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Toxics, Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 20 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Toxic environmental chemicals can cause functional perturbation of the human gut microbiome, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Fate of Pyriproxyfen in Soils and Plants
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010020 - 13 Mar 2020
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Since the 1990s, the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen has been widely used worldwide as a larvicide in vector control and in agriculture to fight a very large number of pests. Due to its widespread use it is of first importance to know how [...] Read more.
Since the 1990s, the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen has been widely used worldwide as a larvicide in vector control and in agriculture to fight a very large number of pests. Due to its widespread use it is of first importance to know how pyriproxyfen behaves in the terrestrial ecosystems. This was the goal of this work to establish the fate profile of pyriproxyfen in soils and plants. Thus, in soil, pyriproxyfen photodegrades slowly but its aerobic degradation is fast. The insecticide presents a high tendency to adsorb onto soils and it is not subject to leaching into groundwater. On the contrary its two main metabolites (4′-OH-Pyr and PYPAC) show a different fate in soil. When sprayed to plants, pyriproxyfen behaves as a translaminar insecticide. Its half-life in plants ranges from less than one week to about three weeks. The review ends by showing how the fate profile of pyriproxyfen in soils and plants influences the adverse effects of the molecule on non-target organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Gut Microbiome Toxicity: Connecting the Environment and Gut Microbiome-Associated Diseases
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010019 - 12 Mar 2020
Viewed by 833
Abstract
The human gut microbiome can be easily disturbed upon exposure to a range of toxic environmental agents. Environmentally induced perturbation in the gut microbiome is strongly associated with human disease risk. Functional gut microbiome alterations that may adversely influence human health is an [...] Read more.
The human gut microbiome can be easily disturbed upon exposure to a range of toxic environmental agents. Environmentally induced perturbation in the gut microbiome is strongly associated with human disease risk. Functional gut microbiome alterations that may adversely influence human health is an increasingly appreciated mechanism by which environmental chemicals exert their toxic effects. In this review, we define the functional damage driven by environmental exposure in the gut microbiome as gut microbiome toxicity. The establishment of gut microbiome toxicity links the toxic effects of various environmental agents and microbiota-associated diseases, calling for more comprehensive toxicity evaluation with extended consideration of gut microbiome toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Environmental Toxicants)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of the Nephrotoxicity of Low Doses of Cadmium and Lead
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010018 - 02 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Environmental exposure to moderate-to-high levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is associated with nephrotoxicity. In comparison, the health impacts of chronic low-level exposure to Cd and Pb remain controversial. The aim of this study was to therefore evaluate kidney dysfunction associated with [...] Read more.
Environmental exposure to moderate-to-high levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is associated with nephrotoxicity. In comparison, the health impacts of chronic low-level exposure to Cd and Pb remain controversial. The aim of this study was to therefore evaluate kidney dysfunction associated with chronic low-level exposure to Cd and Pb in a population of residents in Bangkok, Thailand. The mean age and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for 392 participants (195 men and 197 women) were 34.9 years and 104 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively, while the geometric mean concentrations of urinary Cd and Pb were 0.25 μg/L (0.45 μg/g of creatinine) and 0.89 μg/L (1.52 μg/g of creatinine), respectively. In a multivariable regression analysis, the eGFR varied inversely with blood urea nitrogen in both men (β = −0.125, p = 0.044) and women (β = −0.170, p = 0.008), while inverse associations of the eGFR with urinary Cd (β = −0.132, p = 0.043) and urinary Pb (β = −0.130, p = 0.044) were seen only in women. An increased urinary level of Cd to the median level of 0.38 μg/L (0.44 μg/g of creatinine) was associated with a decrease in the eGFR by 4.94 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.011). The prevalence odds of a reduced eGFR rose 2.5-, 2.9- and 2.3-fold in the urinary Cd quartile 3 (p = 0.013), the urinary Cd quartile 4 (p = 0.008), and the urinary Pb quartile 4 (p = 0.039), respectively. This study suggests that chronic exposure to low-level Cd is associated with a decline in kidney function and that women may be more susceptible than men to nephrotoxicity due to an elevated intake of Cd and Pb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Metals, Chronic Diseases and Related Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle
