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Geriatrics, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 20 articles

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Use of GPS for Older Adults to Decrease Driving Risk: Perceptions from Users and Non-Users
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030060 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 103
Abstract
Community mobility is important for social participation and quality of life. Thus, it is important to sustain older adults in their communities by supporting their ability to drive as long as possible. Use of global positioning system (GPS) technology may provide such support. [...] Read more.
Community mobility is important for social participation and quality of life. Thus, it is important to sustain older adults in their communities by supporting their ability to drive as long as possible. Use of global positioning system (GPS) technology may provide such support. This descriptive study examined 89 healthy community older adults’ perspective on using and programming a GPS after using it for wayfinding to unfamiliar destinations. Participants were equally divided between two age groups (60s, 70s) and familiarity with GPS (familiar, unfamiliar). The results showed age differences in problems following GPS directions and those who were familiar found it significantly easier to use. The majority of the unfamiliar group indicated an increased interest in using GPS and were significantly more interested in training to use a GPS. Preference for learning how to use a GPS included in-person delivery and practice with troubleshooting, using the menus and changing routes as topics critical for training. The implications of these results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Driving: 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of Using Strength Measures, Including Peak Inspiratory Flow, for Routine Monitoring in Case Management Patients Aged 65 and Over
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030059 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 181
Abstract
Peak inspiratory flow (PIF) is a portable, relatively new method for measuring respiratory function and indirect muscle strength; the feasibility of its routine clinical measurement is unknown. To investigate the acceptability, reliability and short-term stability of PIF, alongside the established measures of peak [...] Read more.
Peak inspiratory flow (PIF) is a portable, relatively new method for measuring respiratory function and indirect muscle strength; the feasibility of its routine clinical measurement is unknown. To investigate the acceptability, reliability and short-term stability of PIF, alongside the established measures of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and grip strength in community dwelling case management patients. Patients were tested in a sitting position, initially on two occasions, one week apart; seven patients having repeated measures taken on a further four occasions over a seven-week period. The best of three attempts for all measures were recorded. Reliability was tested using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and Bland–Altman analysis. Eight patients aged 69–91 years (mean age 81.5 ± 7.7 years; 5 males) participated. For between-day reliability using the first two time points, one week apart the ICCs (3,1) were 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99 for PIF, PEF and grip strength respectively; using all five time points resulted in ICCs of 0.92, 0.99 and 0.99 respectively. Bland–Altman plots also illustrated a good level of agreement across days. Feedback on the acceptability of the measures was gathered from patients. PIF, PEF and grip strength showed excellent reliability and acceptability. Whilst excellent reliability was observed over the seven-week period, the occurrence of clinically significant symptoms and adverse events in the presence of unchanging PIF, PEF and grip strength, suggests that the measures may not be suitable to identify patients with multiple health conditions entering a period of acute decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rehabilitation)
Open AccessBrief Report
The Clinical Frailty Scale: Estimating the Prevalence of Frailty in Older Patients Hospitalised with COVID-19. The COPE Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030058 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Frailty assessed using Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is a good predictor of adverse clinical events including mortality in older people. CFS is also an essential criterion for determining ceilings of care in people with COVID-19. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of [...] Read more.
Frailty assessed using Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is a good predictor of adverse clinical events including mortality in older people. CFS is also an essential criterion for determining ceilings of care in people with COVID-19. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of frailty in older patients hospitalised with COVID-19, their sex and age distribution, and the completion rate of the CFS tool in evaluating frailty. Methods: Data were collected from thirteen sites. CFS was assessed routinely at the time of admission to hospital and ranged from 1 (very fit) to 9 (terminally ill). The completion rate of the CFS was assessed. The presence of major comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease was noted. Results: A total of 1277 older patients with COVID-19, aged ≥ 65 (79.9 ± 8.1) years were included in the study, with 98.5% having fully completed CFS. The total prevalence of frailty (CFS ≥ 5) was 66.9%, being higher in women than men (75.2% vs. 59.4%, p < 0.001). Frailty was found in 161 (44%) patients aged 65–74 years, 352 (69%) in 75–84 years, and 341 (85%) in ≥85 years groups, and increased across the age groups (<0.0001, test for trend). Conclusion: Frailty was prevalent in our cohort of older people admitted to hospital with COVID-19. This indicates that older people who are also frail, who go on to contract COVID-19 may have disease severity significant enough to warrant hospitalization. These data may help inform health care planners and targeted interventions and appropriate management for the frail older person. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infections in the Elderly)
Open AccessCase Report
The Art of Safe and Judicious Deprescribing in an Elderly Patient: A Case Report
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030057 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 126
Abstract
Prescription for inappropriate drugs can be dangerous to the elderly due to the increased risk of adverse drug reactions and drug-interactions. In this manuscript, we report the complexity of polypharmacy and the possible harmful consequences in an old person. An 81-year-old man with [...] Read more.
