Previous Issue
Volume 5, September

Table of Contents

Geriatrics, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 38 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessCase Report
Responding to COVID-19: Lessons Learned from a Senior Living and Social Service Organization
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040098 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
This case study analyzes one senior living and social service organization’s coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis response. We conducted interviews with n = 14 department managers to explore the organization’s pivot to remote work and service provision. We used the Pearson and Mitroff Crisis Management [...] Read more.
This case study analyzes one senior living and social service organization’s coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis response. We conducted interviews with n = 14 department managers to explore the organization’s pivot to remote work and service provision. We used the Pearson and Mitroff Crisis Management Framework to organize themes. A pre-existing culture of teamwork, willingness to adapt and adopt new approaches, and responsiveness to new policies and procedures facilitated the COVID-19 crisis response. However, low levels of digital literacy among staff, decreased job satisfaction due to no face-to-face interaction between care recipient and service provider, and lack of proactive policies for crisis response, which decreased the speed of enacting remote service provision, were obstacles in effective crisis response. Lessons learned from this case study highlight the need for pre-emptive policy creation on remote service provision and work from home policies, as well as training considerations for senior living and social service organizations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Adherence to Beers Criteria in Geriatrics: A Retrospective Study in a Saudi Teaching Hospital
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040097 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Background: The aging process makes geriatric populations more prone to various chronic diseases. Such diseases require older patients to be on more medications than any other age group and make them more susceptible to adverse drug events related to potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). [...] Read more.
Background: The aging process makes geriatric populations more prone to various chronic diseases. Such diseases require older patients to be on more medications than any other age group and make them more susceptible to adverse drug events related to potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Aim: To identify the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications among older people and explore the most commonly prescribed PIMs in hospitalized patients. Design and Setting: A retrospective study conducted in a large tertiary hospital among patients hospitalized in a 4 year period from January 2015 to December 2018. Methods: The 2019 Beers Criteria were used to assess PIMs in all inpatient prescribed medications focusing on the first class (i.e., drug/drug class to be avoided in older adults). Results: The mean age was 75.17 ± 7.66 years. A total of 684 (80.6%) patients were prescribed at least one medication listed in the first-class category of the 2019 Beers Criteria. Top five drugs were proton pump inhibitors (40.3%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (10.2%), metoclopramide (9.3%), benzodiazepines (8.4%), and insulin (5.4%). Conclusions: The prevalence of PIMs is high among older patients admitted to the hospital. More efforts are needed to investigate the potential reasons and develop action plans to improve concordance to Beers Criteria among healthcare providers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessBrief Report
The Impact of Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Metropolitan City of Naples
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040096 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Urinary incontinence is a hygienic and psychosocial problem that often brings people to restrict their social life and to experience depression. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of urinary incontinence on quality of life among residents of the [...] Read more.
Urinary incontinence is a hygienic and psychosocial problem that often brings people to restrict their social life and to experience depression. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of urinary incontinence on quality of life among residents of the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy, using a newly designed multidimensional questionnaire. The secondary objective was to find which variables affect the quality of life and symptom severity in these patients. To do so, a sample composed of twenty-eight patients was recruited in a multicentre cross-sectional study. Most of the participants had a mild impairment (60%) concerning social life and self-perception, especially those whose education was above the primary level (p = 0.036) and those who followed a pelvic floor rehabilitation program (p = 0.002). Overflow urinary incontinence was associated with a greater deterioration in the aspirational and occupational domain (p = 0.044). Symptom severity was worse in those who had comorbidities (p = 0.038), who had a high body mass index (p = 0.008) or who used diuretics (p = 0.007). In conclusion, our results suggest that there is a significant impairment of quality of life in patients who have only primary education and who follow a pelvic floor rehabilitation program. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Nutrients and Pathways that Regulate Health Span and Life Span
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040095 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Both life span and health span are influenced by genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. With the genetic influence on human life span estimated to be about 20–25%, epigenetic changes play an important role in modulating individual health status and aging. Thus, a main [...] Read more.