Concentration- and Time-Dependent Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride in Human Lung Epithelial Cells: Necrosis, Apoptosis, or Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010017 - 02 Mar 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC), an antimicrobial agent in inhalable medications and household sprays, has been reported to be toxic to pulmonary organs. Although cell membrane damage has been considered as the main cytotoxic mechanism of BAC, its concentration- and time-dependent cellular effects on lung [...] Read more.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC), an antimicrobial agent in inhalable medications and household sprays, has been reported to be toxic to pulmonary organs. Although cell membrane damage has been considered as the main cytotoxic mechanism of BAC, its concentration- and time-dependent cellular effects on lung epithelium have not been fully understood. In the present study, human lung epithelial (H358) cells were exposed to 0.2–40 μg/mL of BAC for 30 min or 21 days. Cell membranes were rapidly disrupted by 30 min exposure, but 24 h incubation of BAC (4–40 μg/mL) predominantly caused apoptosis rather than necrosis. BAC (2–4 μg/mL) induced mitochondrial depolarization, which may be associated with increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase-3, PARP, Bax, p53, and p21), and decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The protein expression levels of IRE1α, BiP, CHOP, and p-JNK were also elevated by BAC (2–4 μg/mL) suggesting the possible involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in inducing apoptosis. Long-term (7–21 days) incubation with BAC (0.2–0.6 μg/mL) did not affect cell viability but led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as shown by the decrease of E-cadherin and the increase of N-cadherin, fibronectin, and vimentin, caused by the upregulation of EMT transcription factors, such as Snail, Slug, Twist1, Zeb1, and Zeb2. Therefore, we conclude that apoptosis could be an important mechanism of acute BAC cytotoxicity in lung epithelial cells, and chronic exposure to BAC even at sub-lethal doses can promote pulmonary EMT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessCommunication
New Insights into the Toxicokinetics of 3,4-Dichloroaniline in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010016 - 01 Mar 2020
Viewed by 452
Abstract
In the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) is often employed as a positive control substance. Previous studies have characterized bioconcentration and transformation of 3,4-DCA in this test under flow-through conditions. However, the dynamic changes [...] Read more.
In the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) is often employed as a positive control substance. Previous studies have characterized bioconcentration and transformation of 3,4-DCA in this test under flow-through conditions. However, the dynamic changes of chemical concentrations in exposure media and embryos were not studied systematically under the commonly used semi-static exposure conditions in multiwell plates. To overcome these limitations, we conducted semi-static exposures experiments where embryolarval zebrafish were exposed to 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 mg L−1 of 3,4-DCA for up to 120 hpf, with 24-h renewal intervals. During each renewal interval, concentrations of 3,4-DCA were quantified in water samples at 0, 6, 18, and 24 h using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Levels of 3,4-DCA in larvae were measured after 120 h exposure. Concentrations of 3,4-DCA in the test vessels decreased rapidly during exposure. Taking these dynamics into account, bioconcentration factors in the present study ranged from 12.9 to 29.8 L kg−1, depending on exposure concentration. In summary, this study contributed to our knowledge of chemical dynamics in the FET test with embryolarval zebrafish, which will aid in defining suitable exposure conditions for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminant Effects on Zebrafish Embryos)
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Open AccessCommunication
Mercury in Soil and Forage Plants from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Bombana Area, Indonesia
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010015 - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) contamination in soil and forage plants is toxic to ecosystems, and artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the main source of such pollution in the Bombana area of Indonesia. Hg contamination in soil and forage plants was investigated by particle-induced [...] Read more.