Prescription for inappropriate drugs can be dangerous to the elderly due to the increased risk of adverse drug reactions and drug-interactions. In this manuscript, we report the complexity of polypharmacy and the possible harmful consequences in an old person. An 81-year-old man with a clinical history of diabetes, blood hypertension, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis, anxiety, and depression, was admitted to our attention for cognitive disorders and dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed parenchymal atrophy with lacunar state involving thalami and internal capsules. Neuropsychological tests revealed cognitive impairment and a depressed mood. History revealed that he was taking 11 different drug severy day with a potential risk of 55 drug–drug interactions. Therefore, risperidone, chlorpromazine, N-demethyl-diazepam, and L-DOPA/carbidopa were gradually discontinued and citicoline (1g/day), cholecalciferol (50,000 IU once a week), and escitalopram (5 mg/day) were started. Furthermore, he started a program of home rehabilitation. During the follow-up, three months later, we recorded an improvement in both mood and cognitive tests, as well as in walking ability. The present case report shows the need for a wise prescription and deprescribing in older people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures in CTPA’s in Adults Aged 75 and Older and Their Association with Subsequent Fractures and Mortality
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030056 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 145
Abstract
Identifying vertebral fractures is prudent in the management of osteoporosis and the current literature suggests that less than one-third of incidental vertebral fractures are reported. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of reported and unreported vertebral fractures in computerized [...] Read more.
Identifying vertebral fractures is prudent in the management of osteoporosis and the current literature suggests that less than one-third of incidental vertebral fractures are reported. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of reported and unreported vertebral fractures in computerized tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA) and their relevance to clinical outcomes. All acutely unwell patients aged 75 or older who underwent CTPAs were reviewed retrospectively. 179 CTPAs were reviewed to identify any unreported vertebral fractures. A total of 161 were included for further analysis. Of which, 14.3% (23/161) were reported to have a vertebral fracture, however, only 8.7% (14/161) of reports used the correct terminology of ‘fracture’. On subsequent review, an additional 19.3% (31/161) were noted to have vertebral fractures. Therefore, the overall prevalence of vertebral fractures was 33.5% (54/161). A total of 22.2% (12/54) of patients with a vertebral fracture on CTPA sustained a new fragility fracture during the follow-up period (4.5 years). In comparison, a significantly lower 10.3% (11/107) of patients without a vertebral fracture developed a subsequent fragility fracture during the same period (p = 0.04). Overall mortality during the follow-up period was significantly higher for patients with vertebral fractures (68.5%, 37/54) as compared to those without (45.8%, 49/107, p = 0.006). Vertebral fractures within the elderly population are underreported on CTPAs. The significance of detecting incidental vertebral fractures is clear given the increased rates of subsequent fractures and mortality. Radiologists and physicians alike must be made aware of the importance of identifying and treating incidental, vertebral fragility fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Habits of Older Australians Living Alone in the Australian Capital Territory
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030055 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 249
Abstract
The link between adequate nutrition and quality of life for older persons is well established. With the proportion of older adults increasing, policy regarding support and care for the ageing has shifted emphasis to keeping older adults in their homes for as long [...] Read more.
