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Vet. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Nearly 48 million American households own one or more dogs, yet approximately 20% do not seek veterinary care annually. Limited studies have investigated the demographic factors that may contribute to the decision to seek veterinary care. In this study, we identified that the likelihood of seeking veterinary care varied across medical conditions, but the overall likelihood of owners seeking veterinary care did not differ significantly among demographic groups. However, the human–animal relationship, previous veterinary care behavior, and barriers to seeking veterinary care did differ across demographic groups. These barriers included transportation, hours of operation, cost, and trust. Our results support providing community-based veterinary medicine tailored to obstacles to veterinary care that afflict specific demographics of dog owners. View this paper.
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Article
Differentiation of Antibodies against Selected Simbu Serogroup Viruses by a Glycoprotein Gc-Based Triplex ELISA
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010012 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1619
Abstract
The Simbu serogroup of orthobunyaviruses includes several pathogens of veterinary importance, among them Schmallenberg virus (SBV), Akabane virus (AKAV) and Shuni virus (SHUV). They infect predominantly ruminants and induce severe congenital malformation. In adult animals, the intra vitam diagnostics by direct virus detection [...] Read more.
The Simbu serogroup of orthobunyaviruses includes several pathogens of veterinary importance, among them Schmallenberg virus (SBV), Akabane virus (AKAV) and Shuni virus (SHUV). They infect predominantly ruminants and induce severe congenital malformation. In adult animals, the intra vitam diagnostics by direct virus detection is limited to only a few days due to a short-lived viremia. For surveillance purposes the testing for specific antibodies is a superior approach. However, the serological differentiation is hampered by a considerable extent of cross-reactivity, as viruses were assigned into this serogroup based on antigenic relatedness. Here, we established a glycoprotein Gc-based triplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and differentiation of antibodies against SBV, AKAV, and SHUV. A total of 477 negative samples of various ruminant species, 238 samples positive for SBV-antibodies, 36 positive for AKAV-antibodies and 53 SHUV antibody-positive samples were tested in comparison to neutralization tests. For the newly developed ELISA, overall diagnostic specificities of 84.56%, 94.68% and 89.39% and sensitivities of 89.08%, 69.44% and 84.91% were calculated for SBV, AKAV and SHUV, respectively, with only slight effects of serological cross-reactivity on the diagnostic specificity. Thus, this test system could be used for serological screening in suspected populations or as additional tool during outbreak investigations. Full article
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Review
The Complex Diseases of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Canines: Where to Next?
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010011 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a pathogenic bacterium of concern within the veterinary sector and is involved in numerous infections in canines, including topical infections such as canine pyoderma and otitis externa, as well as systemic infections within the urinary, respiratory and reproductive tract. The [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a pathogenic bacterium of concern within the veterinary sector and is involved in numerous infections in canines, including topical infections such as canine pyoderma and otitis externa, as well as systemic infections within the urinary, respiratory and reproductive tract. The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) within such infections is a growing concern. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the involvement of S. pseudintermedius in canine disease pathology to gain better insight into novel treatment avenues. Here, we review the literature focused on S. pseudintermedius infection in multiple anatomic locations in dogs and the role of MRSP in treatment outcomes at these niches. Multiple novel treatment avenues for MRSP have been pioneered in recent years and these are discussed with a specific focus on vaccines and phage therapy as potential therapeutic options. Whilst both undertakings are in their infancy, phage therapy is versatile and has shown high success in both animal and human medical use. It is clear that further research is required to combat the growing problems associated with MRSP in canines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistant Staphylococci in Animals)
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Article
Screening of Cyanide-Utilizing Bacteria from Rumen and In Vitro Evaluation of Fresh Cassava Root Utilization with Pellet Containing High Sulfur Diet
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010010 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Two experiments were undertaken to screen for ruminal cyanide-utilizing bacteria (Experiment 1), and to evaluate the influence of fresh cassava root (FCR) and pellets containing high sulfur (PELFUR) on cyanide content, gas production parameters, in vitro degradability, and ruminal fermentation (Experiment 2). Experiment [...] Read more.