Mercury (Hg) contamination in soil and forage plants is toxic to ecosystems, and artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the main source of such pollution in the Bombana area of Indonesia. Hg contamination in soil and forage plants was investigated by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis of samples collected from three savannah areas (i.e., ASGM, commercial mining, and control areas) in the Bombana area. Hg contents of forage plants in the ASGM area (mean 9.90 ± 14 µg/g) exceeded those in the control area (2.70 ± 14 µg/g). Soil Hg contents (mean 390 ± 860 µg/g) were also higher than those in the control area (mean 7.40 ± 9.90 µg/g), with levels exceeding international regulatory limits. The Hg contents of 69% of soil and 78% of forage-plant samples exceeded critical toxicological limits. Thus, the Hg levels observed in this study indicate that contamination extending over large areas may cause major environmental problems. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Microplastics Exposure Causes Negligible Effects on the Oxidative Response Enzymes Glutathione Reductase and Peroxidase in the Oligochaete Tubifex tubifex
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010014 - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) are emerging pollutants, which are considered ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems. The effects of MPs on aquatic biota are still poorly understood, and consequently, there is a need to understand the impacts that MPs may pose to organisms. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) are emerging pollutants, which are considered ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems. The effects of MPs on aquatic biota are still poorly understood, and consequently, there is a need to understand the impacts that MPs may pose to organisms. In the present study, Tubifex tubifex, a freshwater oligochaete commonly used as a bioindicator of the aquatic environment, was exposed to fluorescent polyethylene microspheres (up to 10 µm in size) to test whether the oxidative stress status was affected. The mortality rate of T. tubifex, as well as the activities of the oxidative stress status biomarker enzymes glutathione reductase and peroxidase, were assessed. In terms of oxidative stress, no significant differences between the exposure organisms and the corresponding controls were detected. Even though the data suggest that polyethylene MPs and the selected concentrations did not pose a critical risk to T. tubifex, the previously reported tolerance of T. tubifex to environmental pollution should be taken into account and thus MPs as aquatic pollutants could still represent a threat to more sensitive oligochetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevalence, Fate and Effects of Plastic in Freshwater Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Existing Models to Estimate Sorption Coefficients for Ionisable Pharmaceuticals in Soils and Sludge
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010013 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 572
Abstract
In order to assess the environmental risk of a pharmaceutical, information is needed on the sorption of the compound to solids. Here we use a high-quality database of measured sorption coefficients, all determined following internationally recognised protocols, to evaluate models that have been [...] Read more.
In order to assess the environmental risk of a pharmaceutical, information is needed on the sorption of the compound to solids. Here we use a high-quality database of measured sorption coefficients, all determined following internationally recognised protocols, to evaluate models that have been proposed for estimating sorption of pharmaceuticals from chemical structure, some of which are already being used for environmental risk assessment and prioritization purposes. Our analyses demonstrate that octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) alone is not an effective predictor of ionisable pharmaceutical sorption in soils. Polyparameter models based on pharmaceutical characteristics in combination with key soil properties, such as cation exchange capacity, increase model complexity but yield an improvement in the predictive capability of soil sorption models. Nevertheless, as the models included in this analysis were only able to predict a maximum of 71% and 67% of the sorption coefficients for the compounds to within one log unit of the corresponding measured value in soils and sludge, respectively, there is a need for new models to be developed to better predict the sorption of ionisable pharmaceuticals in soil and sludge systems. The variation in sorption coefficients, even for a single pharmaceutical across different solid types, makes this an inherently difficult task, and therefore requires a broad understanding of both chemical and sorbent properties driving the sorption process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Risk Assessment and Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Inactivated Bifidobacterium Strain in Attenuating Benzo(A)Pyrene Exposure-Induced Damage in Colon Epithelial Cells In Vitro
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010012 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Long-term exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) poses a serious genotoxic threat to human beings. This in vitro study investigated the potential of inactivated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BI-04 in alleviating the damage caused by BaP in colon epithelial cells. A concentration of BaP higher [...] Read more.