The link between adequate nutrition and quality of life for older persons is well established. With the proportion of older adults increasing, policy regarding support and care for the ageing has shifted emphasis to keeping older adults in their homes for as long as possible. Risk of malnutrition is an issue of importance for this population and, while this risk is well researched within the hospital setting, it is still relatively under-researched within the community-dwelling elderly, particularly with respect to the lived experience. This qualitative study (underpinned by interpretative phenomenology philosophy) explores how the lived experiences of community-dwelling older people living in one-person households in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) influences dietary patterns, food choices and perceptions about food availability. Using purposeful and snowballing sampling, older people (65 years and over) living alone in the community participated in focus group discussions triangulated with their family/carers. Data were thematically analysed using a previously established approach. Participants (n = 22) were interviewed in three focus groups. Three themes were identified: active and meaningful community connectedness; eating well and behaviours to promote dietary resilience. Of these, community connectedness was pivotal in driving food patterns and choices and was a central component influencing behaviours to eating well and maintaining dietary resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Persons)
Open AccessArticle
Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) among Patients at a Movement Disorders Center
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030054 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
It is not established whether SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients with movement disorders, are at greater risk for more serious outcomes than the larger COVID-19 population beyond the susceptibility associated with greater age. We reviewed electronic health records and conducted telephone interviews to collect the [...] Read more.
It is not established whether SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients with movement disorders, are at greater risk for more serious outcomes than the larger COVID-19 population beyond the susceptibility associated with greater age. We reviewed electronic health records and conducted telephone interviews to collect the demographics and clinical outcomes of patients seen at our Movement Disorders Center who tested positive for COVID-19 from 8 March 2020 through 6 June 2020. Thirty-six patients were identified, 23 men and 13 women, median age of 74.5 years. They primarily carried diagnoses of idiopathic Parkinson disease (n = 22; 61%) and atypical parkinsonism (n = 7; 19%) with the balance having other diagnoses. Twenty-seven patients (75%) exhibited alteration in mental status and fifteen (42%) had abnormalities of movement as common manifestations of COVID-19; in 61% and 31%, respectively, these were the presenting symptoms of the disease. Sixty-seven percent of patients in our cohort required hospitalization, and the mortality rate was 36%. These data demonstrate that in patients with movement disorders, the likelihood of hospitalization and death after contracting COVID-19 was greater than in the general population. Patients with movement disorders frequently presented with altered mental status, generalized weakness, or worsening mobility but not anosmia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Neurology)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Effects of Visual and Auditory Distractions on Fistula Cannulation Pain among Older Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030053 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Pain associated with fistula cannulation is a challenge for nurses who provide care to older patients undergoing hemodialysis. Several non-pharmacological methods have been suggested for relieving fistula cannulation pain, but the benefits of visual and auditory distraction methods among older patients undergoing hemodialysis [...] Read more.
Pain associated with fistula cannulation is a challenge for nurses who provide care to older patients undergoing hemodialysis. Several non-pharmacological methods have been suggested for relieving fistula cannulation pain, but the benefits of visual and auditory distraction methods among older patients undergoing hemodialysis have not been investigated yet. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of visual and auditory distractions on fistula cannulation pain among older patients undergoing hemodialysis. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 120 older patients undergoing hemodialysis. They were randomly assigned to three groups of visual distraction, auditory distraction, and the control (n = 40 in each group) using a simple random assignment method. The distraction interventions continued for three consecutive sessions and the numeric rating scale of pain severity was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis using SPSS. It was found that pain severity significantly reduced after the distraction interventions in either the auditory or visual distraction groups and also after all three distraction sessions (p = 0.001). However, visual distraction had a better effect on the reduction of pain severity. Therefore, while both visual and auditory distractions reduced pain severity in older patients undergoing hemodialysis, visual distraction was more effective. Nurses are encouraged to incorporate visual distraction as a safe and non-pharmacologic technique into routine nursing care for reducing older patients’ suffering and improving their wellbeing when fistula cannulation is performed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Swallowing and Eating Difficulties in an Elderly Postoperative Hip Fracture Population—A Multi-Center-Based Pilot Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030052 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Elderly patients operated for hip fracture are characterized by high age and high degree of comorbidity and need of care, factors previously found to be associated with swallowing and eating difficulties. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of swallowing [...] Read more.