Two experiments were undertaken to screen for ruminal cyanide-utilizing bacteria (Experiment 1), and to evaluate the influence of fresh cassava root (FCR) and pellets containing high sulfur (PELFUR) on cyanide content, gas production parameters, in vitro degradability, and ruminal fermentation (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) for the screening of cyanide-utilizing bacteria and the dietary treatments consisted of cyanide at 0, 150, 300, and 450 ppm. In Experiment 2, a 5 × 3 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design was used for the in vitro study. Factor A was the level of FCR at 0, 260, 350, 440, and 530 g/kg of dry matter (DM) substrate, and factor B was the level of PELFUR at 0, 15, and 30 g/kg DM substrate. In Experiment 1, adding different doses of cyanide significantly affected cyanide-utilizing rumen bacterial growth (p < 0.05). Increasing the concentration of cyanide from 0 to 150 and 150 to 300 ppm resulted in increases in cyanide-utilizing rumen bacteria of 38.2% and 15.0%, respectively. In Experiment 2, no interaction effects were found between FCR and PELFUR doses on gas production parameters (p > 0.05). Increasing the FCR level to more than 260 g/kg of DM substrate could increase cumulative gas production (p < 0.05). Increasing doses of PELFUR from 15 to 30 g/kg increased the cumulative gas production when compared with that of 0 g PELFUR/kg of DM substrate (p < 0.05). The cyanide concentration in rumen fluid decreased with PELFUR (p < 0.05) supplementation. Degradability of in vitro DM and organic matter following incubation increased at 12 and 24 h due to PELFUR supplementation with FCR and increased additionally with 15 g PELFUR/kg of DM substrate (p < 0.05) in 440 g FCR/kg of DM substrate. Proportions of the total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), and butyric acid among supplementations with FCR (p < 0.05) were significantly different. In conclusion, the present results represent the first finding of bacteria in the rumen that are capable of utilizing cyanide, and suggests that cyanide might function as a nitrogen source for bacterial cell synthesis. The inclusion of FCR of 530 g/kg with 30 g PELFUR/kg of DM substrate could increase the cumulative gas production, the bacterial population, the in vitro degradability, the proportion of C3, and the rate of the disappearance of cyanide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
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Article
Cinnamon Aqueous Extract Attenuates Diclofenac Sodium and Oxytetracycline Mediated Hepato-Renal Toxicity and Modulates Oxidative Stress, Cell Apoptosis, and Inflammation in Male Albino Rats
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010009 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Among commonly consumed anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial drugs are diclofenac sodium (DFS) and oxytetracycline (OTC), especially in developing countries because they are highly effective and cheap. However, the concomitant administration of anti-inflammatory drugs with antibiotics may exaggerate massive toxic effects on many organs. Cinnamon [...] Read more.
Among commonly consumed anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial drugs are diclofenac sodium (DFS) and oxytetracycline (OTC), especially in developing countries because they are highly effective and cheap. However, the concomitant administration of anti-inflammatory drugs with antibiotics may exaggerate massive toxic effects on many organs. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cin) is considered one of the most broadly utilized plants with various antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. This study aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of cinnamon aqueous extract (Cin) against DFS and OTC hepato-renal toxicity. Eight groups (8/group) of adult male albino rats were treated orally for 15 days with physiological saline (control), Cin aqueous extract (300 mg/kg b.w.), OTC (200 mg/kg b.w.), single dose of DFS at the 14th day (100 mg/kg b.w.), DFS + OTC, Cin + DFS, Cin + OTC, and Cin + DFS + OTC. The administration of DFS and/or OTC significantly increased (p < 0.05) the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatinine, and uric acid. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as hepatic and renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide metabolites, were also raised following DFS and OTC administration. Meanwhile, the activities of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in liver and kidney were significantly suppressed in DFS, OTC, and DFS + OTC treated rats. Moreover, hepatic and renal tissue sections from these rats exhibited overexpression of caspase-3 and cyclooxygenase-II on immunohistochemical investigation. The administration of Cin aqueous extract ameliorated the aforementioned deteriorations caused by DFS, OTC, and their combination. Conclusively, Cin is a promising protective plant extract capable of attenuating the oxidative damage, apoptosis, and inflammation induced by DFS and OTC either alone or combined, on hepatic and renal tissues. Full article
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Article
Seasonality Effects on the Mineral Profile of Goats Farmed in the Semiarid Region of Brazil
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010008 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Seasonality effects on the mineral profile of goats were evaluated. Fifty males were divided into two groups, one with mineral supplementation and one control. Seasonal evaluation was conducted during four periods: beginning, middle, and end of the dry period and middle of the [...] Read more.