Long-term exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) poses a serious genotoxic threat to human beings. This in vitro study investigated the potential of inactivated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BI-04 in alleviating the damage caused by BaP in colon epithelial cells. A concentration of BaP higher than 50 μM strongly inhibited the growth of colon epithelial cells. The colon epithelial cells were treated with 50 μM BaP in the presence or absence of inactivated strain BI-04 (~5 × 108 CFU/mL). The BaP-induced apoptosis of the colon epithelial cells was retarded in the presence of B. lactis BI-04 through activation of the PI3K/ AKT signaling pathway, and p53 gene expression was decreased. The presence of the BI-04 strain reduced the intracellular oxidative stress and DNA damage incurred in the colon epithelial cells by BaP treatment due to the enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism-related enzymes (CYP1A1). The data from comet assay, qRT-PCR, and western blot analysis showed that the cytotoxic effects of BaP on colon epithelial cells were largely alleviated because the bifidobacterial strain could bind to this carcinogenic compound. The in vitro study highlights that the consumption of commercial probiotic strain BI-04 might be a promising strategy to mitigate BaP cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage Response to Harmful Anthropogenic Substances)
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Open AccessArticle
Biomonitoring of Trace Elements in Subjects Living Near a Hazardous Waste Incinerator: Concentrations in Autopsy Tissues
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010011 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 417
Abstract
The only hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Spain started to operate in 1999. Twenty years later, the levels of 11 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl and V) were analyzed in five different autopsy tissues (kidney, liver, [...] Read more.
The only hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Spain started to operate in 1999. Twenty years later, the levels of 11 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl and V) were analyzed in five different autopsy tissues (kidney, liver, brain, bone and lung) from 20 individuals who had been living near the facility. In 2019, As, Be, Tl and V were not detected in any of the analyzed tissues, while Hg could be only quantified in very few samples. The highest levels of Cd and Pb were found in kidney and bone, respectively, while those of Mn were observed in liver and kidney. In turn, the mean concentrations of Cr and Sn were very similar in all tissues. A consistent temporal trend (1998–2019) was only found for Cr and Pb. On the one hand, the mean Cr concentrations in kidney and bone have increased progressively since 1998. In contrast, the mean levels of Pb decreased significantly over time, probably due to ban of Pb as gasoline additive. The data global analysis indicates that the emissions of trace elements by the HWI have not increased the exposure and/or accumulation of these elements in individuals living near the facility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Metals, Chronic Diseases and Related Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle
Enchytraeus crypticus Avoid Soil Spiked with Microplastic
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010010 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 456
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) of varying sizes are widespread pollutants in our environment. The general opinion is that the smaller the size, the more dangerous the MPs are due to enhanced uptake possibilities. It would be of considerably ecological significance to understand the response of [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) of varying sizes are widespread pollutants in our environment. The general opinion is that the smaller the size, the more dangerous the MPs are due to enhanced uptake possibilities. It would be of considerably ecological significance to understand the response of biota to microplastic contamination both physically and physiologically. Here, we report on an area choice experiment (avoidance test) using Enchytraeus crypticus, in which we mixed different amounts of high-density polyethylene microplastic particles into the soil. In all experimental scenarios, more Enchytraeids moved to the unspiked sections or chose a lower MP-concentration. Worms in contact with MP exhibited an enhanced oxidative stress status, measured as the induced activity of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase. As plastic polymers per se are nontoxic, the exposure time employed was too short for chemicals to leach from the microplastic, and as the microplastic particles used in these experiments were too large (4 mm) to be consumed by the Enchytraeids, the likely cause for the avoidance and oxidative stress could be linked to altered soil properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevalence, Fate and Effects of Plastic in Freshwater Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Exposure to Tobacco Cigarette, Electronic Cigarette and Heated Tobacco Product on Adipocyte Survival and Differentiation In Vitro
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010009 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Cigarette smoking (CS) causes significant morbidity worldwide, attributed to the numerous toxicants generated by tobacco combustion. Electronic cigarettes (ECIG) and heated tobacco products (HTP) are considered alternative smoking/vaping products that deliver nicotine through an inhaled aerosol and emit fewer harmful constituents than CS. [...] Read more.