Elderly patients operated for hip fracture are characterized by high age and high degree of comorbidity and need of care, factors previously found to be associated with swallowing and eating difficulties. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of swallowing and eating difficulties in an elderly postoperative hip fracture population and to identify factors associated with swallowing and eating difficulties. A cross-sectional multi-center pilot study was performed, including patients ≥65 years, operated for hip fracture, and able to participate in a swallowing and eating assessment. A clinical assessment was conducted using Danish versions of the standardized tools Volume-Viscosity Swallow Test and Minimal Eating Observation Form-version II. Demographic data and clinical characteristics were examined. A total of 78 patients (mean age 81.4 years (SD 7.8), 30.8% male) were included. Swallowing and eating difficulties were present in 60 patients (77%). Swallowing and eating difficulties were significantly associated with living in a nursing home before hospital admission (p = 0.014), low habitual New Mobility Score (p = 0.018), and absence of cardiac comorbidity (p = 0.023). The results underline the importance of focusing on swallowing and eating difficulties in elderly patients operated for hip fracture to ensure effectivity and safety and optimize the prognosis for the patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Pneumonia: Does Age or Gender Relate to the Presence of an SLP Dysphagia Consultation?
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030051 - 14 Sep 2020
Viewed by 225
Abstract
A retrospective study of 1489 hospital records examined the relationship of speech-language pathologist (SLP) consults for dysphagia to age and gender in pneumonia patients from an acute care setting. Age and gender disparities exist in healthcare. The research sought to determine if disparities [...] Read more.
A retrospective study of 1489 hospital records examined the relationship of speech-language pathologist (SLP) consults for dysphagia to age and gender in pneumonia patients from an acute care setting. Age and gender disparities exist in healthcare. The research sought to determine if disparities existed in the presence/absence of SLP dysphagia consults related to age and gender. Results suggested SLPs were consulted on a greater percentage of geriatric patients overall; however, there were differences in the number of consults for each pneumonia type. More males and geriatric patients were seen than females and non-geriatric adults, respectively. Results may be used to address local hospital policies and protocols and thus increase quality of care by improving morbidity and mortality outcomes of geriatric patients with pneumonia. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Training Hospitalists in Negotiations to Address Conflicts with Older Adults around Their Social Needs
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030050 - 14 Sep 2020
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Hospitalists care for a growing population of older patients with unique social needs that can often be addressed by providing caregiver help in the home. The importance of addressing social needs is well-recognized, yet older patients sometimes refuse these services. This refusal of [...] Read more.
Hospitalists care for a growing population of older patients with unique social needs that can often be addressed by providing caregiver help in the home. The importance of addressing social needs is well-recognized, yet older patients sometimes refuse these services. This refusal of services may result in rehospitalization and increased morbidity for patients. We aimed to overcome this refusal of social support through an innovative workshop training hospitalists in negotiation and dispute resolution. Hospitalists at a tertiary care, urban academic medical center completed a one-hour interactive workshop on negotiation and dispute resolution focused on addressing older patients’ refusal of social services. One month post workshop, participants reported increased confidence in engaging patients and families in conflicts and felt empowered to negotiate in both their clinical practice and personal lives. Training hospitalists to negotiate with older adults needing social services is feasible and positively impacts the ability to provide geriatric care. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Foreign Body Ingestion: A Curious Case of the Missing Denture
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030049 - 13 Sep 2020
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Foreign body ingestion is an under-recognized hazard in adults, especially in the elderly where it may lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. We present the case of an elderly patient who ingested her denture without any reported symptoms. After early recognition, endoscopic [...] Read more.
Foreign body ingestion is an under-recognized hazard in adults, especially in the elderly where it may lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. We present the case of an elderly patient who ingested her denture without any reported symptoms. After early recognition, endoscopic retrieval of the item was performed. We provide support for endoscopy as a safe and effective intervention for removing ingested foreign bodies in the geriatric population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Habitual Aerobic Exercise Diminishes the Effects of Sarcopenia in Senescence-Accelerated Mice Prone8 Model
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030048 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Loss of muscle mass and strength are progressing with aging. Exercise is a beneficial method to prevent physical dysfunction, and habitual exercise can improve the muscle quality. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term habitual exercise’s impact on sarcopenia utilizing the senescence-accelerated mice [...] Read more.