Both life span and health span are influenced by genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. With the genetic influence on human life span estimated to be about 20–25%, epigenetic changes play an important role in modulating individual health status and aging. Thus, a main part of life expectance and healthy aging is determined by dietary habits and nutritional factors. Excessive or restricted food consumption have direct effects on health status. Moreover, some dietary interventions including a reduced intake of dietary calories without malnutrition, or a restriction of specific dietary component may promote health benefits and decrease the incidence of aging-related comorbidities, thus representing intriguing potential approaches to improve healthy aging. However, the relationship between nutrition, health and aging is still not fully understood as well as the mechanisms by which nutrients and nutritional status may affect health span and longevity in model organisms. The broad effect of different nutritional conditions on health span and longevity occurs through multiple mechanisms that involve evolutionary conserved nutrient-sensing pathways in tissues and organs. These pathways interacting each other include the evolutionary conserved key regulators mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway and sirtuins. In this review we provide a summary of the main molecular mechanisms by which different nutritional conditions, i.e., specific nutrient abundance or restriction, may affect health span and life span. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Persons)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Missing Diagnosis, Pain, and Loss of Function in Older Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Insufficiency Fractures: A Qualitative Study of the Patient’s Perspective
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040094 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by a chronic, progressive inflammation in the joints and leads to substantial pain, disability, and other morbidities. Few studies document the occurrence of insufficiency fractures, but no studies document the patient’s perspective on incurring an insufficiency fracture. The [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by a chronic, progressive inflammation in the joints and leads to substantial pain, disability, and other morbidities. Few studies document the occurrence of insufficiency fractures, but no studies document the patient’s perspective on incurring an insufficiency fracture. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the patients’ perspective on how insufficiency fractures influence their level of activity and to detect their need for rehabilitation. Two focus-group interviews were performed with 10 patients diagnosed with RA and insufficiency fractures. The data from the focus-group interviews were subjected to thematic analysis to provide a sense of the important themes. The 10 patients were all females, aged 57–88 years. Magnetic resonance imaging were performed at a mean of six months and seven days. All patients identified the delayed diagnosis of fracture as a significant burden. They experienced pain but did not receive a diagnosis. When the patients were immobilised, some of them were offered aids such as crutches, which they were unable to use due to their RA. The patients needed a focus on diagnosis and individually customised rehabilitation, taking into account RA and including guidance concerning daily activities, aids, and the regain of physical function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rheumatology)
Open AccessArticle
Functional Predictors for Home Discharge after Hip Fracture in Patients Living in Sloped Neighborhoods or Islands: An 8-Year Retrospective Cohort Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040093 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Functional predictors of home discharge after hip fractures have been widely reported; however, no study has considered the geographical features surrounding patients’ homes. This study aimed to identify home discharge predictors and determine the cutoff points required for home discharge of patients living [...] Read more.
Functional predictors of home discharge after hip fractures have been widely reported; however, no study has considered the geographical features surrounding patients’ homes. This study aimed to identify home discharge predictors and determine the cutoff points required for home discharge of patients living in sloped neighborhoods or islands. A total of 437 postoperative hip fracture patients were included and classified into the flat, slope, and island groups according to their residential area before the fracture. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant home discharge predictors, and receiver-operating characteristic analysis to calculate cutoff values. In all the groups, the functional independence measure-motor score was a significant home discharge predictor, with cutoff values of 69 for the flat group and 65 points for the slope and island group. In the slope group, the 6-minute walking distance (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.04) and revised Hasegawa dementia scale score (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.12) were also identified as predictors, with cutoff values of 150 m and 18 points, respectively. The outcomes required for home discharge after hip fracture differ depending on the neighborhood terrain, especially for patients living in areas with many slopes and stairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Frailty Assessment in Clinical Practice: Opportunity in the Midst of a Pandemic
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040092 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Emerging evidence from studies of older adults hospitalised with COVID-19 suggests that there is a high prevalence of frailty in this patient group. We reflect on the measurement of frailty in older patients hospitalized as an emergency and the translation of frailty from [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence from studies of older adults hospitalised with COVID-19 suggests that there is a high prevalence of frailty in this patient group. We reflect on the measurement of frailty in older patients hospitalized as an emergency and the translation of frailty from a research to a clinical concept. We consider whether, despite the contemporary challenges in the care of older adults as a result of COVID-19, there are opportunities for care quality improvement during a pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infections in the Elderly)
Open AccessArticle
The Medical Referral Process and Motor-Vehicle Crash Risk for Drivers with Dementia
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040091 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Cognitive and physical impairment can occur with dementia and reduce driving ability. In the United States, individual states have procedures to refer and evaluate drivers who may no longer be fit to drive. The license review process is not well understood for drivers [...] Read more.
Cognitive and physical impairment can occur with dementia and reduce driving ability. In the United States, individual states have procedures to refer and evaluate drivers who may no longer be fit to drive. The license review process is not well understood for drivers with dementia. This study uses comprehensive data from the Iowa Department of Transportation to compare the referral process for drivers with and without dementia from January 2014 through November 2019. The likelihood of failing an evaluation test was compared between drivers with and without dementia using logistic regression. The risk of motor-vehicle crash after referral for review of driving ability was compared using a Cox proportional hazard model. Analysis controlled for the age and sex of the referred driver. Drivers with dementia performed worse on all tests evaluated except the visual screening test. After the referral process, the risk of crash was similar between those with and without dementia. Drivers with dementia were denied their license more frequently than referred drivers without dementia. However, drivers with dementia who successfully kept their license as a result of the license review process were not at an increased risk of crash compared to other referred drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving, Aging, Safety and Health)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Intergroup ‘Skype’ Quiz Sessions in Care Homes to Reduce Loneliness and Social Isolation in Older People
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040090 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Video calls using software such as Skype, Zoom and FaceTime can improve socialisation among older people and family, however it is unknown if video calls are able to improve socialisation among older people and their peers. Twenty-two residents across three British care homes [...] Read more.