Cigarette smoking (CS) causes significant morbidity worldwide, attributed to the numerous toxicants generated by tobacco combustion. Electronic cigarettes (ECIG) and heated tobacco products (HTP) are considered alternative smoking/vaping products that deliver nicotine through an inhaled aerosol and emit fewer harmful constituents than CS. However, their long-term impacts on human health are not well established. Nicotine exposure has been linked to lipolysis and body weight loss, while smoking has been associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Enhanced function of beige (thermogenic) adipocytes has been proposed as a means to reduce obesity and metabolic disorders. In this study, we compared the effect of extract-enriched media via exposure of culture medium to CS, HTP aerosol, and ECIG aerosol on the viability and the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes to beige adipocytes. Only CS extract caused a decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, relative lipid accumulation and expression levels of the adipocyte markers Pgc-1α, Ppar-γ and Resistin were significantly decreased in cells exposed to CS extract. Our results demonstrate that CS extract, in contrast to HTP and ECIG extracts, significantly impairs differentiation of pre-adipocytes to beige adipocytes and may therefore impact significantly adipose tissue metabolic function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Knowledge of E-cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Cannabinoid-Containing Fluids in Illicit Vaping Cartridges Recovered from Pulmonary Injury Patients: Identification of Vitamin E Acetate as a Major Diluent
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010008 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2878
Abstract
Beginning in June of 2019, there was a marked increase in reported cases of serious pulmonary injury associated with vaping. The condition, referred to as e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI), does not appear to involve an infectious agent; rather, a [...] Read more.
Beginning in June of 2019, there was a marked increase in reported cases of serious pulmonary injury associated with vaping. The condition, referred to as e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI), does not appear to involve an infectious agent; rather, a chemical adulterant or contaminant in vaping fluids is suspected. In August of 2019, the Wadsworth Center began receiving vaporizer cartridges recovered from patients with EVALI for analysis. Having no a priori information of what might be in the cartridges, we employed untargeted analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify components of concern. Additionally, we employed targeted analyses used for New York medical marijuana products. Here, we report on the analyses of 38 samples from the first 10 New York cases of EVALI for which we obtained cartridges. The illicit fluids had relatively low cannabinoid content, sometimes with unusual Δ9-/Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol ratios, sometimes containing pesticides and many containing diluents. A notable diluent was α-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate; VEA), which was found in 64% of the cannabinoid-containing fluids. To investigate potential sources of the VEA, we analyzed six commercial cannabis-oil diluents/thickeners. Three were found to be >95% VEA, two were found to be primarily squalane, and one was primarily α-bisabolol. The cause(s) of EVALI is unknown. VEA and squalane are components of some personal care products; however, there is growing concern that vaping large amounts of these compounds is not safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Knowledge of E-cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Products)
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Open AccessReview
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Induced Male Reproductive Dysfunction: A Mini Review
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010007 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
Reproductive dysfunction is often characterized by malfunction of the reproductive tissues, which may lead to disruption of the synergistic rhythm that should bring about a progression of sexual events and the conception of new life. This may therefore result in the sexual dysfunction [...] Read more.
Reproductive dysfunction is often characterized by malfunction of the reproductive tissues, which may lead to disruption of the synergistic rhythm that should bring about a progression of sexual events and the conception of new life. This may therefore result in the sexual dysfunction and infertility that can be seen in couples having prolonged biological difficulty in reproducing their offspring after having unrestricted sexual intercourse for at least twelve months. Several factors have been implicated in the cause and progression of reproductive dysfunction, including poor nutrition, drug side effects, disease states, and toxicant ingestion. A well-known food additive that has been found to be potent at initiating reproductive anomalies in males is monosodium glutamate (MSG). This regular flavor enhancer is widely used as a taste enhancer in several diets. The different mechanisms by which it may induce reproductive dysfunctions include spermatogenic alteration resulting in a low sperm count, high sperm abnormality, reduced live sperm and decreased sperm pH, oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities), histological alteration (blood hemorrhage, distorted germ and Sertoli cells), as well as gonadotropin imbalance (reduced testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations). Therefore, this review discusses various established mechanisms through which MSG may induce reproductive dysfunction and the treatment strategies to ameliorate its toxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Pyrethroid Exposures and Intake Doses for 188 Duplicate-Single Solid Food Items Consumed by North Carolina Adults
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010006 - 22 Jan 2020
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Few studies have measured pyrethroid residue concentrations in food items consumed by adults in their daily environments. In a further analysis of study data, the objectives were to determine pyrethroid residue levels in single, solid food items consumed by adults and to estimate [...] Read more.