Loss of muscle mass and strength are progressing with aging. Exercise is a beneficial method to prevent physical dysfunction, and habitual exercise can improve the muscle quality. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term habitual exercise’s impact on sarcopenia utilizing the senescence-accelerated mice prone8 (SAMP8) model. Notably, 27 w SAMP8 were used in this study. Mice were classified into 28 (28 w) and 44 weeks old. The 44-week group was divided into the sedentary group (44 w) and a group exercising for 16 weeks (44 w + Ex). The 44 w + Ex performed habitual exercise from 28 to 44 weeks. Additionally, grip strength tests were performed with mice aged 28 and 44 weeks. Muscles were harvested and measured muscle weight at 44 w. Gastrocnemius decreased in 44 w, but was unchanged in 44 w + Ex. There was a trend for lower muscle grip strength in the 44 w group, but there was no change in 44 w + Ex. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70S6K as a protein synthesis marker were decreased in 44 w. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (CoxIV) mRNA and protein levels decreased in 44 w. These results suggested that long-term habitual exercise attenuates muscle mass and strength decline, possibly through maintenance of muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial maintenance. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Formula for the Cross-Sectional Area of the Muscles of the Third Lumbar Vertebra Level from the Twelfth Thoracic Vertebra Level Slice on Computed Tomography
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030047 - 05 Sep 2020
Viewed by 486
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate a means by which to reflect muscle mass using chest computed tomography (CT). A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients aged ≥ 65 years having abdominal and chest CT scans. The formula to predict third [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate a means by which to reflect muscle mass using chest computed tomography (CT). A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients aged ≥ 65 years having abdominal and chest CT scans. The formula to predict third lumbar vertebra (L3) cross-sectional area (CSA) of the muscles from the erector muscles of the spine at the twelfth thoracic vertebra (Th12) level slice on CT was created using the five-fold cross-validation method. Correlation between predicted L3 CSA and measured L3 CSA of the muscles was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and correlation coefficients (r) in the data of the development, and predictability was examined with accuracy and F-values in the validation study. The development study included 161 patients. The developed formula was as follows: −1006.38 + 16.29 × age + 1161.80 × sex (if female, 0; if male, 1) + 55.91 × body weight + 2.22 × CSA of the erector muscles at Th12. The formula demonstrated strong concordance and correlation (ICC = 0.849 [0.800–0.887] and r = 0.858 [0.811–0.894]). The validation study included 34 patients. The accuracy and F-value between predicted CSA and measured CSA were high (accuracy = 0.889–0.944, F-value = 0.931–0.968). We developed a formula predicting CSA at L3 using Th12 CT slice. This formula could be used to assess decreased muscle mass even with chest CT alone. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Periodontal Disease and Grip Strength among Older Adults
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030046 - 26 Aug 2020
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this research was to assess the association between periodontitis and grip strength among older American adults. Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011/2012 and 2013/2014 were used. Oral health status and hand grip strength were [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this research was to assess the association between periodontitis and grip strength among older American adults. Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011/2012 and 2013/2014 were used. Oral health status and hand grip strength were clinically assessed. Three outcome variables were used: (1) handgrip strength <30 kg for men, <20 kg for women; (2) handgrip strength <26 kg for men, <16 kg for women; and (3) mean maximum grip strength. The main exposure was the case definition of periodontitis. Logistic and linear regression models were constructed for grip strength definitions and the mean grip strength, respectively, adjusting for covariates. Results: The study included 1953 participants. The mean age was 68.5 years, and 47.2% were males. The prevalence of low grip strength (<30 kg for men, <20 kg for women) was 7.4% in men and 13.6% in women. Periodontitis was significantly associated with grip strength (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.27) in the unadjusted model. Periodontitis was also significantly associated with maximum grip strength (Coefficient 1.05, 95% CI −1.99, −0.09) in a model adjusted for age and gender. However, in all the fully adjusted models there was no statistically significant association between periodontitis and grip strength. Conclusion: Low grip strength appeared to be more common among persons with moderate/severe periodontitis. The observed association is probably attributed to older age and common risk factors for periodontitis and frailty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Basic Science)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Dysphagia: A Synergistic Review