Video calls using software such as Skype, Zoom and FaceTime can improve socialisation among older people and family, however it is unknown if video calls are able to improve socialisation among older people and their peers. Twenty-two residents across three British care homes engaged with each other using ‘Skype quiz’ sessions with the support of staff once a month over an eight-month trial. Video calls were accessed via a ‘Skype on Wheels’ intervention that comprised a wheeled device that could hold an iPad, or through Skype TV. Residents met other residents from the three care homes to build new friendships and participate in a thirty-minute quiz session facilitated by eight staff. Staff were collaborators who recruited older people, implemented the intervention and provided feedback that was analysed using thematic analysis. Residents enjoyed being able to see other residents’ faces and surroundings. Analysis of the field notes revealed five themes of: residents with dementia remember faces not technology, inter and intra connectedness, re-gaining sense of self and purpose, situational loneliness overcome and organisational issues create barriers to long-term implementation. Inter-care home connection through video calls to reduce feelings of loneliness in residents seems acceptable and a feasible, low cost model, especially during times of public crisis such as COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Associations between Pet Ownership and Frailty: A Systematic Review
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040089 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability due to age-related decline in reserve and function across multiple physiological systems. Increasing physical activity level is considered to be a measure to counteract frailty. Some studies have indicated that pet owners are more [...] Read more.
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability due to age-related decline in reserve and function across multiple physiological systems. Increasing physical activity level is considered to be a measure to counteract frailty. Some studies have indicated that pet owners are more engaged in physical activity than non-owners. We conducted a systematic review regarding associations between pet ownerships and frailty among community-dwelling older adults and critically assessed the findings. PubMed was searched in April 2020 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for cross-sectional or prospective studies examining associations between pet ownership and frailty in community-dwelling older adults with a mean age of 60 or above. A supplementary search was done using Google Scholar. Identified articles were reviewed by two investigators independently and assessed for methodological quality. The search identified 48 studies, among which three studies (two cross-sectional and one prospective) were included in this review. These studies suggested that pet ownership may be associated with a lower risk of frailty. This systematic review found only a limited amount of relevant research. More research is needed to establish the link between pet ownership and frailty as well as healthy aging and well-being. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Convergent Validity of the electronic Frailty Index (eFI) with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040088 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Background: Different scales are being used to measure frailty. This study examined the convergent validity of the electronic Frailty Index (eFI) with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Method: The cross-sectional study recruited patients from three regional community nursing teams in the South East [...] Read more.
Background: Different scales are being used to measure frailty. This study examined the convergent validity of the electronic Frailty Index (eFI) with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Method: The cross-sectional study recruited patients from three regional community nursing teams in the South East of England. The CFS was rated at recruitment, and the eFI was extracted from electronic health records (EHRs). A McNemar test of paired data was used to compare discordant pairs between the eFI and the CFS, and an exact McNemar Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated. Findings: Of 265 eligible patients consented, 150 (57%) were female, with a mean age of 85.6 years (SD = 7.8), and 78% were 80 years and older. Using the CFS, 68% were estimated to be moderate to severely frail, compared to 91% using the eFI. The eFI recorded a greater degree of frailty than the CFS (OR = 5.43, 95%CI 3.05 to 10.40; p < 0.001). This increased to 7.8 times more likely in men, and 9.5 times in those aged over 80 years. Conclusions: This study found that the eFI overestimates the frailty status of community dwelling older people. Overestimating frailty may impact on the demand of resources required for further management and treatment of those identified as being frail. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Factors Determining the Choice of a Career in Geriatrics among Students in Geriatric in-Hospital Training: A Prospective Study of 74 Medical Students
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040087 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 215
Abstract
To understand why students in the 2nd cycle of medical studies choose to complete a Diploma of Specialized Studies (DSS) in geriatrics, we conducted a study to identify the factors influencing the choice of a future specialty. In addition, we assessed the impact [...] Read more.
To understand why students in the 2nd cycle of medical studies choose to complete a Diploma of Specialized Studies (DSS) in geriatrics, we conducted a study to identify the factors influencing the choice of a future specialty. In addition, we assessed the impact of clinical in-hospital training (CIHT) in a geriatric hospital on the students’ selection of their future specialty. We included all students who completed CIHT in the geriatric facility of our University Hospital between 1 May and 31 October 2018. Data were collected using a two-part questionnaire: one part was given before CIHT and the other after. The students were classified into two groups: those considering a career in geriatrics (CIG) before CIHT, forming the group DSS geriatrics+ (GDSSG+), and those not considering it, constituting the group DSS geriatrics− (GDSSG−). Seventy-four students aged 22 years old were included. Of these students, 26% were considering a CIG before CIHT. This rate increased significantly to 42% after CIHT (p = 0.04). However, none of the students who indicated that they were potentially interested in pursuing geriatrics before CIHT preselected geriatrics as their first option. For more than 92% of the students, the comprehensive care of geriatric patients was an asset. The main drawbacks were diagnostic and therapeutic limitations (60% of students), then managing aging, disability, and neurocognitive disorders (55% of students). After CIHT, the view of geriatrics improved by 74%. In conclusion, geriatric CIHT improves students’ opinions of geriatrics and increases the number of students considering a CIG. However, geriatrics still suffers from a lack of prestige. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Examining Additional Aspects of Muscle Function with a Digital Handgrip Dynamometer and Accelerometer in Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040086 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Background: Maximal handgrip strength (HGS) could be an incomplete and unidimensional measure of muscle function. This pilot study sought to examine the relationships between maximal HGS, radial and ulnar digit grip strength, submaximal HGS force control, HGS fatigability, neuromuscular HGS steadiness, and HGS [...] Read more.
