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Geriatrics, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment as a Versatile Tool to Enhance the Care of the Older Person Diagnosed with Cancer
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a versatile tool for the care of the older person diagnosed with cancer. The purpose of this article is to detail how a CGA can be tailored to Ambulatory Geriatric Oncology Programs (AGOPs) in academic cancer centers [...] Read more.
The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a versatile tool for the care of the older person diagnosed with cancer. The purpose of this article is to detail how a CGA can be tailored to Ambulatory Geriatric Oncology Programs (AGOPs) in academic cancer centers and to community oncology practices with varying levels of resources. The Society for International Oncology in Geriatrics (SIOG) recommends CGA as a foundation for treatment planning and decision-making for the older person receiving care for a malignancy. A CGA is often administered by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) composed of professionals who provide geriatric-focused cancer care. CGA can be used as a one-time consult for surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy providers to predict treatment tolerance or as an ongoing part of patient care to manage malignant and non-malignant issues. Administrative support and proactive infrastructure planning to address scheduling, referrals, and provider communication are critical to the effectiveness of the CGA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship Between L4/5 Lumbar Multifidus Cross-Sectional Area Ratio and Fall Risk in Older Adults with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Retrospective Study
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Various factors, including spinal deformities and trunk muscle atrophy, greatly affect the fall risk among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, the etiology of falls in older adults with degenerative LSS and trunk muscle atrophy is poorly understood. We investigated the [...] Read more.
Various factors, including spinal deformities and trunk muscle atrophy, greatly affect the fall risk among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, the etiology of falls in older adults with degenerative LSS and trunk muscle atrophy is poorly understood. We investigated the association between trunk muscle atrophy and falls in older LSS patients. This retrospective study included 99 hospitalized older adults with LSS. Participants completed self-reported fall score questionnaires and were divided into the fall risk (n = 30) and non-fall risk (n = 69) groups. The patients’ low back pain visual analog scale score, Geriatric Depression Scale score, sagittal vertical axis, L4/5 lumbar multifidus cross-sectional area ratio (LMCSAR), and center of pressure (COP) values during quiet standing were evaluated. The fall risk group had a lower L4/5 LMCSAR (p = 0.002) and increased COP excursion (p = 0.034) than the non-fall risk group. No significant differences were observed in the other measured variables between the two groups. The L4/5 LMCSAR (p < 0.001) and COP (p = 0.024) were related to fall risk and may be useful in fall risk assessment in such populations. Strategies aimed at enhancing controlled lumbar segmental motion and improving trunk muscle stability or mass may decrease the fall risk in this cohort. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship of Balance Disorders with Falling, the Effect of Health Problems, and Social Life on Postural Balance in the Elderly Living in a District in Turkey
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of balance disorders; the effects of sociodemographic, medical, and social conditions on postural balance; and the relationship between balance and falls in elderly individuals. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 607 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of balance disorders; the effects of sociodemographic, medical, and social conditions on postural balance; and the relationship between balance and falls in elderly individuals. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 607 community-dwelling elderly individuals with a mean age of 73.99 ± 6.6 years were enrolled after being selected by stratified random sampling. The study was performed as a face-to-face survey in the homes of elderly individuals. Sociodemographic and medical data were obtained from elderly individuals using the Elderly Identification Form. Balance disorders were determined using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). In this study, the prevalence of balance disorders was found to be 34.3% in the community-dwelling elderly. Older age, physical disability, having four or more chronic illnesses, the presence of incontinence, having a history of falls, not walking regularly, absence of free time activity, and obesity were found to be associated with an increased prevalence of balance disorders. Balance disorders are commonly seen in the elderly and may be triggered by a variety of biological and social factors. It is crucial to develop and implement national health and social policies to eliminate the causes of this problem, as well as to prioritize preventive health services in the ever-increasing elderly population. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Comprehensive Overview of Polypharmacy in Elderly Patients in Saudi Arabia
Received: 10 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
Background/Objectives: Saudi Arabia has a great percentage of geriatric patients associated with multiple chronic diseases who require close attention and monitoring for their medications. The purpose of this study is to develop a full-framed picture about the utilization of medications for geriatric patients [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Saudi Arabia has a great percentage of geriatric patients associated with multiple chronic diseases who require close attention and monitoring for their medications. The purpose of this study is to develop a full-framed picture about the utilization of medications for geriatric patients and how to provide better health-care management. Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study targeting patients 65 years of age and older, who are taking multiple chronic medications for different indications. Descriptive analysis and frequency of the main variables were used as appropriate. Only qualified and professional candidates were chosen for data entry to present the quality and accuracy of data. Results: A total of 3009 patient profiles were analyzed, with the patients’ average age in years being 73.26 ± 6.6 (SD). It was found that 55% of the patients have polypharmacy. An average of 6.4 medications were prescribed for patients aged between 65 and 70 years compared with a significant difference for patients aged 71 years and above, while a linear correlation between age and comorbidity diseases associated with all elderly patients. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus are the most common comorbidity diseases for elderly patients aged 65 years and older. Conclusion: Polypharmacy in geriatrics is defined as a patient aged 65 years and older receiving five or more appropriate medications. It is the responsibility of health-care professionals to reduce the number of medications in elderly patients. Awareness of geriatric medications and diagnosed diseases will improve managing adverse drug reaction and other risk factors. Awareness of geriatric medications should elaborate on how to avoid adverse drug reaction and other risk factors. It is the responsibility of physicians and pharmacists to reduce the number of medications in elderly patients. We also prove that the number of medications will not necessarily increase with age. The main impact of this study is to follow the main recommendations to improve health care management in geriatrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care and Successful Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Leveraging Patient/Community Partnerships to Disseminate Patient Centered Outcomes Research in Geriatrics
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: With the growth of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR), partnerships between researchers and patients have presented novel opportunities for disseminating results. A large gap exists in disseminating patient-centered research results to older adult patient end-users. We sought to examine the experiences of patient/community [...] Read more.