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030045 - 24 Aug 2020
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading global cause of death and disability. The literature has previously established clear physiological characteristics of COPD-related dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). However, COPD and dysphagia are both also intimately tied to breathing and contribute to a cascade [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading global cause of death and disability. The literature has previously established clear physiological characteristics of COPD-related dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). However, COPD and dysphagia are both also intimately tied to breathing and contribute to a cascade of secondary physio-psycho-emotional sequalae, such as COPD exacerbation, anxiety, depression, increased economic burden, social isolation, and decreased quality of life. Further, the collective impact of these comorbidities may magnify disease impact, resulting in a downward spiral of well-being. Thus, the clinical relevance of COPD’s and dysphagia’s frequently occurring and overlapping sequelae cannot be overlooked, as the disease-related burden of both disorders is deeply rooted in the presence of concomitant physiological and psycho-emotional consequences. The current review explores the complex network of interactions between COPD, dysphagia, and their outcomes, framing this relationship within a mind-body-breath framework. Ultimately, we propose a model that more comprehensively captures the constellation of interrelated disease characteristics and consequences, highlighting a need for researchers and healthcare providers to consider disease impact more broadly in order to maximize treatment outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Treatment of Very Elderly Patients Six Weeks after Discharge from Geriatrics Department
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030044 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 579
Abstract
We assessed the prescriptions of patients hospitalized in a geriatric unit and subsequently discharged. This prospective and observational study was conducted over a two-month period in the geriatrics department (acute and rehabilitation units) of a university hospital. Patients discharged from this department were [...] Read more.
We assessed the prescriptions of patients hospitalized in a geriatric unit and subsequently discharged. This prospective and observational study was conducted over a two-month period in the geriatrics department (acute and rehabilitation units) of a university hospital. Patients discharged from this department were included over a two-month period. Prescriptions were analyzed at admission and discharge from the geriatrics department (DGD), and six weeks after DGD. We included 209 patients, 63% female, aged 86.8 years. The mean number of medications prescribed was significantly higher at DGD than at admission (7.8 vs. 7.1, p = 0.003). During hospitalization, 1217 prescriptions were changed (average 5.8 medications/patient): 52.8% were initiations, 39.3% were discontinuations, and 7.9% were dose adjustments. A total of 156 of the 209 patients initially enrolled completed the study. Among these patients, 81 (51.9%) had the same prescriptions six weeks after DGD. In univariate analysis, medications were changed more frequently in patients with cognitive impairment (p = 0.04) and in patients for whom the hospital report did not indicate in-hospital modifications (p = 0.007). Multivariate analysis found that six weeks after DGD, there were significantly more drug changes for patients for whom there were changes in prescription during hospitalization (p < 0.001). A total of 169 medications were changed (mean number of medications changed per patient: 1.1): 52.7% discontinuations, 34.3% initiations, and 13% dosage modifications. The drug regimens were often changed during hospitalization in the geriatrics department, and a majority of these changes were maintained six weeks after DGD. Improvements in patient adherence and hospital-general practitioner communication are necessary to promote continuity of care and to optimize patient supervision after hospital discharge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Postoperative Complications of Hip Fractures Patients on Chronic Coumadin: A Comparison Based on Operative International Normalized Ratio
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030043 - 15 Jul 2020
Viewed by 794
Abstract
In current clinical practice, orthopedic surgeons often delay the surgery intervention on geriatric hip fracture patients to optimize the international normalized ratio (INR), in order to decrease the risk of postoperative hematological complications. However, some evidence suggests that full reversal protocols may not [...] Read more.