Background: Maximal handgrip strength (HGS) could be an incomplete and unidimensional measure of muscle function. This pilot study sought to examine the relationships between maximal HGS, radial and ulnar digit grip strength, submaximal HGS force control, HGS fatigability, neuromuscular HGS steadiness, and HGS asymmetry in older adults. Methods: A digital handgrip dynamometer and accelerometer was used to collect several HGS measurements from 13 adults aged 70.9 ± 4.0 years: maximal strength, radial and ulnar digit grip strength, submaximal force control, fatigability, neuromuscular steadiness, and asymmetry. Pearson correlations determined the relationships between individual HGS measurements. A principal component analysis was used to derive a collection of new uncorrelated variables from the HGS measures we examined. Results: The individual HGS measurements were differentially correlated. Maximal strength (maximal HGS, radial digit strength, ulnar digits strength), contractile steadiness (maximal HGS steadiness, ulnar digit grip strength steadiness), and functional strength (submaximal HGS force control, HGS fatigability, HGS asymmetry, HGS fatigability steadiness) emerged as dimensions from the HGS measurements that we evaluated. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these additional measures of muscle function may differ from maximal HGS alone. Continued research is warranted for improving how we assess muscle function with more modern technologies, including handgrip dynamometry and accelerometry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Multi-Morbidity and Polypharmacy in Older People: Challenges and Opportunities for Clinical Practice
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040085 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Multi-morbidity and polypharmacy are common in older people and pose a challenge for health and social care systems, especially in the context of global population ageing. They are complex and interrelated concepts in the care of older people that require early detection and [...] Read more.
Multi-morbidity and polypharmacy are common in older people and pose a challenge for health and social care systems, especially in the context of global population ageing. They are complex and interrelated concepts in the care of older people that require early detection and patient-centred shared decision making underpinned by multi-disciplinary team-led comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) across all health and social care settings. Personalised care plans need to remain responsive and adaptable to the needs and wishes of the patient, enabling the individual to maintain their independence. In this review, we aim to give an up-to-date account of the recognition and management of multi-morbidity and polypharmacy in the older person. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Global Cognitive Impairment Prevalence and Incidence in Community Dwelling Older Adults—A Systematic Review
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040084 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 277
Abstract
(1) Background: We proposed to review worldwide estimates of cognitive impairment prevalence and incidence in adults older than 50 years of age living in the community. (2) Methods: Systematic searches were performed in January 2019 using MEDLINE/PubMed. Articles were selected if they referred [...] Read more.
(1) Background: We proposed to review worldwide estimates of cognitive impairment prevalence and incidence in adults older than 50 years of age living in the community. (2) Methods: Systematic searches were performed in January 2019 using MEDLINE/PubMed. Articles were selected if they referred to cognitive impairment, prevalence, incidence, elders, and population or community-based studies. Analysis, aggregated by different methodologic features, was performed. (3) Results: Prevalence (80 studies) ranged between 5.1% and 41% with a median of 19.0% (25th percentile = 12.0%; 75th percentile = 24.90%). Incidence (11 studies) ranged from 22 to 76.8 per 1000 person-years with a median of 53.97 per 1000 person-years (25th percentile = 39.0; 75th percentile = 68.19). No statistically significant effects were found except for inclusion age. (4) Conclusion: We propose that the homogenization and clarification of the definition of what constitutes cognitive impairment are essential to refine the epidemiological understanding of this entity. The results of this review reinforce the importance of adherence to standardized cut-off scores for cognitive tests to promote study comparability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Lower Limb Strength Profile in Elderly with Different Pathologies: Comparisons with Healthy Subjects
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040083 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Sarcopenia and muscle strength reduction are a frequent disorder in non-communicable chronic diseases. The aims of this study are: (a) to verify if the absolute and relative to body weight muscle strength of lower limb is affected by the presence of pathology; (b) [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia and muscle strength reduction are a frequent disorder in non-communicable chronic diseases. The aims of this study are: (a) to verify if the absolute and relative to body weight muscle strength of lower limb is affected by the presence of pathology; (b) to verify if the trends are different among knee and ankles joints. One-hundred and forty-five elderly were recruited (16 liver transplant recipients, 48 kidney transplant recipients, 52 elderly with obesity, 30 healthy elderly). Muscular strength of lower limb was evaluated. Evaluation protocol included maximal isometric knee extension, maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion, maximal isokinetic ankle (both right and left) extension and flexion. A statistically significant interaction between measurement and group membership was found for absolute strength measure (F (4.23, 170.56) = 3.316, p = 0.011, partial η2 (η2p) = 0.076), and relative strength measure(F (4.44, 174.72) = 16.407, p < 0.01, partial η2 (η2p) = 0.294). Elderly patients living with kidney transplants showed the lower level of absolute muscular strength, while relative muscular strength is mainly lacking in the elderly with obesity. The strength profile of elderly subjects is affected by obesity, liver transplantation, and kidney transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Is IDDSI an Evidence-Based Framework? A Relevant Question for the Frail Older Population
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040082 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 694
Abstract
To delay impacts of aging, optimal nutritional status is essential. Several factors can reduce food intake, such as isolation, income, and cognitive/physical decline. Additionally, chewing and swallowing difficulties, or dysphagia, often disrupt the ability to consume life-long favorite dishes. Food and liquids could [...] Read more.