Seasonality effects on the mineral profile of goats were evaluated. Fifty males were divided into two groups, one with mineral supplementation and one control. Seasonal evaluation was conducted during four periods: beginning, middle, and end of the dry period and middle of the rainy period. Rib and liver biopsies were performed, and blood was collected at each period to evaluate mineral accumulation. Ca, P, Cu, Fe, Mo, Zn, and Co concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after acid digestion. Normal Ca, P, and Mo; low Cu, Zn, and Co; and high Fe levels were observed in the diet. The young animals analyzed showed normal serum and bone Ca and P concentrations, suggesting no need for supplementation throughout the entire year under the conditions of this study. Iron showed high values throughout the year, being potentially dangerous especially owing to its antagonistic relationship with other elements. Cu and Zn deficiency in the diet was observed under the conditions of this study, requiring supplementation with values higher than those contained in the mineral supplement used in the middle and end of the dry period. The supply of specific mineral supplement formulated for animals farmed in the semiarid region is suggested and would reduce costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Association between Dog Owner Demographics and Decision to Seek Veterinary Care
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010007 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 2310
Abstract
(1) Background: An important aspect of dog ownership is providing veterinary care. However, features of dog ownership differ across demographic groups and these may influence veterinary client decision making and behavior. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate relationships between American [...] Read more.
(1) Background: An important aspect of dog ownership is providing veterinary care. However, features of dog ownership differ across demographic groups and these may influence veterinary client decision making and behavior. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate relationships between American dog owner characteristics and willingness to seek veterinary care. (2) Methods: A total of 858 dog owners completed an online questionnaire asking participants to rate their level of likelihood to seek veterinary care for different medical conditions, answer supplemental questions about their previous veterinary barriers, and indicate barriers that prevent them from seeking veterinary care. (3) Results: Dog owners did not differ by demographics in their willingness to seek veterinary care. However, dog owner demographic groups varied in their relationship with their dog(s), previous behaviors accessing veterinary care, and barriers that make seeking veterinary care challenging. (4) Conclusions: Education, outreach and community-based veterinary medicine efforts should allocate resources to underserved communities identified within the context that they are affected by barriers to obtaining veterinary care for their dog(s). Full article
Case Report
Dysuria Associated with Non-Neoplastic Bone Hyperplasia of the Os Penis in a Pug Dog
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010006 - 02 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1382
Abstract
A three-year-old male Pug presented with a three-year history of urolithiasis and repeated urethral obstruction. Biochemical analysis, ultrasonography, and retrograde urethrocystography revealed probable portosystemic shunt and incomplete urethral obstruction due to uric acid ammonium calculi. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed portosystemic shunt and [...] Read more.