Background: With the growth of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR), partnerships between researchers and patients have presented novel opportunities for disseminating results. A large gap exists in disseminating patient-centered research results to older adult patient end-users. We sought to examine the experiences of patient/community partners in disseminating PCOR results and characterize lessons learned that may facilitate future researcher-patient/community dissemination partnerships. Methods: Patient/community partners who participated in geriatrics-focused PCORI-funded research and were active in disseminating results, as part of their planned activities, were recruited for one-to-one qualitative interviews. Constant comparative and thematic analysis were used to identify and describe common themes that emerged in a survey of open-ended questions. Results: Ten individuals (four community partners, six patients) aged 55–87 years were interviewed. Analysis revealed that for successful dissemination, subjects felt it was vital to reach out to people affected by the results, leverage personal stories, and tap into pre-developed programming. Patient/Community partners identified potential audiences through word-of-mouth, community requests, and mapping a list of audiences—targeting those directly affected as well as those who worked with the audience (e.g., not specifically medical). Patient/community partners recommended that researchers engage patient/community partners for suggestions on audiences, show empathy, include diverse populations, and maintain a community-focus. One community partner stated, “Why wouldn’t we help disseminate results? It’s a no-brainer. We know people!” Conclusion: Patient/community partners provide effective ways to communicate results, new audiences to reach, improved communication with different audiences, and improved credibility of the findings. The lessons learned have implications for assisting future research-patient/community partnerships in the dissemination of their patient-centered research. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An IoT System for Remote Health Monitoring in Elderly Adults through a Wearable Device and Mobile Application
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
With the increase in global life expectancy and the advance of technology, the creation of age-friendly environments is a priority in the design of new products for elderly people healthcare. This paper presents a proposal for a real-time health monitoring system of older [...] Read more.
With the increase in global life expectancy and the advance of technology, the creation of age-friendly environments is a priority in the design of new products for elderly people healthcare. This paper presents a proposal for a real-time health monitoring system of older adults living in geriatric residences. This system was developed to help caregivers to have a better control in monitoring the health of their patients and have closer communication with their patients’ family members. To validate the feasibility and effectiveness of this proposal, a prototype was built, using a biometric bracelet connected to a mobile application, which allows real-time visualization of all the information generated by the sensors (heart rate, body temperature, and blood oxygenation) in the bracelet. Using these data, caregivers can make decisions about the health status of their patients. The evaluation found that the users perceived the system to be easy to learn and use, providing initial evidence that our proposal could improve the quality of the adult’s healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care and Successful Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Doctors Are Inconsistent in Estimating Survival after CPR and Are Not Using Such Predictions Consistently in Determining DNACPR Decisions
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: It is unclear whether doctors base their resuscitation decisions solely on their perceived outcome. Through the use of theoretical scenarios, we aimed to examine the ‘do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation’ (DNACPR) decision-making. Methods: A questionnaire survey was sent to consultants [...] Read more.
Background: It is unclear whether doctors base their resuscitation decisions solely on their perceived outcome. Through the use of theoretical scenarios, we aimed to examine the ‘do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation’ (DNACPR) decision-making. Methods: A questionnaire survey was sent to consultants and specialty trainees across two Norfolk (UK) hospitals during December 2013. The survey included demographic questions and six clinical scenarios with varying prognosis. Participants were asked if they would resuscitate the patient or not. Identical scenarios were then shown in a different order and doctors were asked to quantify patients’ estimated chance of survival. Results: A total of 137 individuals (mean age 41 years (SD 7.9%)) responded. The response rate was 69%. Approximately 60% were consultants. We found considerable variation in clinician estimates of median chance of survival. In three out of six of our scenarios, the survival estimated varied from <1% to 95%. There was a statistically significant difference identified in the estimated median survival between those clinicians who would or would not resuscitate in four of the six scenarios presented. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the wide variation between clinicians in their estimates of likely survival and little concordance between clinicians over their resuscitation decisions. The diversity in clinician decision-making should be explored further. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bariatric Procedures in Older Adults in the United States: Analysis of a Multicenter Database
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 21 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: Bariatric procedures help reduce obesity-related comorbidities and thus improve survival. Clinical characteristics and outcomes after bariatric procedures in older adults were investigated. Methods: A multi-institutional Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried from years 2005 through 2012. Older adults >60 [...] Read more.
Background: Bariatric procedures help reduce obesity-related comorbidities and thus improve survival. Clinical characteristics and outcomes after bariatric procedures in older adults were investigated. Methods: A multi-institutional Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried from years 2005 through 2012. Older adults >60 years of age with procedure codes for bariatric procedures and a diagnosis of obesity/morbid obesity were selected to compare clinical characteristics/outcomes between those undergoing closed versus open procedures and identify risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality and increased hospital length of stay (LOS). Results: Over the study period, 79,122 bariatric procedures were performed. Those undergoing open procedures compared to closed procedures had a higher in-hospital mortality (0.8% vs. 0.2%) and a longer hospital LOS (4.8 days vs. 2.2 days). Risk factors significantly associated with in-hospital mortality were open procedures, the Western region, and the Elixhauser comorbidity index. Risk factors associated with increased LOS were Medicaid insurance type, an open procedure, a higher Elixhauser comorbidity score, a required skilled nursing facility (SNF) discharge, and died in hospital. Conclusion: Closed bariatric procedures are increasingly being preferred in older adults, with a four-fold lower mortality compared to open procedures. Besides choice of procedure, the presence of specific comorbidities is associated with increased mortality in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Geriatrics EISSN 2308-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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