To delay impacts of aging, optimal nutritional status is essential. Several factors can reduce food intake, such as isolation, income, and cognitive/physical decline. Additionally, chewing and swallowing difficulties, or dysphagia, often disrupt the ability to consume life-long favorite dishes. Food and liquids could require modification of texture or consistency to ensure a comfortable or safe swallow. The food industry, foodservices facilities, and caregivers need quality control benchmarks to provide adequate nourishment and meet these new feeding challenges. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) is proposing the IDDSI framework and testing methods to describe food used in nutritional care plans to circumvent dysphagia and improve communication among caregivers. This systematic review assesses the validity and reliability of the IDDSI testing methods using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN). Two publications presented content validity whereas 19 publications looked at construct validity or reliability for the IDDSI testing methods. One study was conducted in older adults presenting dysphagia. This review concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend the IDDSI testing methods. Further research, conducted with robust methodological design and reporting, is needed to develop and assess nutritious adapted food for frail older populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Combined HIV and Geriatrics Clinic for Older People Living with HIV: The Silver Clinic in Brighton, UK
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040081 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
As life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased, the focus of management has shifted to preventing and treating chronic illnesses, but few services exist for the assessment and management of these individuals. Here, we provide an initial description of a [...] Read more.
As life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased, the focus of management has shifted to preventing and treating chronic illnesses, but few services exist for the assessment and management of these individuals. Here, we provide an initial description of a geriatric service for people living with HIV and present data from a service evaluation undertaken in the clinic. We conducted an evaluation of the first 52 patients seen in the clinic between 2016 and 2019. We present patient demographic data, assessment outcomes, diagnoses given, and interventions delivered to those seen in the clinic. The average age of attendees was 67. Primary reasons for referral to the clinic included management of complex comorbidities, polypharmacy, and suspected geriatric syndrome (falls, frailty, poor mobility, or cognitive decline). The median (range) number of comorbidities and comedications (non-antiretrovirals) was 7 (2–19) and 9 (1–15), respectively. All attendees had an undetectable viral load. Geriatric syndromes were observed in 26 (50%) patients reviewed in the clinic, with frailty and mental health disease being the most common syndromes. Interventions offered to patients included combination antiretroviral therapy modification, further health investigations, signposting to rehabilitation or social care services, and in-clinic advice. High levels of acceptability among patients and healthcare professionals were reported. The evaluation suggests that specialist geriatric HIV services might play a role in the management of older people with HIV with geriatric syndromes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Age-Related Diseases and Driving Safety
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040080 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Due to demographic changes, the number of older drivers is steadily increasing. Mobility is highly relevant for leading an independent life in the elderly. It largely depends on car driving, which is a complex task requiring a multitude of cognitive and motor skills [...] Read more.
Due to demographic changes, the number of older drivers is steadily increasing. Mobility is highly relevant for leading an independent life in the elderly. It largely depends on car driving, which is a complex task requiring a multitude of cognitive and motor skills vulnerable to age- related functional deterioration. The almost inevitable effects of senescence may be potentiated by age-related diseases, such as stroke or diabetes mellitus. Respective pharmacological treatment may cause side effects, additionally affecting driving safety. The present article reviews the impact of age-related diseases and drug treatment of these conditions on driving fitness in elderly drivers. In essence, we focus on diseases of the visual and auditory systems, diseases of the central nervous system (i.e., stroke, depression, dementia and mild cognitive disorder, and Parkinson’s disease), sleep disorders, as well as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, and frailty. We will outline the role of functional tests and the assessment of driving behavior (by a driving simulator or in real traffic), as well as the clinical interview including questions about frequency of (near) accidents, etc. in the evaluation of driving fitness of the elderly. We also address the impact of polypharmacy on driving fitness and end up with recommendations for physicians caring for older patients. Full article
Open AccessDiscussion
Looking for the “Little Things”: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Medicines Monitoring for Older People Using the ADRe Resource
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040079 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 500
Abstract
Advances in medicines have increased the effectiveness of treatments and the social and cultural authority of doctors. However, as prescribing has become the dominant modality of treatment, the “pharmaceuticalization” of medical practice has often resulted in treatment “at a distance”, with doctors having [...] Read more.