A three-year-old male Pug presented with a three-year history of urolithiasis and repeated urethral obstruction. Biochemical analysis, ultrasonography, and retrograde urethrocystography revealed probable portosystemic shunt and incomplete urethral obstruction due to uric acid ammonium calculi. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed portosystemic shunt and proliferation of the osseous tissue of the os penis, which was surgically removed. Histopathologically, the excised osseous tissue comprised bland lamellar bone without atypia or inflammation. Hyperplasia of the os penis was diagnosed based on the image findings and histopathology. The dysuria improved postoperatively. This is the first report of dysuria associated with non-neoplastic bone hyperplasia of the os penis in a dog. Careful evaluation of the os penis by CT is needed for accurate diagnosis in case of repeated penile urethral obstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Systematic Review
Small Ruminant Production in Tanzania, Uganda, and Ethiopia: A Systematic Review of Constraints and Potential Solutions
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010005 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Sheep and goats are an important commodity for smallholder farmers across East Africa, but severe limitations remain in small ruminant production. This review aimed to identify specific constraints to small ruminant production and identify practical and sustainable solutions. From 54 eligible articles, most [...] Read more.
Sheep and goats are an important commodity for smallholder farmers across East Africa, but severe limitations remain in small ruminant production. This review aimed to identify specific constraints to small ruminant production and identify practical and sustainable solutions. From 54 eligible articles, most were focused in Ethiopia (n = 44) with only 6 studies performed in Tanzania and 4 in Uganda. The most frequently identified constraint in Ethiopia and Tanzania was disease (n = 28 and n = 3, respectively), and in Uganda, it was the lack of access to veterinary services (n = 4). Additionally, access to good breeding stock, lack of animal records, and an established marketing chain were also mentioned in all the three countries. Ectoparasites, gastrointestinal parasites, orf, and sheep/goat pox were the most frequently mentioned disease challenges causing productivity losses. Many articles provided potential solutions as suggested by farmers, including improved access to veterinary services and medicines, improved record keeping, and access to good breeding stock. Farmers highlighted the value of community-based participatory development plans to increase education on disease control, land management, and husbandry. This review also highlighted knowledge gaps, the need for further research, particularly in Tanzania and Uganda, and the importance of addressing multiple challenges holistically due to the links between constraints. Full article
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Communication
The Honeybee Gut Mycobiota Cluster by Season versus the Microbiota which Cluster by Gut Segment
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010004 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Honeybees represent one of the most important insect species we have, particularly due to their pollinating services. Several emerging fungal and bacterial diseases, however, are currently threatening honeybees without known mechanisms of pathogenicity. Therefore, the aim of the current work was to investigate [...] Read more.
Honeybees represent one of the most important insect species we have, particularly due to their pollinating services. Several emerging fungal and bacterial diseases, however, are currently threatening honeybees without known mechanisms of pathogenicity. Therefore, the aim of the current work was to investigate the seasonal (winter, spring, summer, and autumn) fungal and bacterial distribution through different gut segments (crop, midgut, ileum, and rectum). This was done from two hives in Norway. Our main finding was that bacteria clustered by gut segments, while fungi were clustered by season. This knowledge can therefore be important in studying the epidemiology and potential mechanisms of emerging diseases in honeybees, and also serve as a baseline for understanding honeybee health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
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Article
Evaluating the Histologic Grade of Digital Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Dogs with Dark and Light Haircoat—A Comparative Study of the Invasive Front and Tumor Cell Budding Systems
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010003 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Canine digital squamous cell carcinomas (CDSCC) are particularly aggressive when compared to their occurrence in other locations. Although these neoplasms are more frequently seen in dark-haired dogs, such as Giant Schnauzers, there are no data checking whether these tumors are histologically different between [...] Read more.
