, L.A.O.; Krieger, J.E. Activation of Interleukin-1 Beta in Arterialized Vein Grafts and the Influence of the -511C/T IL-1β Gene Polymorphism. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6, 20.

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