Advances in medicines have increased the effectiveness of treatments and the social and cultural authority of doctors. However, as prescribing has become the dominant modality of treatment, the “pharmaceuticalization” of medical practice has often resulted in treatment “at a distance”, with doctors having limited contact with patients. Older and poorer people, who are socially distanced from medical prescribers, suffer more adverse drug reactions (ADRs) than the general population. A team approach to checking patients systematically for ADRs, as detailed in manufacturers’ literature, can minimise medication errors, but regular review is rare. This paper explains the benefits of medicines monitoring to protect older patients from iatrogenic harm, such as over-sedation, falls, or drug-induced Parkinsonism. We show how multidisciplinary initiatives to optimise prescribing can be supported by using a recognised resource—the adverse drug reaction profile (ADRe). The profile identifies and documents patients’ signs and symptoms of putative ADRs. Better monitoring allows professionals to adjust prescribing and respond to identified problems with agility. Implementation of systematic monitoring will require changes to the regulatory regime and better inter-professional cooperation. Providing carers, nurses and pharmacists with a structured system to monitor patients would democratise relevant medical knowledge and help address ageism and the socio-economic health divide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Geriatrics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Daily Medical Liaison Is Associated with Reduced Length of Stay and Complications in Selected Patients Admitted to a Regional Vascular Surgery Service
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040078 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Older adults undergoing vascular surgery are particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes by virtue of their vascular risk factors and medical comorbidities. This study aimed to determine the impact of daily medical liaison for patients aged 65 years and older admitted to a regional [...] Read more.
Older adults undergoing vascular surgery are particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes by virtue of their vascular risk factors and medical comorbidities. This study aimed to determine the impact of daily medical liaison for patients aged 65 years and older admitted to a regional vascular surgery centre. This was a descriptive before-and-after study concerning 375 patients. The primary outcome measure was length of stay (LOS). Following intervention, we identified a reduction in mean LOS in the sample from 10.75 to 7.95 days (p = 0.635, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0–5 days) with a statistically significant reduction in mean LOS for “stranded” patients admitted for more than seven days (mean 7.84 days reduction, p = 0.025, 95% CI for mean difference, 1.5 to 14 days). These patients did not display elevated 30-day readmission rates (12/60 to 8/72, p = 0.156, 95% CI −3% to 21%). A non-significant reduction in postoperative complications was seen in all patients in the post-intervention cohort (1.09 to 0.86 per person, p = 0.181, 95% CI −0.11 to 0.56), reaching statistical significance in emergency vascular admissions (1.81 to 0.97 complications per person, p = 0.01, mean difference = 0.84, 95% CI 0.21–1.46). This study demonstrated reduced LOS and complications in selected older patients admitted under vascular surgery after the introduction of a daily medical liaison model. These data are amongst the first to reproduce randomised controlled trial findings in a non-trial setting. Subgroup analysis indicates that patients admitted with acute pathology and those with long LOS may benefit most from medical liaison where resources are finite. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Validity of the GAITRite Walkway Compared to Functional Balance Tests for Fall Risk Assessment in Geriatric Outpatients
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040077 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 430
Abstract
This study examined the concurrent validity between gait parameters from the GAITRite walkway and functional balance test commonly used in fall risk assessment. Patients were sampled from one geriatric outpatient clinic. One physiotherapist evaluated the patients on the GAITRite walkway with three repetitions [...] Read more.
This study examined the concurrent validity between gait parameters from the GAITRite walkway and functional balance test commonly used in fall risk assessment. Patients were sampled from one geriatric outpatient clinic. One physiotherapist evaluated the patients on the GAITRite walkway with three repetitions in both single- and dual-task conditions. Patients were further evaluated with Bergs Balance scale (BBS), Dynamic Gait index (DGI), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Sit To Stand test (STS). Correlations between quantitative gait parameters and functional balance test were analyzed with Spearman’s rank correlations. Correlations strength was considered as follows: negligible <0.1, weak 0.10–0.39, moderate 0.40–0.69, and strong ≥0.70. We included 24 geriatric outpatients in the study with a mean age of 80.6 years (SD: 5.9). Patients received eight (SD: 4.5) different medications on average, and seven (29.2%) patients used walkers during ambulation. Correlations between quantitative gait parameters and functional balance test ranged from weak to moderate in both single- and dual-task conditions. Moderate correlations were observed for DGI, TUG, and BBS, while STS showed weak correlations with all GAITRite parameters. For outpatients analyzed on the GAITRite while using walkers, correlations showed no clear pattern across parameters with large variation within balance tests. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Age-Related Male Hypogonadism and Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: Focus on the Effects of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Cognition
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040076 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Background. Epidemiological data report that male hypogonadism may play a role in cognitive impairment in elderly. However, the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cognitive abilities in this cluster of patients has not been well established. Methods. PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, [...] Read more.
Background. Epidemiological data report that male hypogonadism may play a role in cognitive impairment in elderly. However, the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cognitive abilities in this cluster of patients has not been well established. Methods. PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched by using free text words and medical subject headings terms related with “male hypogonadism”, “late-onset hypogonadism”, elderly, cognition, “mild cognitive impairment”, memory, “testosterone replacement therapy” used in various combinations according to the specific clinical questions. Original articles, reviews, and randomized controlled trials written in English were selected. Results. A long-term TRT could improve specific cognitive functions, such as verbal and spatial memory, cognitive flexibility, and physical vitality. However, randomized controlled trials do not provide positive results, and in most of the cases TRT might not induce beneficial effects on cognitive function in elderly men. Discussion and conclusions. Since the lengthening of life expectancy, the prevalence rate of cognitive decline in elderly men is expected to increase remarkably over the next decade with considerable healthcare and economical concerns. Therefore, this remains a relevant clinical topic and further investigations are needed for clarifying the role of TRT especially in elderly men with hypogonadism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorder)
Open AccessArticle
Systematic Dysphagia Screening of Elderly Persons in the Emergency Department—A Feasibility Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040075 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Identification of elderly patients in risk of dysphagia as early as possible upon hospital admission seems warranted due to the risk of aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, length of stay, and increased mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of dysphagia screening [...] Read more.