Canine digital squamous cell carcinomas (CDSCC) are particularly aggressive when compared to their occurrence in other locations. Although these neoplasms are more frequently seen in dark-haired dogs, such as Giant Schnauzers, there are no data checking whether these tumors are histologically different between breeds. We histologically evaluated DSCC from 94 dogs. These were divided into two groups, namely, (1) dark-haired (N = 76) and (2) light-haired breeds (N = 18), further subdividing Group 1 into three subgroups, (1a) black breeds (n = 11), (1b) Schnauzers (n = 34) and (1c) black & tan breeds (n = 31). Adaptations from two different squamous cell carcinomas grading schemes from human and veterinary literature were used. Both systems showed significant differences when compared to Groups 1 and 2 in terms of final grade, invasive front keratinization, degree of invasion, nuclear pleomorphism, tumor cell budding, smallest tumor nest size and amount of tumor stroma. Group 2 was consistently better differentiated CDSCC than Group 1. However, there were no significant differences among the dark-haired breeds in any of the features evaluated. This study represents the first attempt to grade CDSCC while taking into account both phenotypical and presumptive genotypical haircoat color. In conclusion, CDSCC are not only more common in dark-haired dogs, they are also histologically more aggressive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Article
Association between the Microsatellite Ap243, AC117 and SV185 Polymorphisms and Nosema Disease in the Dark Forest Bee Apis mellifera mellifera
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010002 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The microsporidian Nosema parasites, primarily Nosema ceranae, remain critical threats to the health of the honey bee Apis mellifera. One promising intervention approach is the breeding of Nosema-resistant honey bee colonies using molecular technologies, for example marker-assisted selection (MAS). For [...] Read more.
The microsporidian Nosema parasites, primarily Nosema ceranae, remain critical threats to the health of the honey bee Apis mellifera. One promising intervention approach is the breeding of Nosema-resistant honey bee colonies using molecular technologies, for example marker-assisted selection (MAS). For this, specific genetic markers used in bee selection should be developed. The objective of the paper is to search for associations between some microsatellite markers and Nosema disease in a dark forest bee Apis mellifera mellifera. For the dark forest bee, the most promising molecular genetic markers for determining resistance to nosemosis are microsatellite loci AC117, Ap243 and SV185, the alleles of which (“177”, “263” and “269”, respectively) were associated with a low level of Nosema infection. This article is the first associative study aimed at finding DNA loci of resistance to nosemosis in the dark forest bee. Nevertheless, microsatellite markers identified can be used to predict the risk of developing the Nosema disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
Article
Serotonin and Tryptophan Serum Concentrations in Shelter Dogs Showing Different Behavioural Responses to a Potentially Stressful Procedure
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010001 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
In mammals, serotonin (5-HT) levels depend on the availability of tryptophan (TRP). Low 5-HT concentrations have been linked to behavioural disorders in dogs. This study aimed at investigating possible differences in dogs’ serum TRP and 5-HT concentrations according to their behavioural response to [...] Read more.
In mammals, serotonin (5-HT) levels depend on the availability of tryptophan (TRP). Low 5-HT concentrations have been linked to behavioural disorders in dogs. This study aimed at investigating possible differences in dogs’ serum TRP and 5-HT concentrations according to their behavioural response to a potentially stressful procedure. Thirty-nine physically healthy shelter dogs, 15 females and 24 males, mean age = 5.6 years, were categorized by a certified veterinary behaviourist according to their behavioural response to medical examination and blood collection, in: relaxation, stress signals, tension without growling, tension with growling, escape attempts, and aggression attempts. Extraction and quantification of 5-HT and TRP were performed using a HLPC method. Data were statistically analysed, applying Chi-square and Spearman tests. Results showed no significant difference in TRP (χ2 = 2.084, p = 0.555) nor 5-HT (χ2 = 0.972, p = 0.808) serum concentrations among different categories of dogs; however, some categories were underrepresented (relaxation = 20.5%, stress signals = 30.8%, tension without growling = 43.6%, tension with growling = 5.1%, escape attempts = 0%, aggression attempts = 0%). No correlation between serum TRP and 5-HT concentrations was found (ρ = 0.086, p = 0.602). Serum 5-HT levels do not seem to be associated with dogs’ behavioural response to a stressful situation nor with serum TRP concentrations. The relationship between serum TRP and 5-HT concentrations and behaviour needs further research. Full article
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