Few studies have measured pyrethroid residue concentrations in food items consumed by adults in their daily environments. In a further analysis of study data, the objectives were to determine pyrethroid residue levels in single, solid food items consumed by adults and to estimate dietary pyrethroid exposures and intake doses per food item. A total of 50 adults collected 782 duplicate-diet solid food samples over a six-week monitoring period in North Carolina between 2009 and 2011. Of these samples, 188 contained a single, solid food item (i.e., lasagna). Levels of eight pyrethroids were quantified in the 188 food items using LC–MS/MS. At least one pyrethroid was detected in 39% of these food items. Cis-permethrin (17%), bifenthrin (15%), trans-permethrin (14%), and deltamethrin (14%) were detected the most often. Cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, and esfenvalerate were all detected in <6% of the samples. The highest residue level was found in a pizza sample containing both cis-permethrin (96.4 ng/g) and trans-permethrin (73.7 ng/g). For cis-permethrin, median residue levels (≥LOQ) were significantly higher (p = 0.001) in foods that contained a fruit/vegetable compared to foods that did not. For individual pyrethroids, the participants’ maximum dietary intake doses in the single food items ranged from 38.1 (deltamethrin) to 939 ng/kg/day (cis/trans-permethrin). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Toxics in 2019
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010005 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Method for the Evaluation of Site-Specific Nephrotoxic Injury in the Intact Rat Kidney
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010004 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 459
Abstract
In a previously published report we detailed an in situ method to quantify cell death in the renal cortex by perfusing the cell membrane impermeable fluorochrome, ethidium homodimer in situ. The objective of the present study was to use this in situ viability [...] Read more.
In a previously published report we detailed an in situ method to quantify cell death in the renal cortex by perfusing the cell membrane impermeable fluorochrome, ethidium homodimer in situ. The objective of the present study was to use this in situ viability assay to examine cell death following the administration of nephrotoxic drugs known to produce cell death and/or injury in specific segments of the nephron. Male Sprague/Dawley rats were treated with the following nephrotoxicants: Gentamicin, amphotericin-B, and indomethacin. Results of the in situ viability assay indicated that gentamicin and amphotericin-B treatment caused cell death localized in the kidney cortex and medulla, respectively. The urinary biomarker kidney injury molecule—1 (Kim-1) showed significant increases in both gentamicin (20 fold increase) and amphotericin-B-treated (9.2 fold increase) animals. Urinary alpha glutathione-S-transferase (GST) showed significant increases for gentamicin (6.2 fold increase) only and mu GST for amphotericin-B-treated (19.1 fold increase) animals only. These results show that this in situ viability assay provides a sensitive method to identify cell death in different regions of the kidney. Furthermore, urinary alpha GST and mu GST are specific for proximal and distal tubule injury, respectively; urinary Kim-1 demonstrated greater sensitivity to both proximal and distal tubule injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Vegetarian Dietary Intervention on Urinary Paraben Concentrations: A Pilot Study with ‘Temple Stay’ Participants
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010003 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Personal care products and cosmetics have been identified as major sources of paraben exposure among humans. However, the contribution of dietary factors has not been well understood. We recruited temple stay participants (n = 25) who followed a strict Buddhist vegetarian diet [...] Read more.