Identification of elderly patients in risk of dysphagia as early as possible upon hospital admission seems warranted due to the risk of aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, length of stay, and increased mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of dysphagia screening of elderly persons admitted to the emergency department (ED). Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 60 years. A nurse applied the Simple Water Swallow test within one hour of admission. Subsequent assessment was performed by an occupational therapist (OT) using Volume Viscosity Swallow Test and Minimal Eating Observation Form. Of 113 eligible participants (median age 78 years), 75 (66%) were screened in the ED by the nurse, and among those, 12 (16%) were detected with dysphagia. Twenty of the patients not screened in the ED due to critical illness were tested by the OT in the ward after clinical stabilization and 15 patients (75%) were identified with dysphagia. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to perform dysphagia screening of elderly persons by a nurse in the ED, but there are severe limitations according to screening patients with critical illness and patients fasting before surgery in the ED. These patients have a high prevalence of dysphagia and should be screened as early as possible after hospitalization, as it will rarely be possible in the ED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Is Promotion of Mobility in Older Patients Hospitalized for Medical Illness a Physician’s Job?—An Interview Study with Physicians in Denmark
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040074 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 506
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the most common barriers and facilitators physicians perceive regarding their role in the promotion of mobility in older adults hospitalized for medical illness as part of on an intervention to promote mobility. Twelve physicians at [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the most common barriers and facilitators physicians perceive regarding their role in the promotion of mobility in older adults hospitalized for medical illness as part of on an intervention to promote mobility. Twelve physicians at two medical departments were interviewed face-to-face using semi-structed interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. The physicians’ perceived barriers to promoting mobility were: the patients being too ill, the department’s interior does not fit with mobility, a culture of bedrest, mobility not being part their job, lack of time and resources and unwillingness to accept an extra workload. The facilitators for encouraging mobility were enhanced cross-professional cooperation focusing on mobility, physician encouragement of mobility and patient independence in e.g., picking up beverages and clothes. The identified barriers and facilitators reflected both individual and social influences on physicians’ behaviors to achieve increased mobility in hospitalized older medical patients and suggest that targeting multiple levels is necessary to influence physicians’ propensity to promote mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rehabilitation)
Open AccessCase Report
Revision of Acetabular Component with a Debonded Porous Coating in an Elderly Patient
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040073 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Debonding of the porous coating from the acetabular component of a total hip endoprosthesis is a rare complication. Revision total hip arthroplasty for an unstable acetabular component with a debonded porous coating strongly fixed to the bone can be challenging, especially in elderly [...] Read more.
Debonding of the porous coating from the acetabular component of a total hip endoprosthesis is a rare complication. Revision total hip arthroplasty for an unstable acetabular component with a debonded porous coating strongly fixed to the bone can be challenging, especially in elderly patients of poor overall health. In such patients, revision procedures should be as simple and safe as possible. We present our technique of solving that problem in a case of an 82-year-old female with bad general condition and unstable acetabular component of hip endoprosthesis. Because of extremely deficient bone stock, a well-fixed porous coating was left in acetabulum to serve as a “cage“, allowing cemented acetabular component placement. This procedure can reduce the risk of intraoperative bone fracture, blood loss, and duration of surgery, which is important in elderly patients with poor overall health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Teaching Geriatrics and Transitions of Care to Internal Medicine Resident Physicians
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040072 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
(1) Background: Internal medicine (IM) resident physicians need to be trained to care for older adults and transition them safely across care settings. Objective: The study purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of a curriculum in geriatrics assessment and communication skills for transitions [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Internal medicine (IM) resident physicians need to be trained to care for older adults and transition them safely across care settings. Objective: The study purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of a curriculum in geriatrics assessment and communication skills for transitions of care (TOCs) to IM resident physicians. (2) Methods: IM residents rotated for 4 weeks on the geriatrics consult service at a large public teaching hospital, where they received didactic lectures and clinical experience in consultation and transitional care. The curriculum was designed to meet consensus guidelines for minimum geriatrics competencies expected of IM residents. Previously validated and published assessment tools were used for geriatrics knowledge and attitudes. Locally developed tools were used to directly observe and rate communication skills, and self-assess geriatrics assessment and health literacy skills. The curriculum was evaluated using a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized, single-group pre- and post-test observational design. Data on 31 subjects were collected over 18 months and analyzed using mixed-effects models. (3) Results: Average knowledge scores improved from 65% to 74% (Δ9%, 95% CI 4–13%, p < 0.001). Communication skills improved by an average of 1.15 points (95% CI 0.66–1.64, p < 0.001) on a 9-point scale. Attitudes did not change significantly. Self-rated confidence in geriatrics assessment and health literacy skills improved modestly. (4) Conclusions: The curriculum is effective in teaching basic geriatrics knowledge and communication skills, and increasing self-confidence in geriatrics assessment skills. In settings where an inpatient geriatrics consult service is feasible, the curriculum may be a model for combining geriatrics and TOC training. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors for Mortality in Nursing Home Residents: An Observational Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040071 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Purpose: Identifying mortality risk factors in people living in nursing homes could help healthcare professionals to individualize or develop specific plans for predicting future care demands and plan end-of-life care in this population. This study aims to identify mortality risk factors in elderly [...] Read more.
