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Beverages, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Sugary Kefir: Microbial Identification and Biotechnological Properties
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5040061 - 15 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem composition of three different fruit kefir grains used for the fermentation of apple juice (NAJ), cherry juice (SCN), and a solution of sugary water, enriched with plums (BSS). Methods: Yeast and [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem composition of three different fruit kefir grains used for the fermentation of apple juice (NAJ), cherry juice (SCN), and a solution of sugary water, enriched with plums (BSS). Methods: Yeast and bacterial populations were enumerated using classical microbiological techniques, clustered by RAPD-PCR genotyping, and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S-rRNA gene and the V1-V3 region of 16S-rRNA gene, respectively. The caseinolytic/lipolytic activities and the production of antimicrobial compounds were assessed by well diffusion assays. The proteolytic and lipolytic capacity were further assessed by SDS-PAGE and titrimetric assay, respectively. Results: Yeast and bacterial populations were enumerated at 6.28, 6.58, and 6.41 log CFU/g and at 4.32, 4.85, and 4.34 log CFU/g, regarding BSS, NAJ, and SCN, respectively. Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated all three sugary kefir grains; Kluyveromyces marxianus formed a secondary microbiota in BSS and NAJ. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens dominated NAJ and SCN; Lactobacillus rhamnosus dominated BSS. Four bacteria and nine yeast isolates exhibited proteolytic activity. Forty bacteria and 45 yeast isolates possessed lipolytic activity. No antibacterial activity was detected. Conclusions: Prevalence of yeast over bacterial populations was evident in all samples assessed. Several bacterial and yeast strains exhibited proteolytic and lipolytic activities, making them suitable candidates for inclusion in starter cultures for milk and sugary kefir fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Beverages and Novel Technologies for their production )
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Open AccessArticle
Boltzmann-Based Empirical Model to Calculate Volume Loss during Spirit Ageing
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5040060 - 10 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The Boltzmann equation is applied to fit data of volume loss for evaporation (in %) during spirit ageing in northern white oak (Quercus Alba) standard barrels of 205 L (+/− 10 L) using a temperature and humidity controlled cellar. The Boltzmann [...] Read more.
The Boltzmann equation is applied to fit data of volume loss for evaporation (in %) during spirit ageing in northern white oak (Quercus Alba) standard barrels of 205 L (+/− 10 L) using a temperature and humidity controlled cellar. The Boltzmann equation satisfactory fitted to the experimental data of the volume loss against temperature at constant humidity. Two parameters of the Boltzmann equation showed a linear dependency on the relative humidity of the air, while the other two parameters exhibited a constant value independently of the air humidity. The found empirical mathematical model can be used to calculate the volume loss for evaporation of spirits (40% v/v of ethanol) during ageing in terms of relative humidity (range: 40%–95%) and temperature (range: 10–30 °C) with significant accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distilled Beverages: Science and Technology Across the Supply Chain)
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Open AccessEditorial
Wine Traceability
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5040059 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 175
Abstract
This Special Issue concerns wine traceability, a central theme in the current world market where consumers are increasingly demanding the quality and origin of food and drink [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Traceability )
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