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New Insights into the Toxicokinetics of 3,4-Dichloroaniline in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Department Evolutionary Ecology and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty Biological Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C8, Canada
Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3, Canada
Global Institute for Water Security, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(1), 16;
Received: 19 January 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2020 / Accepted: 8 February 2020 / Published: 1 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminant Effects on Zebrafish Embryos)
In the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) is often employed as a positive control substance. Previous studies have characterized bioconcentration and transformation of 3,4-DCA in this test under flow-through conditions. However, the dynamic changes of chemical concentrations in exposure media and embryos were not studied systematically under the commonly used semi-static exposure conditions in multiwell plates. To overcome these limitations, we conducted semi-static exposures experiments where embryolarval zebrafish were exposed to 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 mg L−1 of 3,4-DCA for up to 120 hpf, with 24-h renewal intervals. During each renewal interval, concentrations of 3,4-DCA were quantified in water samples at 0, 6, 18, and 24 h using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Levels of 3,4-DCA in larvae were measured after 120 h exposure. Concentrations of 3,4-DCA in the test vessels decreased rapidly during exposure. Taking these dynamics into account, bioconcentration factors in the present study ranged from 12.9 to 29.8 L kg−1, depending on exposure concentration. In summary, this study contributed to our knowledge of chemical dynamics in the FET test with embryolarval zebrafish, which will aid in defining suitable exposure conditions for future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3,4-DCA; biotransformation; FET; elimination rate constant 3,4-DCA; biotransformation; FET; elimination rate constant
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Schiwy, S.; Herber, A.-K.; Hollert, H.; Brinkmann, M. New Insights into the Toxicokinetics of 3,4-Dichloroaniline in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxics 2020, 8, 16.

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