In current clinical practice, orthopedic surgeons often delay the surgery intervention on geriatric hip fracture patients to optimize the international normalized ratio (INR), in order to decrease the risk of postoperative hematological complications. However, some evidence suggests that full reversal protocols may not be necessary, especially for patients with prior thromboembolic history. Our study aims to compare the surgical outcomes of patients with normal versus elevated INR values. We conducted a retrospective chart review on 217 patients who underwent surgeries on hip fractures at two academic trauma centers. We found that in our group (n = 124) of patients with an INR value of 1.5–3.0, there was only one reoperation for a hematoma, but there was a trend for more blood transfusions. There was no statistically significant difference in the odds of reoperation or overall complications. Nevertheless, there were significantly more events of postoperative anemia in this high INR patient group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation in the Aging Population)
Open AccessArticle
Characteristic Factors of Aspiration Pneumonia to Distinguish from Community-Acquired Pneumonia among Oldest-Old Patients in Primary-Care Settings of Japan
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030042 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 956
Abstract
Background: Aspiration pneumonia (AsP), a phenotype of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), is a common and problematic disease with symptomless recurrence and fatality in old adults. Characteristic factors for distinguishing AsP from CAP need to be determined to manage AsP. No such factorial markers in [...] Read more.
Background: Aspiration pneumonia (AsP), a phenotype of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), is a common and problematic disease with symptomless recurrence and fatality in old adults. Characteristic factors for distinguishing AsP from CAP need to be determined to manage AsP. No such factorial markers in oldest-old adults, who are often seen in the primary-care settings, have yet been established. Methods: From the database of our Primary Care and General Practice Study, including the general backgrounds, clinical conditions and laboratory findings collected by primary care physicians and general practitioners, the records of 130 patients diagnosed with either AsP (n = 72) or CAP (n = 58) were extracted. Characteristic factors associated with the diagnosis of AsP were statistically compared between AsP and CAP. Results: The patients were older in the AsP group (median 90 years old) than in the CAP group (86 years old). The body temperature, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure were lower in the patients with AsP than in those with CAP. Witnessed meal dysphagia by families and caregivers was reported only in AsP. Living in a nursing home, comorbidities of cerebral infarction and dementia (as positive factors) and hypertension (as a negative factor) were considered predictive to diagnose AsP in a stepwise logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Among oldest-old adults in primary-care settings, living in a nursing home and the dysphagia risks are suggested to be characteristic factors for diagnosing AsP. Age and some relevant clinical information may help manage AsP and also be useful for families and caregivers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Inter-Relationships between Frailty, Sarcopenia, Undernutrition and Dysphagia in Older People Who Are Admitted to Acute Frailty and Medical Wards: Is There an Older Adult Quartet?
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030041 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Introduction: With increasing age the prevalence of frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition and dysphagia increases. These are all independent markers of outcome. This study explores the prevalence of these four and explores relationships between them. Methods: A convenience sample of 122 patients admitted [...] Read more.
Introduction: With increasing age the prevalence of frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition and dysphagia increases. These are all independent markers of outcome. This study explores the prevalence of these four and explores relationships between them. Methods: A convenience sample of 122 patients admitted to acute medical and frailty wards were recruited. Each was assessed using appropriate screening tools; Clinical Frailty Score (CFS) for frailty, SARC-F for sarcopenia, Nutritional Risk Tool (NRT) for nutritional status and 4QT for dysphagia. Results: The mean age of the participants was 80.53 years (65–99 years), and 50.37% (68) were female. Overall, 111 of the 122 (91.0%) reported the presence of at least one of the quartet. The median CFS was 5 (1–9), with 84 patients (68.9%) having a score of ≥5 (moderate or severely frail); The median SARC-F was 5 (0–10), with 64 patients (52.5%) having a score of ≥5; The median NRT was 0 (0–8) and 33 patients (27.0%) scored ≥ 1. A total of 77 patients (63.1%) reported no difficulty with swallowing/dysphagia (4QT ≥ 1) and 29 (23.7%) had only one factor. Sixteen patients (13.1%) had all four. There was a significant correlation between nutritional status and dysphagia, but not with frailty or sarcopenia. There were significant correlations between frailty and both sarcopenia and dysphagia. Conclusions: In our sample of acute medical and frailty ward patients, there was a much higher prevalence than expected (91%) of either: frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition or dysphagia. The prevalence of all four was present in 13% of patients. We suggest that frailty, sarcopenia, nutritional risk and dysphagia comprise an “Older Adult Quartet”. Further study is required to investigate the effect of the “Older Adult Quartet” on morbidity and mortality. Full article
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