Personal care products and cosmetics have been identified as major sources of paraben exposure among humans. However, the contribution of dietary factors has not been well understood. We recruited temple stay participants (n = 25) who followed a strict Buddhist vegetarian diet during a five-day period, and assessed the influence of this lifestyle change, employing their urine samples collected before and after the temple stay. Before the temple stay, methylparaben (MeP) was detected at the highest levels, followed by ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), butylparaben (BuP), and benzophenones (BPs) in the urine samples. Following the temple stay, the urinary EtP concentrations remarkably increased from 14.0 to 105 μg/L, and were around two orders of magnitude higher than those reported from other countries. Dietary factors associated with the temple diet may partly explain the increase, because EtP is allowed in Korea for seasoning and condiments, which are frequently added in vegetarian diets. Following the temple stay, however, MeP, PrP, and BPs did not show significant decreasing trends. In contrast, BuP levels decreased significantly, especially in male urine samples, that is, from 3.60 to 1.03 μ/L, suggesting a reduced use of certain personal care products during the temple stay. Our observations outline the potential importance of dietary factors on EtP exposure, and might help explain its high exposure levels among Korean population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Risk Assessment and Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Analyte MS Based Investigation in Relation to the Illicit Treatment of Fish Products with Hydrogen Peroxide
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010002 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 464
Abstract
Fishery products are perishable due to the action of many enzymes, both endogenous and exogenous. The latter are produced by bacteria that may contaminate the products. When fishes age, there is a massive bacteria growth that causes the appearance of off-flavor. In [...] Read more.
Fishery products are perishable due to the action of many enzymes, both endogenous and exogenous. The latter are produced by bacteria that may contaminate the products. When fishes age, there is a massive bacteria growth that causes the appearance of off-flavor. In order to obtain “false” freshness of fishery products, an illicit treatment with hydrogen peroxide is reported to be used. Residues of hydrogen peroxide in food may be of toxicology concern. We developed two mass spectrometry based methodologies to identify and quantify molecules related to the treatment of fishes with hydrogen peroxide. With ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) we evaluated the concentration of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA), and cadaverine (CAD) in fish products. After evaluating LOQ, we measured and validated the lower limits of quantification (LLOQs as first levels of calibration curves) values of 50 (TMAO), 70 (TMA), 45 (DMA), and 40 (CAD) ng/mL. A high ratio between TMAO and TMA species indicated the freshness of the food. With a GC-MS method we confirmed the illicit treatment measuring the levels of H2O2 after an analytical reaction with anisole to give 2-hydroxyanisole as a marker. This latter product was detected in the headspace of the homogenized sample with simplification of the work-up. A LLOQ of 50 ng/mL was checked and validated. When fish products were whitened and refreshed with hydrogen peroxide, the detected amount of the product 2-hydroxyanisole could be very important, (larger than 100 mg/kg). The developed analytical methods were suitable to detect the illicit management of fishery products with hydrogen peroxide; they resulted as sensitive, selective, and robust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Exogenous of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Application Alleviates Copper Toxicity in Spinach Seedlings by Enhancing Antioxidant Systems and Nitrogen Metabolism
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8010001 - 24 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a potential mediator in the protection of plants from copper (Cu) toxicity and the enhancement of Cu tolerance. In this paper, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seedlings were cultivated in soil containing 700 mg kg−1 Cu and the [...] Read more.
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a potential mediator in the protection of plants from copper (Cu) toxicity and the enhancement of Cu tolerance. In this paper, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seedlings were cultivated in soil containing 700 mg kg−1 Cu and the leaves of seedlings were sprayed with different concentrations of IAA. Exogenous IAA treatment reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in Cu-stressed seedlings and increased biomass, proline content, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Exogenous IAA treatment also increased the levels of nitrogen (N) assimilation compounds and the activities of N-metabolizing enzymes, but reduced NH4+ content. Notably, lower concentrations of IAA (10–40 mg L−1) increased the Cu concentrations in roots and reduced the Cu concentrations in leaves, while higher concentrations of IAA (50 mg L−1) reduced the Cu concentrations in both roots and leaves to the lowest levels. The findings indicated that the application of IAA reduced Cu accumulation, alleviated Cu toxicity, and enhanced Cu tolerance in spinach seedlings. IAA application could be used as an alternative strategy for reducing Cu accumulation in vegetable crops and for remediating Cu-contaminated soil, in turn reducing the hazardous effects of heavy metal contamination on human health and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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