Purpose: Identifying mortality risk factors in people living in nursing homes could help healthcare professionals to individualize or develop specific plans for predicting future care demands and plan end-of-life care in this population. This study aims to identify mortality risk factors in elderly nursing home (NH) residents, based on variables adapted to this environment, routinely collected and easily accessible to their healthcare professionals. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal, observational study of NH residents aged 65 years and older was carried out collecting sociodemographic, functional and cognitive status, nutritional variables, comorbidities, and other health variables. These variables were analyzed as mortality risk factors by Cox proportional hazard models. Results: A total of 531 residents (75.3% female; average age 86.7 years (SD: 6.6)) were included: 25.6% had total dependence, 53.4% had moderate to severe cognitive impairment, 84.5% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 79.9% were polymedicated. Risk of mortality (hazard ratio, HR) increased in totally dependent residents (HR = 1.52; p = 0.02) and in those with moderate or severe cognitive impairment ((HR = 1.59; p = 0.031) and (HR = 1.93; p = 0.002), respectively). Male gender (HR = 1.88; p < 0.001), age ≥80 years (HR = 1.73; p = 0.034), hypertension (HR = 1.53; p = 0.012), atrial fibrillation/arrhythmia (HR = 1.43; p = 0.048), and previous record of pneumonia (HR = 1.65; p = 0.029) were also found to be mortality drivers. Conclusion: Age and male gender (due to the higher prevalence of associated comorbidity in these two variables), certain comorbidities (hypertension, atrial fibrillation/arrhythmia, and pneumonia), higher functional and cognitive impairment, and frequency of medical emergency service care increased the risk of mortality in our study. Given their importance and their easy identification by healthcare professionals in nursing homes, these clinical variables should be used for planning care in institutionalized older adults. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Protein Ingredient in Saliva on Oral Dryness Patients Caused by Calcium Blocker
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040070 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Oral dryness as a side effect of certain drugs is increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the change of the protein ingredient in saliva of oral dryness patients caused by calcium blocker. Six patients taking calcium blocker and six healthy [...] Read more.
Oral dryness as a side effect of certain drugs is increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the change of the protein ingredient in saliva of oral dryness patients caused by calcium blocker. Six patients taking calcium blocker and six healthy elderly were enrolled. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, protein concentration, and flow rate of protein were measured and compared between the patients taking calcium blocker and healthy elderly. iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation) proteomic analysis was performed to extract the salivary protein changed in patient taking calcium blocker, and the intensities of Western blotting products were quantified (unpaired t-test). Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower on patients taking calcium blocker (p < 0.01). Protein concentration tended to be higher and the flow rate of protein tended to be lower on patients. As the result of iTRAQ proteomic analysis, calmodulin-like protein 3, glutathione S-transferase P, and keratin type I cytoskeletal 13 increased characteristically in patient taking calcium blocker, and the expression in calmodulin-like protein 3 was significantly larger (p < 0.01). The results of this study indicated that calmodulin-like protein 3 increased in patients taking calcium blocker and could be a salivary biomarker for oral dryness caused by calcium blocker. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Preoperative Cognitive Impairment and Postoperative Delirium Predict Decline in Activities of Daily Living after Cardiac Surgery—A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040069 - 03 Oct 2020
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Cardiac surgery and subsequent treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been shown to be associated with functional decline, especially in elderly patients. Due to the different assessment tools and assessment periods, it remains yet unclear what parameters determine unfavorable outcomes. This [...] Read more.
Cardiac surgery and subsequent treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been shown to be associated with functional decline, especially in elderly patients. Due to the different assessment tools and assessment periods, it remains yet unclear what parameters determine unfavorable outcomes. This study sought to identify risk factors during the entire perioperative period and focused on the decline in activity of daily living (ADL) half a year after cardiac surgery. Follow-ups of 125 patients were available. It was found that in the majority of patients (60%), the mean ADL declined by 4.9 points (95% CI, −6.4 to −3.5; p < 0.000). In the “No decline” -group, the ADL rose by 3.3 points (2.0 to 4.6; p < 0.001). A multiple regression analysis revealed that preoperative cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤ 26; Exp(B) 2.862 (95%CI, 1.192–6.872); p = 0.019) and duration of postoperative delirium ≥ 2 days (Exp(B) 3.534 (1.094–11.411); p = 0.035) was independently associated with ADL decline half a year after the operation and ICU. Of note, preoperative ADL per se was neither associated with baseline cognitive function nor a risk factor for functional decline. We conclude that the preoperative assessment of cognitive function, rather than functional assessments, should be part of risk stratification when planning complex cardiosurgical procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delirium in Older People)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop